« السابقةمتابعة »
council absolves themselves and the emperor, is a curi- It must, at first, seem extraordinary that the remisous monument of the political and religious morality sion of sin could have been bought at the price of gold. of the times.
But a theory had been started to explain and justify the The period which followed the sessions of the coun. practice. The scholastic doctors, assuming that the cil of Constance, brought no change in the disposition penances and merits of one individual might be transof minds. The clergy did not amend, and the popes ferred to another, admitted the existence of a treasury, continued to be ambitious princes, stained with as filled up with the excess of merits, gathered among the glaring vices as the earthly rulers, their cotemporaries. faithful, through christendom. The dispensation of its The accession of Alexander the Sixth to the pontifical contents was entrusted to the pope, who distributed throne-his sacrilegious loves with his daughter, Lu- them in the shape of indulgences. This doctrine, crezia, in whose incestuous affections and favors he maintained by the very ingenious and powerful logic of was rivalled by his sons, the duke of Gandia and St. Thomas and St. Buonaventura, was inwoven in the Cæsar Borgia—his course of murders, exactions and bull which Clement the Sixth promulgated for the jubisimony-were not in any degree likely to bring men lee of the fourteenth century. The indulgences were back to respect and cherish the ancient and hallowed drafts on this sinking fund of good works:-redeema. catholicism of the Roman church. And in those days, ble in heaven, and discounted on earth for ready cash; the German peasantry, among whom the reformation they formed no inconsiderable portion of the revenue of was destined to enlist so many proselytes, indulged in the church. This system, by which, he said, the last this significant proverb: Je näher Rom, je böser der became the first; while, by the true treasure of the Christ ; the nearer to Rome, the worse the christian. gospel, the first became the last ; Luther vigorously asLuther's doctrines, therefore, found a loud and long sailed in his opening thesis. Harping upon the same echo in minds thus prepared; and yet these were, at antithesis, he adds "the treasury of the scriptures is the first, but mild remonstrances against the sale of indul- net with which the apostles fished for men of wealth ; gences. Urged, as much by the solicitations of Siau- but the treasury of indulgences is the net with which pitz as by the promptings of his vanity, he deemed him we fish for the wealth of men.” self bound to controvert propositions and denounce a While opposing the theological principle and the actraffic, which seemed to him to be unchristian and tual sale of indulgences, Luther had no foresight of scandalous; and, whatever danger was pointed out to the effect which he was about to produce both on others him in the attempt, he determined to publish the pro- and on himself. He was astonished-even alarmed, at gramme of a thesis, subdivided into various proposi- his success. But when it became necessary to maintions, in which he condemned the practice of indulgen- tain the conflict which he had solicited—when he began ces. Such is the origin of a theological wrangle, which to judge what he had, at first, merely believed—when induced a revolution, at once fatal to papal authority his mind, partially shaking off its misgivings, proceeded and friendly to intellectual freedom.
