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Vol. IV.

RICHMOND, JANUARY, 1838.

No. I.

T. W. WHITE, Editor and Proprietor.

FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

the art of composition, to fill twenty such magaTHE NEW YEAR.

zines as this, with instruction and delight. Few

are aware, how improvable the faculty is, of exIs commencing the fourth volume and fourth pressing thoughts upon paper. The gigantic inyear of the Messenger, we have somewhat to say crease of the muscles in a blacksmith's arm, from beyond a mere holiday salutation to subscribers, his wielding the hammer so frequently; the proreaders, and contributors.

verbial strengthening of the memory by exercise ; While we cannot look back upon the past with or the miraculous sleight which the juggler acunmingled satisfaction, we yet derive from it some quires by practice with his cups and balls; is not pleasing thoughts; and much cheering hope for more certain than that he who daily habituates the future. Some useful and elegant talent has himself to writing down his ideas with what ease, been called into exercise, nay, it may be said, has accuracy, and elegance he can, will find his imbeen created; since such is the power of exercise provement advance with hardly any assignable over the faculties, that to afford an attractive field limit. Nor will only his style improve It is for their exertion is in a great degree to create a truth so backneyed, that only its importance them. Some new and valuable truths have been rescues it from contempt and emboldens us to promulgated through our columns; and a yet utter it, that " in learning to write with accuracy larger number of truths not new, has doubtless and precision, we learn to think with accuracy been presented in forms more engaging or im- and precision.". Besides this, the store of thought pressive than before, and has thus been stamped is in a two-fold way enlarged. By the action of beneficially upon many a mind. Some books, the mind in turning over, analyzing, and comparworthy to be read, have been pointed out to the ing its ideas, they are incalculably multiplied. reader's notice; and some unworthy ones have and the researches prompted by the desire to been marked, so that he might not misspend his write understandingly upon each subject, are conmoney and time upon them. And if no other stantly widening and deepening the bounds of good had been done,-many an hour, of many a knowledge. young person, which might otherwise have been Thus, whether the conscious possessor of talents given to hurtful follies, has by our pages been desire to enrich and invigorate his own mind, or whiled away in harmless at least, if not salutary to act with power upon the minds of others; we enjoyment. So little ascetic are we, as to hold, say to'him “WRITE.” that whoever furnishes mankind with an innocent The Messenger is a medium, through which, recreation, is a public benefactor.

the best talents need not disdain to commune with But the past is nothing, except as a help to the the public. Whatever it contains, worthy to be future. We are earnestly desirous to render the read, finds not less than ten thousand readers ; Messenger a vehicle of light; of useful truth; besides those whom republications procure. And of moral improvement; of enlightened taste. To most of these (it is a pardonable vanity to say) some extent, it has been so already: but to an ex- are such readers as any author may well be proud lent commensurate neither with our wishes, nor 10 have. Where is the orator so gifted, that he with the fund of talent slumbering in the commu- might not glory in addressing so numerous an nity around us.

auditory of the enlightened, the fair, the exalted The mineral wealth of Virginia is a trite theme in station ! of expatiation. It is unquestionably immense By all these powerful considerations then,-by But the mines of Southern intellect, all unwrought, the desire of self-improvement-by an honorable and many of them unknown even by their pro- ambition--by disinterested patriotism—hy the prietors, far surpass those of matter, both in num- pure wish to diffuse light and to do good, -we ber, and in the richness of their buried treasures. invoke the dormant talents of the South (espeNot to speak of persons to whom the ample page cially) to rouse up from their slumber, and emof knowledge, rich with the spoils of time,' has ploy the means now offered them, of assisting to never been unrolled, there exists, southward of mould and fashion the age, if not of leaving names, the Potomac, a mass of cultivated mind sufficient, which a distant posterity will contemplate with with only a little industry and care in practising grateful veneration.

