« السابقةمتابعة »
were condemned as highly illegal and oppressive; the the fort a much safer position for his head-quarters than inhabitants of Massachusetts province were applauded the palace at Newbern. In this retreat he was vigofor distinguishing themselves in a "manly support of rously pursued, and forced to remove his military stores, the rights of America in general ;" and resolutions pro- as well as the head-quarters of his government, on board posing to carry into execution any general plan of com- “his Majesty's ship-of-war Cruiser.” The flight of mercial restrictions agreed to in the continental Con- his excellency, from the palace at Newbern, on the 24tk gress were adopted. It was further resolved, that of April, 1775, may be marked as the closing scene of the William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and Richard Cas- royal government. “During the spring of this year, well, be appointed deputies to attend the General Con- 1775, the attention of all the colonies was directed gress, to be held in Philadelphia on the 20th of Sep-towards Boston, a town which seemed to be the object tember following; and to be “invested with such of the devoted vengeance of the ministry." Several powers, as may make any act done by them obligatory detached meetings of the people of Mecklenburg were in honor upon every inhabitant of the province, who is held during the spring, in which it was declared, " that not an alien to his country's good, and an apostate to the cause of Boston was the cause of all;" and "that the liberties of America.” The second provincial Con- their destinies were indissolubly connected with those gress convened in Newbern on the 3rd of April, 1775, of their eastern fellow.citizens.” Out of this state of under the same regulations as its predecessor. In this feeling grew the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. instance, the Governor, as usual, issued his proclama. The convention which assembled in Charlotte on the tion, forbidding “such meetings, cabals, and illegal 19th of May, 1775, and declared independence on the proceedings.” The provincial assembly likewise met succeeding 20th, was convoked by Col. Thomas Polk, in Newbern on the following day, April 4th, consisting, who afterwards performed the office of a herald, in prowith but few exceptions, of members to the provincial claiming its proceedings, “to a large, respectable, and Congress. Here is presented the bold and imposing approving assemblage of citizens.” “The subject of spectacle of a popular convention, assembling before the independence was discussed during the two days of its eyes of the Governor, and in defiance of his royal pre- session, and was at last unanimously declared. The rogative! The popular house of the assembly, after news of the battle of Lexington arrived by express sitting only four days, and still assuming a more trea- during the session of the convention; and this intellisonable aspect in the view of his excellency, was dis- gence inflaming the minds of the people, the universal solved by proclamation. This was the last assembly that voice was for independence.” The flame thus kindled ever convened under the royal government. The provin- at Lexington continued to spread through the province cial Congress, however, proceeded to the despatch of with unabated fury. Associations were held in various business. Among other resolutions, the proceedings of parts of the state, in all of which, they solemnly the continental Congress lately held in Philadelphia, engaged "to take up arms, and risk their lives and fer and the “faithful and judicious discharge of the impor- tunes in maintaining the freedom of our country.” The tant trust” reposed in their delegation to that body, people everywhere felt as if they were now breathing were highly approved.