from daring to daring, to investigate pontifical power Viewing the question as one of a purely historical and church government ;-he then embraced the full character, it may not be inappropriate to trace the rise extent of the work of reform, and clearly defined the of this singular traffic. The practice seems to have aim which he intended to reach. The conflict grew originated under Urbanus the Second, who, in the ele- out of the gratification of scholastic vanity, and ended Fenth century, granted a plenary indulgence, or remis in the subversion of tradition and authority. But he sion of sins, to such as should engage in the wars of the soon found himself launched on a sea of varying opiholy land. This example, followed by many of the nions, where he needed the guidings of a compass. popes, was also practised by Leo the Tenth, who had That was found in the scriptures—a compass less un. exhausted the resources of the church, by a gorgeous erring than he had at first imagined; for a book, writliberality extended to kinsmen, courtiers, men of let- ten by human hands--sufficient as may be the divine ters and artists. In the year 1516, he published inspiration under which it was composed--is ever liathroughout christendom, an indulgence to such as would ble to human interpretation. And this, the more likely, contribute moneys. Its benefits were extended to the when a portion of that book, the old testament, was dead; whose spirits were delivered from the bonds of drawn oui in an ancient and lost language, with an impurgatory, in consideration of the soul-tax paid in their perfect system of orthography, in which the vowels are behalf :—10 this was added leave to use eggs and milk far from being accurately marked. From the moment on days of abstinence to choose one's own confessor, that the reformer declared that he constantly appealed and other such spiritual facilities. Leo, having promul- to the scriptures as a rule of faith, and rejected the gated his bull of indulgence, disposed of a portion of its sanction of tradition, the interpretations of the fathers, proceeds before they were actually received. To dif- and the decisions of the councils of the church ; from ferent persons he assigned the revenue of different that moment, the essentials of christian belief were provinces; reserving that of the most lucrative ones brought in discrimine; it became necessary for Luther for the use of the apostolic chamber. In this division, to supply the proofs of his argument, and consequently he conferred all that was to accrue from Saxony, and to publish a German translation of the Bible itself. But the part of Germany extending thence to the sea, to other innovators had, long before him, sought, by like his sister Madelena, the wife of Ciboma spurious son of translations, means of disseminating their peculiar docInnocent the Eighth, who, in favor of this marriage, trines. Gerson, the chancellor of the university of elevated Leo to the cardinalate, at the early age of four. Paris, that tremendous engine of mental despotism in teen, and, by this act of spiritual despotism, gave the the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; Gerson, who was Medici family access to the high dignities and temporal the master spirit of the council of Constance, censuring, honors of the church.
in his treatise against communion under both species, the literal interpretation of the scriptures, adds: “from Fifth had excited against the holy empire. Germany, this venomous stock sprung the errors of the Begards, thenceforth, became the theatre of bloody and relentthe mendicants of Lyons, and their like. There be many less wars. If history affords frequent instances of laymen among them, who hold copies of the Bible in the what it is fashionable to call the inferior classes--the lavulgar tongue, to the great detriment and scandal of borers, the peasantry and the mechanics-rising against Catholic truth."
that social order, which oppresses them; the issue of The ultimate action of these elements of opposition, their insurgency is, nevertheless, rarely of a successful was to strip the church of Rome of the support of tra character. And for this we can easily account. They dition and authority, and to transfer the latter to the generally want all the necessary elements of success, scriptural text, -saving the freedom of interpretation, skilful organization, proper leaders, and adequate which the innovators reserved to themselves. In this means: they bring but stout hearts and willing hands we may clearly trace the march of all opinions, which to the contest. Yet there are examples of triumph in suddenly modify the state of society; as well as the the case of the corporations of mechanics, who freed transitions through which they necessarily pass. It themselves in some of the cities of Europe, during the would seem, considering things in the abstract, that middle ages; and wrung charters of rights from the human reason, unshackled in its operations, and free reluctant grasp of barons, bishops and kings. In anspontaneously to combine the data of the intellect, cient history we find a solitary fact of this kind on might overleap time, space and circumstance, and indis- record :-that of the inhabitants of Brutium-slaves, criminately attain this or that extremity at will. But who shook off the yoke of the Lucanians, their masthe award of experience stands to the contrary :--al ters; and who, branded with the contemptuous appella. though the limits of the intellectual domain are neither tion of brutiates-brutes-prided themselves, like the visible to the eye nor tangible to the hand, they are beggars of Flanders, in a name which they hallowed not, therefore, the less accurately defined. An addi. by successful resistance against the power of despotism. tional proof-though in a different order of observation, But the servile wars of antiquity generally terminated that