VOL. IV.-1

eye of the philosopher-of the philosopher who teaches SOUTHARD'S ADDRESS.* that

“ The proper study of mankind is man;" A practice has long prevailed at Princeton college which and where shall we find such a transcript of the human cannot be too highly commended. The two societies heart; such a chart of all its passions ; such a scrutiny which have so much contributed to the celebrity of that into its motives, such a penetration into its recesses; distinguished institution, annually unite in inviting some such a ferreting out of its unholy promptings; such an eminent individual, to deliver, at the Commencement, exposure of its deceitful imaginings; such pictures of an oration on some literary topic. The persons selected exalted virtue, of human frailty and of fiendlike depraare usually alumni of the college and members of vity? It is altogether admirable: nothing equal to one of the societies. The same strictness does not it in this regard does exist ; nothing superior to it can seem to be observed in other seminaries which have exist. When David, the man after God's own heart, imitated the laudable example of the college of Nassau plunges into the very depths of sin, we humble ourselves Hall; for we remember a most admirable address from under the mortifying sense of human infirmity; and Mr.Wirt, which was delivered at Rutger's college, New when the yet spotless Hazael, unconscious of his future Jersey, of which, beyond doubt, he was not an alumnus. crimes, exclaims with honest indignation, “Is thy ser No inconvenience, however, has hitherto been expe- vant a dog, that he should do this thing ?” we are selfrienced at Princeton from limiting the field of choice, abased at the reflection, that however strong we may so numerous are the distinguished men who have been feel in conscious virtue-however we may fortify our nurtured in her lap, and reared under her auspices. At hearts against human weakness, the time may yet the late Commencement the address was delivered by come when we too may be the Hon. Samuel L. Southard, a gentleman of the first distinction, who has for some years filled with conspi

“ To bitter scorn a sacrifice,

And grinning infamy." cuous ability a seat in the Senate of the United States. From such a source we have reason to look for sound Mr. Southard has treated this noble subject with sense and practical wisdom, instead of studied periods an earnest seriousness that is due to its importance. and gaudy ornament. These are pardonable in boys In his address, the reader will not fail to be struck just emerging from the chrysalis state, but are unwor with the extent of his researches, the cogency of his thy of men whose locks are whitened by time, and who arguments, and the apparent strength of his conmay be presumed to have chastened by reflection the victions. His recommendation of the holy book is encrude notions of youth, and stored up lessons of sober forced with all the zeal of a friend, the anxiety of a experience for the benefit of the rising generation. In parent, and the earnestness of a christian. Let the the production of Mr. Southard we find in this regard youth of our land peruse with care this able paper, every thing to approve. Disdaining both the “

power and consider it as addressed, not to the societies of Nas. and the inclination to trifle with matters of fancy or sau Hall alone, but to their own hearts also. Let the deal in flowers of rhetoric,” he selects as the subject of words of wisdom sink deep into their souls, and the his discourse, "the importance of the study of the Bible, author will enjoy in return for his labors, that best of all in forming the character of literary and scientific men, rewards, “the consciousness of doing good.” of scholars of every grade and every occupation.” It We could have wished to insert the whole of this is indeed a noble theme. We say nothing of the awful interesting article in the present number of the Mes. majesty of that sacred book which the faithful receive senger, but our limits have forbidden. Devoted to the as an emanation from the Godhead. That we leave to cause of literature, we mainly delight in that which is those whose hallowed lips are touched with fire. But calculated to elevate the principles and to mend the look upon the Bible as a curious history—the history heart; and hence we ever receive with thanks and cir. of the infancy of mankind—of the first stages of human culate with pleasure, those original communications, existence—when the mind of man was yet in embryo, which to the graces of style and purity of thought, untaught of the arts and sciences—unconscious of those unite the inculcation of virtue or the illustration of the great improvements which time has been busy in dis- beauties of our holy religion. The moral tale, or the closing; read it as the memorial of cities and of empires moral essay, the poetical effusion redolent of piety, the that rose to splendor and to power, and have for ages glowing language of the gifted orator breathing into the been crumbled into ruins, while in the gorgeous palaces souls of his hearers the nobler virtues, always find wel. where once a monarch held his state,

come with us. Taste and genius are not degraded, but

illustrated and adorned, by an association with the " Hisses the gliding snake through hoary weeds

productions of the moralist, and the beautiful outpourThat clasp the mouldering column."

ings of a heart warmed with religious fervor, and aniOr look upon it with the critic's eye, and where shall mated by love to God and benevolence towards man. we find a parallel to the beautiful simplicity and pathos We repeat, therefore, our regrets at our inability to of its narration, or the exalted sublimity with which it insert the whole of the address, and must content ourinvests the King of Heaven, or conveys to trembling selves with offering to our readers a few striking mortals the denunciation of his wrath, or the tender extracts. mercies of his unbounded love? Or read it with the In entering upon the subject, the author very forcibly

presents some remarkable facts connected with the * Address delivered before the American Whig and Cliosophic existencc and preservation of the Bible. Societies of the College of New Jersey, Sept. 26, 1837, by Samuel L. Southard, LL. D.

