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and enjoyments of one man highly cultivated and of former part of this proposition has been so fully estabgreat sensibility, against those of many men of blunter lished by a writer of great power of thought-though capacity for enjoyment or suffering? And if we could I fear his practical conclusions will be found of little determine with certainty in what utility consists, we value—that it is hardly necessary to urge it* Proare so short-sighted with respect to consequences-the perty--the accumulation of capital, as it is commonly remote results of our best considered actions, are so called, is the first element of civilization. But to acco. often wide of our anticipations, or contrary to them, mulate, or to use capital to any considerable extent, that we should still be very much in the dark. But the combination of labor is necessary. In early stages though we cannot arrive at absolute certainty with of society, when people are thinly scaltered over an respect to the utility of actions, it is always fairly extensive territory, the labor necessary to extensive matter of argument. Though an imperfect standard, works, cannot be commanded. Men are independent it is the best we have, and perhaps the Creator did not of each other. Having the command of abundance intend that we should arrive at perfect certainty with of land, no one will submit to be employed in the serregard to the morality of many actions. If after the vice of his neighbor. No one, therefore, can employ most careful examination of consequences that we are more capital than he can use with his own hands, or able to make, with due distrust of ourselves, we im- those of his family, nor have an income much beyond partially and in good faith, decide for that which ap- the necessaries of life. There can, therefore, be little pears likely to produce the greatest good, we are free leisure for intellectual pursuits, or means of acquiring from moral guilt. And I would impress most ear- the comforts or elegancies of life. It is hardly nenestly, that with our imperfect and limited faculties, and cessary to say however, that if a man has the comshort-sighted as we are to the future, we can rarely, mand of slaves, he may combine labor, and use capivery rarely indeed, be justified in producing considera tal to any required extent, and therefore accumulate ble present evil or suffering, in the expectation of re- wealth. He shows that no colonies have been suemote future good-if indeed this can ever be justified. cessfully planted without some sort of slavery. So we

In considering this subject, I shall not regard it in find the fact to be. It is only in the slave holding the first instance in reference to the present position of states of our confederacy, that wealth can be acquired the slave holding states, or the difficulties which lie in by agriculture-which is the general employment of the way of their emancipating their slaves, but as a our whole country. Among us, we know that there is naked, abstract question—whether it is better that the no one, however humble his beginning, who with perinstitution of praedial and domestic slavery should, or severing industry, intelligence, and orderly and virshould not exist in civilized society. And though some tuous habits, may not atlain to considerable opulence. of my remarks may seem to have such a tendency, let So far as wealth has been accumulated in the states me not be understood as taking upon myself to deter- which do not possess slaves, it has been in cities by the mine that it is better that it should exist. God forbid pursuits of commerce, or lately, by manufactures. But that the responsibility of deciding such a question the products of slave labor furnish more than twoshould ever be thrown on me or my countrymen. But thirds of the materials of our foreign commerce, which this I will say, and not without confidence, that it is in the industry of those states is employed in transporting the power of no human intellect to establish the con- and exchanging; and among the slave holding states trary proposition—that it is better it should not exist. is to be found the great market for all the productions This is probably known but to one being, and con- of their industry, of whatever kind. The prosperity cealed from human sagacity.

of those states, therefore, and the civilization of their There have existed in various ages, and we now see cities, have been for the most part created by the existexisting in the world, people in every stage of civiliza-ence of slavery. Even in the cities, but for a class of tion, from the most barbarous to the most refined. population, which our institutions have marked as ser Man, as I have said, is not born to civilization. He is vile, it would be scarcely possible to preserve the ordiborn rude and ignorant. But it will be, I suppose, nary habitudes of civilized life, by commanding the admitted that it is the design of his Creator that he necessary menial and domestic service. should attain to civilization: That religion should be Every stage of human society, from the most barbaknown, that the comforts and elegancies of life should rous to the most refined, has its own peculiar evils to be enjoyed, that letters and arts should be cultivated, mark it as the condition of mortality; and perhaps in short, that there should be the greatest possible de there is none but Omnipotence who can say in which velopment of moral and intellectual excellence. It the scale of good or evil most preponderates