the delightful atmosphere of a free government. ReAfter the dissolution of the assembly, the Governor conciliation was at an end. Truly then was it said by found himself surrounded by only a few of his most Mr. Jefferson, in his letter to Mr. Adams, “no state faithful councillors. The royal government was now was more forward or fixed.” After Governor Martin tottering to its base, and signs of a fatal decay were was expelled from the province, and forced to take everywhere visible. In the meantime, the Governor, shelter on board his Majesty's ship-of-war Cruiser, finding it inexpedient to issue writs of election for a and whilst this declaration, by the citizens of Mecknew assembly, busily engaged himself in fortifying his lenburg, was still ringing unpleasantly in royal ears, be palace, and raising a military force. “The people of issued a lengthy proclamation—the last dying effort of Newbern watched, with much uneasiness, the range of fallen, but struggling authority. In this furious doev. cannon planted before the palace ; and the committees ment, after reciting several “traitorous proceedings” of of the adjacent counties, by intercepting the emissaries the people, he uses the following language : “And
, of the Governor
, gave them intelligence of his efforts to whereas, I have also seen a most infamous publication raise a military body-guard. Governor Martin, on the in the Cape Fear Mercury, importing to be resolves of 16th of March, anticipating the present state of affairs, a set of people styling themselves a committee for the had written to General Gage, at Boston, soliciting a county of Mecklenburg, most traitorously declaring the supply of ammunition and arms; and by the vigilance entire dissolution of the laws, gorernment and constituof the delegation in the continental Congress, this letter tion of this country, and setting up a system of rule too had been intercepted, and was now before the whig and regulation repugnant to the laws and subversive of authorities of Newbern. These hostile preparations his Majesty's government." This extract cannot be on the part of his excellency, provoked, on the 24th of viewed by the most skeptical inquirer as otherwise April, an open rupture between him and the people.” than affording impartial and contemporaneous evidence
. While the Governor and Council were in session in the Another high source of authority attesting the identity palace, some of the leading whigs seized and carried off of this declaration is to be found in the manuscript the artillery which had been planted for its defence." Journal of the War in the South,” by the late Rev. "Governor Martin, apprehending further violence from Humphrey Hunter
, who was an eyewitness of the prothe whig leaders, on the evening of the same day, fled ceedings of that day, and a soldier of the Revolution
. from the palace; and, accompanied by a iew of his most This journal we saw before any extracts from it came faithful councillors, retreated to fort Johnson on the before the public, and know it was expressly prepared to banks of the Cape Fear.” He did not, however, find I show to the world the part its author took in scenes
which “ tried men's souls,” and to confirm and perpetu- | calculated to perpetuate its fame. On the succeeding ate this memorable declaration. In this "Journal” may 12th, a report was submitted, concluding with a resolube seen an account of the battle of Camden, and the tion empowering their delegation in the continental most correct detail of the painful circumstances attending Congress, to concur with the other colonies in declaring the fall and death of the brave Baron De Kalb. We independence. These proceedings, it will be seen, predeem it unnecessary to analyze particularly the various ceded the recommendation of the Virginia convention sources of evidence, any one of which justly merits on the same subject by more than a month, and is the respectful consideration. The certificate of Captain first open and public declaration, by state authority, on James Jack, who bore the declaration to Congress, record. This resolution was forwarded to the contithen in session at Philadelphia ; a letter from the late nental Congress, and presented to that body on the 27th General Joseph Graham, a soldier of the Revolution, of May, 1776. Although this illustrious movement and covered with scars in its defence ; the personal testi- reflects so much honor on the state, and corroborates mony of the late Colonel William Polk of Raleigh ; and the opinion that the people were fully ripe for indepena letter from John Davidson, the last surviving signer, dence, yet, it too, like the Mecklenburg declaration, have all been adduced to confirm its adoption, and con- was doomed to long and silent repose. Within a few stitute a mass of high and indisputable testimony. years it has been observed among the state papers at Nomerous events in our Revolutionary history, which Washington City, and has been properly noticed in Mr. have received the stamp of universal belief for more Pitkin's able and useful work, the “Political and Civil than half a century, cannot present a more formidable History of the United States.” Again, a serious charge phalanx of irresistible proof.