“What,” says he, " is the Bible? It purports to be a commu.

nication from the all-knowing and eternal Mind of the universe. | and profusely quote on all occasions, its inimitable passages--a A record of our race-of our creation--powers-capacities and practice which savors little of good laste or reverential feeling-destiny. Its claims, in these respects, demand for it an earnest but studying it, to become imbued with its simplicity, and force attention. Its origin, preservation and existence, at the present and elevation. Its unaffected narrative--unadorned pathos-moment, is a standing, perpetual miracle. A great part of it pointed invective-picturesque and graphic description--plain was written more than three thousand two hundred years ago : yet magnificent energy, cannot be thoroughly comprehended and all of it, has been of nearly eighteen hundred years' dura. without appropriate effects upon your taste and judgment. Obtion. For centuries the art of printing gave no aid in multiply. serve, for example, the preachers of the gospel. The manner ing copies and preserving it. Yet from the time when its first in which its allurements are depicted—its Imonitions uttered, pages were written, it has been handed down, from age to age, and its threatenings denounced by them, will indicate to you protected in its integrity and purity--undefaced, unmutilated the source from which they have derived their reasonings and and almost unaltered. And where are the writings of the na. illustrations--whether directly from the fountain of living truth, tions, contemporaneous with its origin? of Assyria, and Chaldea, or the stagnant pools of human commentaries. They who have and Egypt? of all those which preceded Greece and Rome? aided their style and modes of thought by diligent study of this They perished with their authors, or were lost in the wasting of work, if they do not rise to the first grade of excellence, never their nations. Where are the writings of Greece ? A part, and sink to inferiority. Observe, again, two comparatively unlet. a part only remain. of the four hundred works of Aristotle, tered men ; laborious in their employments, and altogether one of the great masters of human reasoning, and the merits of without the adornments of literature. If one diligently reads the which would create a desire to save them, but about forty have Bible, and becomes familiar with its language and expressions, reached us, and even of these, some are broken, and of others and the other never opens it, you may tell the fact, by the supethe genuineness is questioned. Not one-hundreth-perhaps not riority of the former, in his ordinary manner of conversation, one-thousandth part, of the precious literature of that land of even upon topics unconnected with the doctrines of the book. poetry, eloquence and philosophy has escaped the wreck of her The same fact is illustrated by two schools, in one of which it is liberty and national existence. Rome was the successor—the sedulously taught, and in the other is never read. You cannot imitator--the competitor-the survivor of Greece in literature; converse with the scholars without remarking the contrast. yet few of her works, which were her pride and her glory, sur- “There is cause, I think, 'o rebuke those who have written vive. She was, for a long period, the keeper of the Book of and lectured on style and composition, that among the authors the Cross, as she was of the literary productions of her citizens and books recommended, the Bible is so seldom pressed upon Yet it remains, and they have perished. The dramas of Livius the consideration of the student. There is no one superior to it, Andronicus were the first regular compositions in Latin, of which in examples suited to correct and discipline the taste. There we have any record. Where are they? Where are the works are no works of human genius containing finer passages. Search of Ennius, Naevius, Pacuvius and others. We retain a line of the volumes of fiction, of poetry and eloquence, and produce the one of them--Laelus sum, laudari abs te, pater, laudato viro : passages most justly admired, and their equals and superiors of others there is little of any substantial value. Where are may be readily found in this work. Herodotus and Xenophon do the works of Cato, except his de re Rustica = or Varro? of not surpass it, in the simplicity and beauty of their narrative, all tħose, to whom Cicero in de Claris Oratoribus, refers ? of nor Homer in the splendor and sublimity of his descriptions. some even of his own more perfect productions ? Where are the Compare, for yourselves, the unornamented yet intensely sub. works on natural philosophy and the sister sciences, mathema-lime account which is given of the creation of the world and of tics and geometry, which have been called the implements of man, in the commencement of the volume, with any and all the natural philosophy ? They were in existence when the Origines efforts of pagan or christian writers. Compare the noblest paof Cato were written, yet now Quae reliquiae : quodve vestigium ges in Homer, those in which he portrays the majesty and go