intellect is dependant on and bound to the laws fatally to the serfs. The peasantry of Cisalpine Gaul, of a continuous development, the progress of which known in history under the name of Baganda, who is in harmony with the development of the rest of revolted at the period of the dismemberment of the earthly things. Luther contested and annihilated the Roman empire, were hewn into subjection; and the infallibility of the pope and of the church; but Jacqueries of the fourteenth century were massacred he referred the principle of authority to the Bible. by the nobles, who banded from one extremity of Though seemingly a retroaction, this was virtually an Europe to the other, in a war of extermination. achievement-and, considering the period, the only The insurgent peasantry of Germany shared a achievement which the human mind could have made. similar fate. They and the anabaptists were incited, in To go from the authority of the holy see to the autho- this temporary revolution, by the twofold motive of rity of the holy book ;-to seek for a rule of faith, not politics and religion. This religious democracy of the in the teachings of the church, who decided for the sixteenth century widely differs from the democracy faithful; but in a revealed text, whence each was free to which prepared the great revolution of the eighteenth draw forth his inspirations and his proofs ;--to pass in the blindness of their mysticism, they assailed the from the rule of submission to that of inquiry, though sciences, which, in the course of history, constitute the an inquiry hemmed within certain bounds; such were main safety of democracies. The ceaseless tendency the labors and achievements of the reformers and such of science is, as far as practicable, to equalise the the terms, beyond which they were forbidden to go by bodily and mental faculties of man; and knowledge is the nature of things. But this term once attained, the the only armory from which the masses can draw authority of the scriptures themselves was in turn ex- trusty weapons of defence against the aggressions of amined--questioned-denied :-revelation was contest the privileged orders :-the plebeian of Rome did not ed, and christianity shaken to its centre. This was bulwark himself behind the limits of the Mons Sacer, the work of the reformers of the eighteenth centu- until he had looked into the pious frauds of the augurs, ry, who ceased to limit investigation to the texts and caught a glimpse of the mysteries of Panda. This of a book, which they no longer deemed divinely brutal hostility to the arts and sciences establishes inspired.
a well defined distinction between the politico-reliThe religious revolution, started by Luther's doc-gious levellers of the reformation and the democrats trines, induced great changes both in the order of polic of the American revolution, as well as those who intics and the distribution of wealth. It secularised herited their principles and doctrines. many a church feoff; sequestrated the property of con- When we consult the records of those days of relivents and monasteries, and enlarged the authority of gious controversy, we marvel at the violence of laathe temporal magistracy at the expense of the ecclesi- guage which condemns and the rigor of punishment astical tribunals. But this political movement pro- which visits mere opinions on points of theology, gressed still farther ; and the commotion threatened the the most incomprehensible and abstruse. There is no very basis of the fabric of social order in Germany. expression sufficiently strong to characterise the flagia The peasantry swarmed from their hovels and beset the ciousness of the man who does not know whether strong holds of the barons. The anabaptists enlisted Christ have two natures or two wills: no amertement the interests of earth under the banner of heaven; and is adequately severe-none too atrocious for the case declared war against all existing powers:-this state giving heretic. Rome burns the Calvinist, who de of intestine feuds was powerfully assisted by the ex- clines belief in the intercession of saints; the Calvinist ternal enmities which the ambition of Charles the condemns the Unitarian to fire and oil. The Gomarisi,
mailed in hopeless predestination, gives up to popular Luther's reforms were, in some respects, highly imfrenzy the Arminian, who maintains the doctrine of portant. The authority of the popes was curtailed, free will. It must be confessed, that behind these seem- and confession abolished. Convents were suppressed, ingly religious opinions, whether assailing or assailed, and celibacy ceased to be binding on the priesthood. were screened questions of high political interests, The priests and monks who left their monasteries-which also acted on the offensive or defensive ground. the nuns who were restored to the world--availed Hence, if in our own country, we lately saw a tribunal themselves of the privilege of marriage. Luther himpassing sentence on an union of trades, and proscribing self, an unhooded monk of the order of the Augustines, an enunciation of opinions, it is because both the married a nun, Catharine à Bohran; and Erasmus, the union and their opinions threaten the growing aristo-elegant railer, who, though no Protestant, was but a cratic privileges of the country; and these privileges-sorry Catholic, writes thus :—"People may contend as did the religious dogmas of other days—defend that Lutheranism is a tragical affair;—for my part, I themselves behind a rampart of laws and punishments, am convinced that nothing can be more comical;-for not enacted in our land, not provided by our own sta. the upshot is always of a merry cast, and the catastutes, but drawn from the dust of a foreign soil, the trophe turns into a wedding !" muniments of feudalism, originally intended to check Lutheranism is not at issue with catholicism on the Saxon serfs and Norman vassals.