. We can hardly be necessary to say any thing of those who need say nothing of the evils of savage life. There is have extolled the superior virtues and enjoyments of a state of society elevated somewhat above it, which is savage life-a life of physical wants and sufferings, of to be found in some of the more thinly peopled portions continual insecurity, of furious passions and depraved of our own country—the rudest agricultural stale-, vices. Those who have praised savage life, are those which is thus characterized by the author to whom I who have known nothing of it, or who have become have referred. “The American of the back woods savages themselves. But as I have said, so far as reason has often been described to the English as grossly ignoor universal experience instruct us, the insticution of rant, dirty, unsocial, delighting in rum and tobacco, slavery is an essential process in emerging from savage attached to nothing but his rifle, adventurous, restless, life. It must then produce good, and promote the designs of the Creator.

* The author of England and America." We do, however,

most indignantly repudiate his conclusion, that we are bowali I add further, that slavery anticipates the benefits of submit to a tariff of protection, as an expedient for repair in civilization, and retards the evils of civilization. The preserve slavery, to keep down the slaves."

our slaves "the force of the whole union, being required to fran, dirty, unsocial, entre


former part of this ppuana ished by a writer di permet I fear his practical obat

value-that it is hardly more
perty-the accumol-xa i mat
called, is the first element iza

mulate, or to use crial 543
the combination of labor i samm:
of society, when people ea fac
extensive territory, the rest
works, cannot be commended to:
of each other. Having
of land, no one wli suke
vice of his neighbor

. So one, ipsa
more capital than be cuxor
those of his family, we have og
the necessaries of life

. There are so leisure for intellectual pusara the comforts of eleguces ift.

cessary to say hometer

, the is mand of slaves, be may cont tal to any required ei test, and we

wealth. He shows that a cas. | cessfully planted without some find the fact to be. It is : states of our confedersey, BLE.? by agriculture, which is the rest Our whole country. Ang a no one, however bunke na terit serering industry, inehmen? tuous habits, mar Dkt HUDBA So far as wealth has been which do not possess data, 192 pursuits of commerce, er ateif,

more than half savage. Deprived of social enjoyments swelling the amount of their capital, and increasing or excitements, he has recourse to those of savage life, inequality. The process still goes on. The number and becomes (for in this respect the Americans degene- of laborers increases until there is a dificulty in obrate) unfit for society.” This is no very inviting pic- taining employment. Then competition is established. ture, which though exaggerated, we know not to be The remuneration of the laborer becomes gradually without likeness. The evils of such a state, I suppose, less and less; a larger and larger proportion of the will hardly be thought compensated by unbounded product of his labor goes to swell the fortune of the freedom, perfect equality, and ample means of subsis- capitalist; inequality becomes still greater and more

invidious, until the process ends in the establishment But let us take another stage in the progress—which of such a state of things, as the same author describes to many will appear to offer all that is desirable in ex- as now existing in England. After a most imposing istence, and realize another Utopia. Let us suppose a picture of her greatness and resources; of her superastate of society in which all shall have property, and bounding capital, and all-pervading industry and enterthere shall be no great inequality of property-in prize; of her public institutions for purposes of art, which society shall be so much condensed as to afford learning and benevolence; her public improvements, the means of social intercourse, without being crowded, by which intercourse is facilitated, and the convenience so as to create difficulty in obtaining the means of sub- of man subserved ; the conveniences and luxuries of sistence-in which every family that chooses may have life enjoyed by those who are in possession of fortune, as much land as will employ its own hands, while or have profitable employments; of all, in short, that others may employ their industry in forming such pro- places her at the head of modern civilization, he products as it may be desirable to exchange with them. ceeds to give the reverse of the picture. And here I Schools are generally established, and the rudiments of shall use his own words. “The laboring class comeducation universally diffused. Religion is taught, and pose the bulk of the people; the great body of the every village has its church, neat though humble, listing people; the vast majority of the people—these are the ils spire to Hea ven. Here is a situation apparently terms by which English writers and speakers usually the most favorable to happiness. I say apparently, describe those whose only property is their labor.” for the greatest source of human misery is not in ex- “Of comprehensive words, the two most frequently ternal circumstances, but in men themselves—in their used in English politics, are distress and pauperism. depraved inclina tions, their wayward passions and per. After these, of expressions applied to the state of the verse wills. Here is room for all the petty competi poor, the most common are vice and misery, wretchedtion, the envy, hatred, malice and dissimulation, that ness, sufferings, ignorance, degradation, discontent, detorture the heart in what may be supposed the most pravity, drunkenness, and the increase of crime; with sophisticated states of society; and though less marked many more of the like nature." and offensive, there may be much of the licentiousness. He goes on to give the details of this inequality and