Why the difference as to this book ? For many hundred years, vernment of Jupiter, and his interference in the conflicts of concopies were not multiplied and scattered, so that the ordinary tending armies, with the annunciation of the attributes of the causes of decay and destruction could not reach them. Yet the Christian's God, by Job, Isaiah and their fellow penmen, and fames which have consumed palaces and cottages and libra. | with the manifestations of his power, at every step, as he led the ries, have left it unharmed. The eruptions of the volcano have Israelites from bondage to dominion. Compare the clouds and not buried, and the more terrible devastations of the barbarian, thunder and scales of Olympus, with the awful exhibition at have not destroyed it. The siege, and sacking, and utter deso. Sinai, and the destruction of the enemies of his chosen people, lation of the capital, and the scattering to the utmost ends of the not only in their journeyings, but at subsequent periods of their earth, of the nation to whom it was committed, defaced not one history. Make your comparison as extensive as you please, of its features. The temple was destroyed, but the laws written upon any and every subject embraced in it, and apply the most upon its tables were not abrogated nor erased. The Cross is the rigid rules of criticism, and you will come to the conclusion, that essence and the emblem of the record; and while all around in correctness, energy, eloquence and dignity of composition, it the place where it was erected utterly perished, that record, in ie without a rival. Why, then, shall it be disregarded by the all its perfectness, was protected. Whether it be true or not, scholar who is ambitious of excellence in writing and speak. that TOYTI NIKA was written over that ensign, in letters ing?" of fire upon the heavens, and conducted the first christian em. peror to victory, it is true that the doctrines of this book were

In the conclusion of the address, Mr. Southard, speakplanted by the throre, and extended wide as the empire of the ing of the Decalogue, observes : Cesars; and yet when that empire fell and expired beneath the scourge of the northern hordes and the scimetar of the Moham.

“ This law is carried out in all its breadth and spirit, in the medan, this book, with its text and its doctrines, continued to sacred Scriptures. It has descended from the wilderness of Ara. live; its energies were renewed, and it is still the same as when bia, through all the changes of times and nations ; never for one Constantine became its advocate. It has passed through times moment deserting the land which it first governed, for portions of literary and moral darkness as well as light-of barbarisin of it are still read and taught by a wretched remnant, amidst the as well as civilization-through periods of enmity, as well as ruins of the cities of Palestine ; but it has passed from thence friendship, to its contents--and crossed that oblivious gulf which over oceans and continents ; inhabited the cottage of the peasant, divides the modern from the ancient literary world, and where ascended the seats of power, and become the foundation of the Jies covered up, forever, so much of the literature and science codes of all Christian nations. Since the hour of its promulga. of the nations. Other books have perished when there was no tion, Israel has risen to the greatness of glory which Solomon hostility to their doctrines ; this has survived when the arm of possessed, and been dispersed in every land, a proverb and aspower was stretched out, and every human passion exerted for tonishment. Nations have flourished and fled away like the ita destruction."

mists of the morning, and their names are lost. Imperial cities,

and the monuments of the great have crumbled and been swept Speaking of the influence of the study of the Bible away with the hearth-siones of the humble ; but Horeb still on the formation of a good style, we are told: stands amidst the desolations of the wilderness, an evidence of

the presence of the Author of this law; and this law has con“The study of the Bible is an efficient means of acquiring tinued to roll on with undecaying power, in contempt of all the correct language and style; not studying it, co borrow its phrases, passions and philosophy and infidelity of men. Its principles are still found in accordance with our interests and happiness, | The frigate Macedonian is to be superseded by the and have their home in the inmost depths of the pure in heart Peacock sloop of war; and the number of inferior vesAnd they will continue to spread, until the islands, the oceans and the continents obey ; and until non erit alia ler Romae, alia sels will probably be lessened. Delay, and even disAthenis, alia nunc, alia post hac, sed et omnes gentes, et omni appointment, seem to impend over the undertaking. tempore, una ler, sempiturna et immortalis continebit. of all men, American scholars, and you among them, ought not to be ignorant of any thing which this book contains. ir Cicero could declare that the laws of the twelve tables were worth all the li. braries of the philosophers-if they were the carmen necessarium of the Roman youth, how laboriously, manu nocturna diurnaque

MY JESSIE DEAR. ought you to investigate its contents, and inscribe them upon your hearts. You owe to them the blessed civil institutions un.