great question of the eucharist ;-the former, as well Luther, who had introduced freedom of inquiry in as the latter, maintains that the bread and wine are religious matters, in his system of theology, sacrificed converted into the very body and blood of Christ, by the freedom of man to the power of grace. He stoutly the power of the sacramental words. Some of the maintained that God does everything in man, sin as reformers went beyond the Lutherans:--they sacriwell as virtue ; and that free will is incompatible with ficed the mystery of transubstantiation, and saw, in human corruption and divine prescience. This problem the last supper, but a memorial and a type. Other of man's freedom, as well as that of the existence and protestant sects have still further trenched upon the cause of evil necessarily connected with it, has been interpretation of the mysteries, and, at the extremity vexed both by the philosopher and the theologian. of this school, are the Socinians, who deny the divinity Baronius, in his Philosophia Theologiæ Ancellans, has said of Christ, and hold him as a man blessed with peculiar that the former was a Hagar near a Sarah, and ought gifts from the hand of God. We should not confound to be expelled with her Ishmaël, whenever he attempted Socinianism, which rests its belief on the scriptures, to play the rebel. But the time is gone by for the admis- with pure deism, which holds the Bible to be a book sion of such doctrines. Theology has clearly proved "like one another"--a mere monument of the human inadequate to solve the problem; and the proof lies in intellect. this-that the different christian sects have drawn That which would be a serious obstacle to any sudfrom the same sources, which they hold saered, the den religious revolution in our day, is founded on the most conflicting interpretations--free will and servile fact, that the nineteenth century is not marked by any will. Philosophy also came to the assay; but bound excessive propensity to believe :-that which stamped to restrict its pretensions to a subordinate sphere, it the reformation with a peculiar character of arduouscan only point to acknowledged facts, nor attempt to ness, was that Luther's age was credulous even unto offer an evidently impossible solution. Man feels him- gross superstition. The fact is learned from Luther self morally free. This feeling is derived from his con- himself. He was long checked in his course by the science; but it is hemmed within narrow limits, and idea of the responsibility which he was about to asvaries according to the individual. To admit that free sume ; and of the perdition into which so many would dom, under its restrictions—to point out its inequalities be whelmed, should he be deceived. The thought according to the differences of organization, of climate tortures him—and frequently recurs to his mind :-10 and education–differences which do not depend on have witnessed the delinquencies of Rome is an indirect individual will, and which, under another form, repro- justification of his course. “For,” says he," had I not duce the differences of theological grace ;--to receive the seen this city of abominations, I would have remained existence of evil as a fact, without attempting to recon- in the dread of doing injustice to the pope.” Luther cile it with divine omnipotence and divine foreknow. constituted himself the head of the new heresy ;-and, ledge, which are not known to us ;-to compass the in so doing, he had to make use of his own rudely means of circumscribing evil, and of substituting, as picturesque language, Sisyphus-like, an enormous rock much as possible, human freedom and intelligence to to roll. The doubts which distracted his mind, are the fatality of nature ;--such, the true scope of philoso- readily conceived ; and the agony which racked him, phy and science the actual state of the question of free when his jaded spirits flagged in their almost brutal will, and the relation which it bears to the existence energies, can be as easily realised. He battled, but of evil through the world. To go beyond this, man with unequalled vigor and success, the so much resmust make up his mind to launch into gratuitous hypected authority of tradition, and the deeply dreaded potheses and speculations, or yield, at once, to the power of the Roman church, which, up to his times, suggestions of faith, which speaks differently to differ- had been sanctioned into right by the consentient opient capacities, and equally justifies the Protestant and nions of mankind. With the force of habit, that overthe Catholic, the Mussulman and the Brahmin. We mastering element in the nature of man ; and with the must accept, without weakness, as without pride, both obstinacy of faith, of its own nature opposed to reathe mysterious darkness which overhangs the primi- soning, he manfully grappled. But before laying a tive facts of nature, and the faint, vacillating, but only desecrating hand on a tabernacle which men had light which our reason affords.