But apart from this, in such a condition of society, wretchedness, in terms calculated to sicken and appal if there is little suffering, there is little high enjoyment. one to whom the picture is new. That he has painted The even flow of life forbids the high excitement which strongly we may suppose ; but there is ample corrobois necessary for it. If there is little vice, there is little rating testimony, if such were needed, that the repreplace for the eminent virtues, which employ themselves sentation is substantially just. Where so much misery in controlling the disorders and remedying the evils of exists, there must of course be much discontent, and society, which like war and revolution, call forth the many have been disposed to trace the sources of the highest powers of man, whether for good or for evil. former in vicious legislation, or the structure of governIf there is little misery, there is little room for benevo- ment; and the author gives the various schemes, somelence. Useful public institutions we may suppose to times contradictory, sometimes ludicrous, which probe created, but not such as are merely ornamental. jectors have devised as a remedy for all this evil to Elegant arts can be little cultivated, for there are no which flesh is heir. That ill judged legislation may means to reward the artists nor the higher literature, have sometimes aggravated the general suffering, or that for no one will have leisure or means to cultivate it for its extremity may be mitigated by the well directed its own sake. Those who acquire what may be called efforts of the wise and virtuous, there can be no doubt. liberal education, will do so in order to employ it as One purpose for which it has been permitted to exist is, the means of their own subsistence or advancement in that it may call forth such efforts, and awaken powers a profession, and literature itself will partake of the and virtues which would otherwise have slumbered for sordidness of trade. In short, it is plain that in such a want of object. But remedy there is none, unless it state of society, the moral and intellectual faculties be to abandon their civilization. This inequality, this cannot be cultivated to their highest perfection. vice, this misery, this slavery, is the price of England's

But whether that which I have described be the civilization. They suffer the lot of humanity. But most desirable state of society or no, it is certain that perhaps we may be permitted humbly to hope, that it cannot continue. Mutation and progress is the con- great, intense and widely spread as this misery undition of human affairs. Though retarded for a time doubtedly is in reality, it may yet be less so than in by extraneous or accidental circumstances, the wheel appearance. We can estimate but very, very impermust roll on. The tendency of population is to be fectly the good and evil of individual condition, as of come crowded, increasing the difficulty of obtaining different states of society. Some unexpected solace subsistence. There will be some without any property arises to alleviate the severest calamity. Wonderful is except the capacity for labor. This they must sell to the power of custom, in making the hardest condition those who have the means of employing them, thereby tolerable; the most generally wretched life, has circum

7: the products of share abir iris E thirds of the materials of om

the industry of those states i es and exchanging ; and ances 25

is to be found the great marke 1. of their industry, of where is of those states, therefore, and es cities, have been for the name

ence of slavery. Eren in the | population, which ar izcize 2 vile, it would be scarcely posse?

nary habitudes of crised necessary menial and droeste de

Every stage of human acet rous to the most refred, 295 0.25 mark it as the condition of ac there is none but Onunglega mi the scale of good or er] ZK I need say nothing of the eri Is a state of society elemaal geen to be found in some of the end of our own country-the rules which is thus characterized by to have referred. *The American bas often been described as man