A RHYMING ROMAUNT. der which you live, and the glorious freedom which you enjoy; and if these are to be perpetuated, it can only be by a regard to

PART I. those principles. Civil and religious liberty is more indebted to Luther and Calvin and their compeers of the Reformation, and to the Puritans and Protestants of England, and the Hugenots of

Shall I tell thee a tale, my Jessie dear, France, than to any other men who ever lived in the annals of It is a fearful tale! time. They led the way to that freedoin and firmness, and inde- I learned it in my dreams yestreen,pendence of thought and investigation, and the adoption of these

Nay, do not grow so pale. principles, as the guide in social government, as well as private actions, which created a personal self-respect and firmness in its

Come laugh now, and I'll tell it thee, desence, which conducted us to a sense of equal rights and pri.

But if thou look'st so white, vileges, and eventually to the adoption of free written constitu. tions as the limitation of power. Be you imitators of them.

I'll think the vision shades are real, Make your scholarship subservient to the support of the same Which rose upon my sight. unchanging principles. They are as necessary now as they ever were, to the salvation of your country and all that is dear to Well! methought that we were wandering your hopes. The world is yet to be proselyted to them. Reli. Beneath that tall tree's shade, gion and liberty must go hand in hand, or America cannot be es.

In whose spread branches we have heard tablished; the bondage of the European man broken; Africa en.

The cuckoo's mourning made. lightened, and Asia regenerated. And even here, we are not with. out peril. Look abroad.; are not the pillars of our edifice sha.

There we did breathe our earliest love,ken? Is not law disregarded? Are not moral and social princi. ples weakened? Are not the wretched advocates of infidelity Now do not hang thy head, busy? The sun has indeed risen upon our mountain tops, but Dost not remember how I swore, it has not yet scattered the damps and the darkness of the val.

And the stars looked bright, leys. The passions are roused and misled. Ancient institutions

And the heavens hung o'er,arc scorned. Our refuge is in the firm purpose of educated and

That I was thine forevermore, moral men. Draw then your rules of action from the only safe authority. Hang your banner on their outer wall. Stand by 'Till my poor heart was dead. them in trial and in triumph. Dare to maintain them in every position and in every vicissitude; and make your appeal to the It was a lightsome night, I ween, source from which they are drawn. And then, come what may, My heart did bless the fairy scene, contempt or fame, you cannot fall; and your progress, at every

And there was no dark on earth or sky, step, will be greeted by the benedictions of the wise and good-

But the shade of the oak SALVETE--SALVETE.”

We were standing by. We renew our invitation, (and to our youthful read

Black was the oak, and vast, and grim, ers in particular,) to peruse with diligence this valuable

Tuneless its lofty bowers; production ; feeling assured, as we do, that it will have

And it stood like a warrior a strong tendency to lead to an assiduous examination

In his mail, and study of that book, which at this day stands above

Or a fiend-giant frowning all others, in the literature of every civilized nation on

O'er the landscape pale, the globe.

“A curse on the bright-eyed Powers !"
We sat within its shady hall,--

Thou know'st the bank full well,-
THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

And we whisper'd of our hopes and joys,
Every person, anxious for the honor of this country,

And the woes our love befell. must regret to perceive the new difficulties that gather

We talk'd, and we talk'd, and the night wore old, around the naval expedition destined to explore the

And the moon run up the sky, South Seas. The flattering prospects held forth in our And the shades did deepen, last number, with regard to this enterprise, seem to And the boughs did sleep 'n,be overcast with clouds. Ill health has obliged Com.