has been advanced by Professor Tucker in bis “Life of In the article above referred to the serious inquiry Jefferson,” where he says the compiler of the Mecklenhas been raised, “How is it possible that this paper, if it burg Declaration borrowed certain parallel phrases reached Congress, was concealed ?” To this we answer from the National Declaration, and interpolated them in the language of the “Journal,” just mentioned, that into that copy. This is a bold charge, but we think “on the return of Captain Jack, he reported that Con- neither plausible nor tenable. We entirely concur in gress, individually, manifested their entire approbation the following introductory remarks of the editor on the of the conduct of the Mecklenburg citizens, but deemed “Review” above quoted. “We do not adopt Professor it
premature to lay them officially before the house." Tucker's theory, that the extant copy of the MecklenIn other words, the citizens of Mecklenburg, and of the burg Declaration is so far spurious, that the compiler of state generally, were more than one year in advance of it borrowed from Mr. Jefferson's draft these parallel the other colonies in a determination to declare indepen- phrases, and interpolated them into the Mecklenburg dence
. At that period Congress had not arrived at copy. We are willing to admit the present Mecklensufficient maturity of opinion as to ensure unanimity of burg copy to be as it was at first written, and we action on a question so momentous, and on the deter- entirely dissent from Professor Tucker's account of the mination of which depended the destiny of the nation. changes and interpolations which he has assigned to There were many distinguished patriots who still that copy.” There is one circumstance which ought to ardently entertained hopes of an amicable adjustment settle this matter to the satisfaction of the candid inquiof difficulties with the mother country; but in North rer, and bar all idea of interpolation. The MecklenCarolina pacific measures were out of the question--the burg Declaration of Independence as published, and now royal Governor was expelled from the province, and in the executive office of North Carolina, was preserved the people quietly living under a whig government ! by General Davie, a name of distinction and worth in Generality of opinion had already developed itself in the south, and illustrious in the history of the state. A Congress, but an approach to unanimity of opinion was proper appreciation of this fact alone brings the Profesnecessary before an appeal to arms—the dernier resort sor's charge, with all its improbability, to the ground. of an injured people. It is then, in all probability, to the We think these “ parallel phrases” may be accounted “premature” nature of this declaration, and its conse for in quite a different and far more charitable way. It quent informal reception by Congress, that we are to is simply this: as the grievances of the colonies were attribute the absence of any record of its presentation of a common nature, resulting from a violation of their on the journals of that body. The question has been just rights, so would their sentiments naturally flow in likewise asked, why it should remain unknown so long equivalent, or similar language. Whoever will examine afterwards ? To this we answer that few copies of such the numerous resolutions
, speeches, letters, &c. on coloa paper would be prepared at first, and consequently, nial affairs, will find many vivid thoughts--the glowing still fewer would escape the ravages of time. These, emanations of a patriotic and warm-hearted people, through the careless researches of historians, have conveyed in nearly identical language. Even among remained concealed until within a few years past. A the colonial papers which have lately come to light in noble task still devolves on some future historian, of North Carolina, this similarity, and sometimes identity compiling from the musty records in the archives at of language, is perceptible for several years anterior to Raleigh, and from other sources, public and private, a the adoption of the National Declaration. In the full and complete history of the state. To exemplify still course of time many of these choice expressions—these farther the ignorance that has hitherto prevailed on the phrases of rhetorical excellence"--would be noted and colonial history of the state, we will barely introduce remembered by every enthusiastic lover of liberty, and an important transaction of the provincial Congress thus become interwoven into the proceedings of the which convened in Halifax, April 4, 1776. In this times. Such we believe to be the common fountain” Congress , the question of independence was moved, dis- co which
such parallel expressions, in the two instrucussed and unanimously approved—a circumstance alone Imenis, may be traced.
C. L. H.
We have now presented a brief outline of the train of Weave all his dreams, and riot in his groans :proceedings leading to the adoption of the Mecklen. The prisoner turns him on his lowly pallet, burg Declaration of Independence on the 20th of May, And the deep clanking of his dungeon chain 1775. If we have succeeded in imparting information, Goes up for witness to the bar of Heaven :invalidating objections, or removing prejudice from the He who deceived the heart of trusting Love, mind of any one on this subject, our humble, though And basely ruined, where he should protect, laudable, ambition, will be fully satisfied, and our limited Starts back, all trembling, at the pallid form exertions amply rewarded.
Of the lost victim, beckoning him afar,
He who hath trod dishonor's shameful path,
And wronged the widow and her lonely babes,
What ghastly visions gloom upon his sleep:-
But ah! whence comes that shriek of wild despair,
That yell of agony, too dire for Earth ?—
And whispers of his fearful, written doom !
Man resteth—for a moment's fleeting space!
But the soon Morning's dawn shall call him forth, And Earth's glad voices now are hushed and still, Again to mingle with the busy world ! Save but the cricket's solemn, distant chirp,
But for a little while—and man shall rest And the deep baying of the faithful dog!
In Death's long slumber, in the grave's still night:
And he shall wake no more on Earth again :
But, at the last, the mighty Angel's trump
Shall wake him from the midnight of the tomb,
And call him up to judgment: There, in truth,
Must he be judged for all his actions done ; "Tis silent all-no sound of human voice, Save the hoarse watchman's cry, “ Past twelve o'clock ! And, if he be accounted meet for such reward,
Shall cease from all his labors and his cares,
And enter into everlasting rest.