deemed holy with sheer antiquity, long and frequent
were his self-communings :—and even after the deal ny ground down the people into a bitterer bondage than of the blow, he questioned himself, at different inter- Rome had ever imposed. To admit, therefore, the vals, to satisfy his conscience of the uprightness of his unconditional and paramount influence of the reformadeed. Indeed we cannot, at any time, advance a grave tion in spreading freedom abroad, is not only to reject proposition, in politics, religion, philosophy, or even the sounder teachings of subsequent experience—but science, without feeling some of the misgivings, which it is to assume, as a fact, that which is controverted by Luther experienced :-from a deep and thorough con- every page of history. The reformation has been viction of the necessity of peace, Hobbes was led to a tested by the ordeal of more than three centuries. radically false conclusion—ihe necessity of strict bond. And it is a debatable question whether Germany, the age and political inequality.
cradle of iis birth, is at the present day politically The reformer of Germany has left voluminous freer than either Italy or Spain.* If we turn even to works to posterity. His correspondence, tracts, and England, which has systematised Protestantism into a minutest sayings, have been collected by his friends and form of government; we find that the safeguards of disciples, and handed down to us with religious care. her liberties had been established by the Catholic ba. Melancthon, especially, has exhibited every phasis of rons, long before the lust of her royal headsman had his full-toned existence ; yet no one, I think, has judged suggested the idea of his becoming the founder of a Luther better than Luther himself. The following church. letter, to a friend of his, is a choice morceau ; and may But to resume the subject of the reformation itself, be considered as a correct judgment, passed by Luther we must rank, among its principal causes,
the antaupon himself:
gonism of German and Italian nature-the opposition “TO J. Brentius :- I do not wish to flatter thee. Nei- of the northern and the southern man—an opposition ther do I deceive thee or myself, when I say that I which has existed in all countries and through all prefer thy writings to mine. Not Brentius do I praise ; times—and which, in this instance, availed itself of the but the boly spirit
, that is gentler in thee than in me:- slightest pretext of separation, and ended in the defeat thy words flow on more purely and mildly. My style, and oppression of the south by the north. We should unskilful and untutored, pours along, a flood, a chaos also keep in view the political state of Germany in of words, turbulent as an impetuous athlet, ever the sixteenth century—its oligarchy of princes and struggling with a thousand succeeding monsters ; and, dukes, margraves and counts, bishops and abbots, conif I dared to compare small things with great ones, it vents and free towns, whose desire of independence would seem that something of the fourfold spirit of and thirst of lucre were marvellously subserved by Elias has been granted unto me--something rapid as Luther's doctrines; and who were among the first to the wind, and devouring as fire, which uproots the adopt and defend the reformation. In Holland, Seitmountain and consumes the rock. Thine, on the con- zerland, Sweden and England, reasons purely political
, trary, are the gentle murmur--the soft and cooling contributed to its success :-the same powers that breeze. One thing comforts me: the divine father of subdued the hosts of anabaptists, and the iwo hundred the human race needs, in this, his immense family, thousand followers of Thomas Munizer, might have the rude for the rude-the harsh for the harsh crushed the reformation, had not the reformation essenlike a sturdy wedge for sturdy knots. To purify tially befriended their temporal interests. Protestantthe air and fertilize the soil, the watering rain is ism-once a political, though now a religious distincnot sufficient;-the flashings of the lightning are also tion-Protestantism necessarily incurred the penalty of a required."