But by the sight modore Jones to resign his command: and it is not

Of a chink of moonlight, yet certain, who will be his successor. But whoever

I saw a deep, black eye! he may be, --supposing him to possess equal qualifica. tions with Commodore Jones for the trusi-be will re- The eye, the eye was very bright, quire weeks, if not months, to prepare for so long and 'Twas bright as bright could be ; eventful a cruise, in such a manner as to conduct it It was so sweet and spiritful, prosperously. The squadron, too, is to be reduced. So full of all most beautiful,

Ring out, ring out thy silvery laugh,

'Tis sweet as a music vow.

It shone so clear from the black’ning tree,
So very light,
That the dark look'd bright,
By'r Lady, 'twas like thee!
'Twas strangely like my pretty Jess,

I saw it in the paly light;
The firmament hath not a star

That looks to me so bright.
The moon has burst from a fleecy cloud,
'Tis light, 'lis light as day,
And the glade, and the hill, and the tiny stream,
Gladden beneath its silver beam,
And the night-bird stills his wildest scream:
List! there is music as soft as a dream,
And tripping on the velvet green,
May'st see the dapper-fay!
I drew thee closer to my side,
I whisper'd thee more low,
I vowed, -and here I spoke aloud, -
And raised my face to the passing cloud:
“From thee, my love, my destined bride,
I ne'er, I ne'er will go!".
My arm did drop down from your waist,

My arm was stiff as lead,
And you did glide from my embrace,

Like a shadow of the dead.
Outfell the darkness from the tree,
And the eye was in its shade,–
Round and round it circleth thee-
Thou look’st beseechingly to me;
The eye did fire, and then did fade,
And I was alone in the moonlit glade.

A cry, and a bound,
And a rushing sound
Swept by,-
I burst from the ground,
For the spell was wound,

And the fiend did fly!
Wildly I grasped upon the air,
I clutched the stony mound,
I curs'd, and groan'd, and yell’d, and moan'd,
Yet all was still, but the echoing hill,
And my voice came back
Full clear and shrill,

And woke me from the swound.
And when I woke I started upright,
Look'd wildly around for the things of night,
But on mine eyes, the sun broke bright,
And the merry birds carolled to the morning's light.

And it were true, and did we part,

Would'st not be glad at all ? There's many a heart in this bright world,

Would worship thee, for all ! Blisters be on my meddling tongue !

This makes thee weep so sore,
Wilt heal it now, my blushing girl ?

I will not grieve thee more.
Now, blessings on thee, Jess, my dear,

Blessings from Him above!
We'll sing His songs in the still, bright eve,

And pray for His good love.
His seal on thee, no harm may come,

No blast of wicked dream;
And if thy lover's arm bath power,

No ill shall hurt his quean.
Green summer is now upon the trees,
And the painted time comes slow;
But when the leaf is on the brook,
And the solemn pencil hath gilt our nook,
Then, Jessie, then we'll whisper low,-
Resting our eyes on the promise bow,-
To love in calm or tempest loud,

To lore in weal or woe!
Philadelphia, 1837.

J. A.

THE LYCEUM–NO. V.

ADVICES TO SUNDRY KINDS OF PEOPLE.

BY GULLIVER THE YOUNGER.

CHAPTER I. ADVICE TO YOUNG PAYSICIANS.

In former times, Medicine was not at all what it is now. Any one, who knew the virtues of a few simple herbs, could practise it with fame and profit. Diseases were not many, or various. They were mostly rheumatisms, which the gentlemen caught in hunting; or crudities and pains arising from surfeit, after the long fasts which followed the failure of their stock of dried venison and parched corn. The only use for surgery, was to heal scratches and bruises received in their combats with wild beasts, or each other. All these hurts and maladies were readily cured by the old ladies of the tribe ; sometimes by healing applications, but oftener by certain cunning words and ceremonies, which hardly ever failed, if the patient had faith in them. As to lectures, schools of Medicine, diplomas, long, strange technical terms, and pursy treatises in a dozen different languages, they were altogether unknown.

But now, the case is quite altered. The kinds of sickness have multiplied a hundred fold; and each kind has a hundred various symptoms, and wears a hundred various shapes, according to the diversities of frame and habit in patients. By this increase of diseases,

PART II.
Fie! Jessy, fie! what weeping now,

And scared as any dove,
'Twas but a dream, an idle dream-

I would not fright my love. Come dry thine eyes, my winsome Jess,

Come smile upon me now,-

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