NOTES AND ANECDOTES,
Political and Miscellaneous--from 1798 to 1830.—Drawn from Man resteth from his labors, only where
the Portfolio of an Officer of the Empire—and translated from The feeble taper 'lumes the house of wo:
the French for the Messenger, by a gentleman in Paris. Where, bending low beside the sick one's couch,
BARON TAYLOR AND THE PYRAMIDS OF The anxious mother mourns her suffering child,
After completing some very beautiful decorations for
the theatre du panorama dramatique, and, among others, The haggard gambler tempts the desperate die, Or rushes madly on the dart of Death ;
a glass veil, which some twelve years ago attracted all
Paris by its novelty, M. Taylor suddenly became a Or where, in chambers of more shameful crime, The child of guilty pleasure seeks his lust!
Captain of the Staff, a Baron, and a Royal Commis
sioner near the Theatre Français. M. Taylor, a spirited Man resteth! Sweet his peaceful, hallowed rest,
and pure writer, succeeded in proving that the duties of Where conscience slumbereth peacefully within.
a commissioner of the government, near a royal theatre, The infant smileth mid his dream of heaven,
are, for so distinguished a wit as himself, of such easy And the fond mother folds her happy boy
execution, that the person who enjoys the situation, Close to love's aching breast, and keeps him there :
and draws a salary of six thousand francs a year, may The maiden murmurs in her dream of Love
consecrate nine months of the twelve to scientific voy. The name long cherished in her inmost soul,
ages at the expense of the government. It happened to Then blushes at the memory of the name;
M. Taylor that he sometimes dated his receipts for While the fond lover, starting from his couch,
instalments of his salary as a Commissioner Royal for Calls for a moment on her treasured name,
the Theatre Français from the banks of the Nile. Then turns him to his pleasant sleep again:
During one of these excursions into Egypt, M. TagThe peasant slumbers, on his humble bed,
lor, on visiting the pyramids, according to custom, More happy than his lord, who restless turns, engraved his name upon the stone of these ancient But still his fevered frame no rest can find :
Konuments. But his mind was, at the moment, occuThe merchant dreameth of increasing gain,
pied about something else ; he was, perhaps, thinking The miser countech oft his hoarded gold,
of his duties at the Theatre Français, so that his name But oh! the pillow of the man of guilt !
was badly cut. The second stroke of the y, in the word No peace is there but dæmons haunt his bed, Taylor, was omitled.
One evening, after his return to Paris, while prome. | and strangled two others, he proclaimed himself Pacha nading in the green-room of the opera, he encountered of Egypt, uniting under his authority the different an Englishman, who had also visited Egypt and the governments, of which he made himself the heir, by putpyramids; and who, if he had not engraved his name ting to death their rightful rulers. on the stone of these monuments, had at least taken into The Porte did not hesitate to confirm him in the his head the singular fancy of copying, in his memoran- dignity which he had conferred upon himself. The dum book, all the inscriptions which time had suffered tribute is the great question for the Porte in affairs of to remain legible.
this sort; and it generally shows itself but little dis" Then,” said M. Taylor, “I hope that I have not been posed to disturb any enterprising individual, who may entirely forgotten by you, since my name must be on thus possess himself of power, especially at five hundred
leagues from the metropolis, provided he sends a supply "No, I assure you it is not.”
of presents, and promises to pay the regular tribute. "How is that? It is not a year since I engraved it; it Méhémet-Ali paid it very regularly for several years, could hardly be effaced already."
though I believe he is just now somewhat in arrear. " I assure you I did not discover it.”