close alliance between religion and politics. For if the This letter sums up the whole of Luther's individu. religious interest.was originally the primary notive of ality ;-his bluntness and impetuosity-his incoherence action—that which aroused kings and nations and drev and vanity are unwittingly defined, by his own pen, them together, it was soon mastered and absorbed by in a few hasty and graphic lines. So much for Luther the political interest; and the world witnessed an adulteas a man. But as to the moving causes, which favored rous union between church and state, more hideous the development of the reformation, there are many, than the semi-temporal authority of Rome; and which, independent of both its spirit and its doctrines, which under any circumstances, has ever been a cause of viexclusively belong to the province of history. The cuperation and impotence in religion. She basely cast Protestant christian, in order to throw a relief upon his her holy attributes at the footstool of power; and, in peculiar creed, in contradistinction with that of the the witheringly vigorous line of Dante Alighieri, was Catholic ehristian, assimilates it with freedom, and seen putaneggiar có regi, shamelessly wantonning with vindicates it as a progress of the human mind and a kings. Such was the fate which Luther marked triumph of human liberty. For our part, we are at a
out for his religion, from the moment that he placed loss to say how it advanced the cause of freedom, himself at the mercy of the elector of Saxony, and while the iron hand of Charles V, and the exactions wilfully pandered to the debaucheries of the Landof his petty barons, continued to weigh upon the peo- grave of Hesse. ple of Germany. They, in fact, lost by the change
4. in many instances; for while it served the interest of Rome, the bull of excommunication was at hand; and the mother of deep and unrivalled scholarship. Her seran
*We do not speak this disparagingly of Germany: she is the veriest serf might sometimes thank the tyranny have largely paid their tribute to the cause of freedom, science of the spiritual master for a respite from the tyranny and humanity. But their usefulness and influence are restricted of the temporal lord. But the thunder of the Vatican to the university walls :—the light passes not from them to cheer being once quenched, and the ball of the pope stripped shackles, which their Teutonic ancestry knew not in their
the masses, whose limbs, in this our boastful century, bear of its terrors; the baron, unawed and unchecked, 'rudest days of barbaric ignorance.
BY A NOVICE.
L. E. Landon.
leaning over his table with depressed spirits. Alas! FRANCIS ARMINE.
that the summer sunshine flees before the chill of the A ROMANCE.
wintry wind. Alas! that the summer flowers wither at the touch of autumn's frost. Alas! that the heart's deep fountain knows no second springtime, save when
it gushes forth near the pavilions of the first and last ! CHAPTER V.
Armine's life had been a long and somewhat sadwinds were hushed, and not a cloud was driven
dened dream-a dream of broken hopes and disapAlong the fair face of the sleeping beaven:
pointed desires-a dream of unsolved mystery and And stillest night, the beautiful, the bland,
phantom, because unlooked events. Oh! in the deep Walked like a spirit o'er the lovely land.
bitterness of his soul, how he longed for the happy and Oh! from the outward scene that we could win
innocent days of his infancy—the free step, the buoySome spell to sooth the restless world within !
ant spirit, the light heart, the gladdened mind, and the
E. L. Bulwer. sweet, profound sleep-lhe mother's tender affectionHopes, that like rainbows melt in shade,
the father's kind attention and the sister's treasured And pass away.
love. Often had he stood above the voiceless resting
places of the departed, and watched them in their unThe stars were glittering, without a cloud to obscure broken sleep--a sleep that was not the companion of their light; but the full moon was slowly sinking be the boyish couch, the watchful burdensome rest of manneath the western waters. Sweetly, calmly, like a hood, nor the fearful and restless pall that comes upon good man gliding in peace to the land of sleepers, did the eyelids of the aged; but the dark, the awful, the it throw its mellowing light upon the city, and along eternal sleep of death! And her who watched there the shores of the Seine, ere it sank to its wavy couch. with him, whither had she departed ? Hope plants her
Who that has once gazed upon that beautiful sight, I tread on the shore, but sorrow washes out its trace has ever forgotten it? Who has not, as he gazed, felt with tears. its hallowing influences, and lifted up his heart to the The swift winged hopes, the gentle thoughts, the argolden pavilions of the sky in silent worship? And who dent aspirings, the pure and beautiful dreams of our that has gazed, has not felt their feebleness, and longed early years !- when gone, they never-never return. to flee upon the pinions of the dove to their far home in The heart's scarce budded flower, when withered, never the heavens?
opens again--the nind's secret chambers, when dimmed, Even as I write, she is slowly sinking beneath the never brighten again. They rise and fall like the sumdistant horizon, which rests on the deep, blue expanse, mer wave, which when it sweeps away, leaves no mark like a long silken lash on the brow of the beautiful of its existence on the wide waste of waters! She has thus set through months, and years, and cen. The past, whether bright or shadowy, still mirrors turies. She has thus shone over that bright water since itself in the future. How sweet is it, then, as we apcreation dawned, and will thus shine until the records of proach the dim twilight of our present life, to bear time shall be rolled together, and the earth and the hea. with us no harrowing reflection from its ample storesvens sink into chaos. She has risen upon free and to know that the heart's sanctuary is pure and unconhappy states, and has glittered upon their monuments.taminated—that the incense of the soul is as fragrant Imperial Rome, rich in empire, was beheld by her who and unquenched as when the priest first entered ils now casts her mystic and undimmed light upon its rot- aisles. Awful, thrice awful, is the knowledge of an ting ruins. Unchanged and unchangeable, she has ill-spent youth! Awful, fearfully awful, is the recollooked from her silent home upon forgotten Thebes, lection of its faults, and errors, and sins, and crimes. sceptreless Larissa, and unremembered Philippi, as she They will forever haunt us like dim ghosts. They will did when the world trembled at their frown, or perished turn the pleasures of an old age to bitterest gall upon beneath their tread.
the lip. They will gnaw, as with viper fangs, about Her course through the heavens is now the same as the heart, and change its hopes and dreams to dust and the one on which she trod generations since. Like the ashes. Oh! then, in life's “morning march,” let us dew, they have gone, and her path is on and still on. wander through the flowery path unmindful of the Cities have changed and passed away. Nations have vice and crime that lure to cheat and disappoint, and arisen and decayed. The hills have mouldered, and our existence, flowing from so clear a fount, will pass on the eternal mountains have bowed their cloud-capito its far home in the heavens, without shadow and palaces to dust. Oceans, hoarse with telling the flight without coloring. of centuries, have moved from their unfathomed beds; Armine thus could look back to the past without and empires, big with conquest, swept like sparks from fear, for it was not of crime, but disappointment and the fire. Towering pyramids have crumbled, and they mystery that haunted him. Notwithstanding the latewho reposed beneath their shadow, passed to nothing. ness of the hour, he resolved to wander forth. Again ness. Calmly has she thus looked from her far cham- upon his horse, which he had taken noiselessly from its bers, all glorious and undimmed, upon these, as we stable, he gave it the reins, and went he knew not would upon wave chasing wave, on the bosom of the whither. great deep, and yet her couise is onward and still on- The soft moonlight streamed upon Paris, as it was ward.
sinking away, and, with the light of the many stars, The thread of my tale carries the reader, for a short rendered it one of those bright nights which are so well time, again with Francis Armine. From a disturbed calculated to wean us from the smoke and stir of day, to slumber be had awaked and dressed, and was now a dreamy forgetfulness of its troubles and trials, and