When Méhémet-Ali made himself Pacha of Egypt " It is very extraordinary."
he could neither read nor write. In Egypt and Turkey "I read and copied a Tailor ; but your name is too a man of elevated dignity does not find it absolutely well known, in the literary world, for me to confound necessary to know how to write, but he ought to know it with any other. I have always read your name writ- how to read. Méhémet-Ali perceived this necessity on ten with a y, while the one I have copied contained only discovering that his secretaries had frequently misread ani."
the firmans or despatches which they submitted to him. The next morning, by seven o'clock, M. Taylor was He accordingly determined to learn to read, but he was at the office of the Minister of the interior: he announ- anxious to do so in secret. ced his intention of going into Egypt to complete his One morning he was informed that a vessel, bearing unfinished researches, and solicited a new mission from the imperial flag of Morocco, was signaled at the the government.
entrance of the port of Alexandria. He ascertained The request was too legitimate a one to be refused. that this vessel had been freighted for a son and a The Theatre Français was again deprived of its Royal daughter of the Emperor of Morocco, who were going Commissioner for nearly a year ; but the Tailor of the on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He invited them to repose pyramids is now Taylor.
from the fatigues of their voyage—the Prince in his palace, and the Princess in his harem-promising to
treat them with a hospitality worthy of their rank. THE PACHA OF EGYPT.
A few days afterwards the imperial Prince was
enabled to continue his voyage; but the Princess I trust the reader will not peruse, without interest, remained voluntarily in the harem at Alexandria, and some details concerning the origin and character of the became one of the four legitimate wives of MéhémetPacha of Egypt, which were communicated to me by a Ali. The Pacha of Egypt had four harems, and eight French general officer, to whom the Egyptian army hundred wives; and in each harem he had a legitimate was indebted for the excellent organization which ren- wife. dered it so formidable to the Ottoman empire.
The Princess of Morocco was extremely well eduMéhémet-Ali is a man of great capacity; he has cated; she knew how to read, and became the instruceffected a prodigious advance in the civilization of the tor of Méhémet-Ali; and when the education of the East. An inquiry into the origin of a man, who, with Vice Roy, was completed, his secretaries learnt, in out instruction, and by the sole power of his own undergoing the punishment which he inflicted on them, talents, has made himself the independent sovereign- that their master was no longer contented to be deindependent, at least in fact, of an immense country, ceived. cannot fail to be interesting.
There are few men, even in Europe, who have more At the period of the campaign in Egypt, 1798, extended, or accurate information, than the Pacha of Méhémet-Ali was nothing but a brave and enterprising Egypt, on the subjects of agriculture, navigation, and contrabandist. He had already inflicted incalculable commerce. Heretofore the necessity of securing his losses upon the government, which, despairing of be conquests, and of establishing definitely his indecoming master of his person, offered him a pardon, and pendence, has compelled him to impose enormous a rank equivalent to that of a French chef-de-bataillon, charges on his subjects; but his immense works will (the title of this grade signifies, in the language of survive him, and Egypt will be indebted to him, at a Egypt, the commander of a thousand men) if he would future and not very distant period, for an incalculable unite himself with his band to the troops sent against increase of her riches, and a civilization which he
invites by all the means in his power. The desertion Méhémet-Ali accepted the offer. His successes were of Soleman-Bey was a severe loss to him. Soleman but feeble, but he knew how to profit by them—he per- would have been a remarkable man in Europe. He fectly understood the fabrication of bulletins; and it spoke French, German, English, and Italian with equal was not long before he succeeded in creating himself a facility; and he had made himself well acquainted with party. Egypt having been evacuated by the French the exact sciences. It was never certainly known to army, Méhémet-Ali labored still more actively in the what cause to attribute the discontent which induced execution of the great projet which he had conceived; him to abandon the cause of the Pacha of Egypt for and one day having cut off the heads of three Pachas, I that of Mahmoud. Mahmoud himself looked with dis
the French army.
trust upon this desertion; and Soleman, whose death moment of ill-humor and impatience, alienated the only was announced a few months after he quitted the ser great power which still hesitated to declare against vice of the Pacha, it was said, was poisoned by order him. of the Sultan. He had a brother among the young It is probable that M. de Metternich had received Egyptians entrusted to the care of M. Jomaad. from the English either money or promises. Had the
Méhémet-Ali is admirably seconded by his son Emperor not have been soured by the misfortunes of the Ibrahim, a General endowed with great military talents, Russian campaign, and the recent desertions which he but whose excellent qualities have been dimmed by the had suffered from, he would have contented himself by most frightful cruelty. Ibrahim does not send to the offering M. de Metternich double the sum he supposed executioner those who displease him he puts them to him to have been promised by the English, saving to death himself. He has never failed in devotion to his himself the means of seizing, at his pleasure, a favorfather, though he has not always approved his political able opportunity for procuring his dismission from the ideas; however, he more recently has altered his opi- Ministry: but anger never reasons. nions, and surrendered himself up entirely to a system When, during the famous sitting of the Chamber of which he promises to continue.
Deputies, in which the petition, demanding the recall of The Pacha of Egypt has a buffoon of the name of those who had been proscribed in 1815, was reported, Mustapha. This creature is not without wit. He unites M. de Serre pronounced, in reference to this subject
, the with his functions of regular buffoon, those attached to word never! he lost, by that single expression, the one of the great dignitaries of the palace. Mustapha prestige with which his brilliant success in the tribune enjoys much favor ; but with oriental Princes the most had surrounded him. He became an ordinary man. extraordinary regard does not always prevent exposure The word never should not have passed the lips of a to very disagreeable caprices.
statesman. “Mustapha,” said Méhémet-Ali, one day to his M. de Peyronnet who seemed to set himself stu: buffoon, "let us play a game of checks.”
diously to work, for the purpose of covering with “I am at the service of your highness."
oblivion the excellent qualities which it was impossi
. “But I desire that you should lose.”
ble not to recognize in him, also ultered one of those « Then I will lose."
expressions which destroy a man. The two last ses• “What shall we play for ?"
sions which preceded the fall of the Ministry of M. “ Whatever your highness may please."
Villèle, were marked, in spite of the compact majority " Then we will play-you will lose ; and, if you do, of three hundred which sustained the government, by I will have you thrown into a well."
those half-checks of the tribune which foretell the end "I will play-I will lose ; and if your highness wishes of an administration. The Council had also begun to to bave me thrown into a well, I will be thrown--you suffer some discord. M. de Peyronnet, less a statesman, are master.”
and more of a partizan than M. de Villèle, more frank The game was played, the buffoon lost, and the and free in his behaviour than the President of the Pacha ordered him, accordingly, to be thrown into a Council, energetically repulsed everything which seemed well, which was done. He was immediately drawn like concession. out, and brought back, wet through and through, to The session of 1825 had just terminated, and M. de the presence of his master, who gave him the magnifi- Peyronnet announced his intention of visiting some of cent cachemire which he wore round his own waist to the watering places of the continent. One of his wipe himself with.
friends observed that it would hardly be prudent to absent himself at such a moment. " What matters
it?” said M. de Peyronnet; “they will never dare to THE SLIPPER OF M. DE PEYRONNET.
do anything without me. I leave my slipper here,
which is all that is necessary.” An old and common proverb says—trop gratter cuit, These words, circulated in the court and the saloons, trop parler nuit. If the principle of this proverb is by the amiable friend who heard them, made more and applicable to common life and private individuals, how more dangerous enemies for M. de Peyronnet, uban all much more is it to public men, whose most insignificant the acts of his long and difficult Ministry. words, when collected, weighed, and commented upon, receive from the interpretation that may be given them, an importance which those who uttered them never
SONNETTO MARY. dreamt of. It especially applies to those expressions uttered in a moment of passion; and which, for the
Mary! 'twas when at first thine eye I met,
Love claimed my heart, and set his arrow there : very reason that they seem less the result of reflection, Call me not rash--he came unbidden, yel, are received as involuntary but positive evidence of the
0! not unwelcome! Then I breathed a prayer, secret thoughts of the speaker.
Invoking him to use his witching wiles When, during the conferences of Dresden, the Em
To plead my cause with thee; for, O! 'twas rain
To ward the archery of those radiant smiles, peror said harshly to M. de Metternich, who had come
For ever, as I chanced to meet thine eye, to have an understanding with him on the basis of the
The little Archer-God was sure to gaia alliance between France and Austria, “How much Over my heart a fresher victory. do the English give to determine you to advise the
And now he doth so like a tyrant reign, Emperor of Austria to separate himself from me ?” he
I have no joy, no peace, save thou art nigh.
My love is boundless! changeless! Oh that thou made an open enemy of the most influential member of
Wouldst welcome Cupid and my true heart's row! the Austrian cabinet; and, by a word, pronounced in a Richmond, April, 1888.