attached to nothing bures 25

* The author of "Insoliert

Dost in ugoarur er
submit to a tant


our slaves "ibe in the

e presente sia rery, tager

stances of mitigation, and moments of vivid enjoyment, wants and sufferings of infancy, sickness, and old age. of which the more seemingly happy can scarcely con- Laborers too will be less skilful, and perform less ceive; though the lives of individuals be shortened, the work—enhancing the price of that sort of labor. The aggregate of existence is increased; even the various poor laws of England are an attempt—but an awkward forms of death accelerated by want, familiarized to the and empirical attempt-10 supply the place of that contemplation, like death to the soldier on the field of which we should suppose the feelings of every human battle, may become scarcely more formidable, than heart would declare to be a natural obligation that he what we are accustomed to regard as nature's ordinary who has received the benefit of the laborer's services outlets of existence. If we could perfectly analyze during his health and vigor, should maintain him when the enjoyments and sufferings of the most happy, and he becomes unable to provide for his own support. the most miserable man, we should perhaps be startled They answer their purpose, however, very imperfectly, to find the difference so much less than our previous im- and are unjustly, and unequally imposed. There is no pressions had led us to conceive. But it is not for us attempt to apportion the burden according to the beneto assume the province of omniscience. The particu- fit received—and perhaps there could be done. This is lar theory of the author quoted, seems to be founded on one of the evils of their condition. an assumption of this sort that there is a certain stage In periods of commercial revulsion and distress, like in the progress, when there is a certain balance between the present, the distress, in countries of free labor, falls the demand for labor, and the supply of it, which is principally on the laborers. In those of slave labor, it more desirable than any other—when the territory is so falls almost exclusively on the employer. In the for. thickly peopled that all cannot own land and cultivate mer, when a business becomes unprofitable, the employ. the soil for themselves, but a portion will be compelled er dismisses his laborers or lowers their wages. But with to sell their labor to others; still leaving, however, the us, it is the very period at which we are least able to wages of labor high, and the laborer independent. It is dismiss our laborers; and if we would not suffer a fur. plain, however, that this would in like manner partake ther loss, we cannot reduce their wages. To receive of the good and the evil of other states of society. the benefit of the services of which they are capable, we There would be less of equality and less rudeness, than must provide for maintaining their health and vigor. in the early stages; less civilization and less suffering, In point of fact, we know that this is accounted among than in the latter.

the necessary expenses of management. If the income It is the competition for employment, which is the of every planter of the southern states were permanentsource of this misery of society, that gives rise to all ex. ly reduced one half, or even much more than that, it cellence in art and knowledge. When the demand for would not take one jot from the support and comforts labor exceeds the supply, the services of the most ordi- of the slaves. And this can never be materially altered, narily qualified laborer will be eagerly retained. . When until they shall become so unprofitable that slatethe supply begins to exceed, and competition is estab- ry must be of necessity abandoned. It is probable lished, higher and higher qualifications will be required, that the accumulation of individual wealth will never until at length, when it becomes very intense, none but be carried to quite so great an extent in a slave bolding the most consummately skilful can be sure to be em country, as in one of free labor ; but a consequence will ployed. Nothing but necessity can drive men to the be, that there will be less inequality and less suffering. exertions which are necessary so to qualify themselves. Servitude is the condition of civilization. It was de. But it is not in arts, merely mechanical alone, that this creed, when the command was given, “be fruitful, and superior excellence will be required. It will be extend- multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it" and ed to every intellectual employment; and though this when it was added, “in the sweat of thy face shalt thou may not be the effect in the instance of every individual, eat bread.” And what human being shall arrogate to yet it will fix the habits and character of the society, himself the authority to pronounce that our form of it is and prescribe every where, and in every department, worse in itself, or more displeasing to God than that the highest possible standard of altainment.

which exists elsewhere? Shall it be said that the serBut how is it that the existence of slavery as with us, vitude of other countries grows out of the exigeney of will retard the evils of civilization? Very obviously. their circumstances, and therefore society is not responIt is the intense competition of civilized life, that gives sible for it? But if we know that in the progress rise to the excessive cheapness of labor, and the exces. things it is to come, would it not seem the part of was. sive cheapness of labor, is the cause of the evils in dom and foresight, to make provision for it, and thereby, question. Slave labor can never be so cheap as what is if we can, mitigate the severity of its evils ? But the called free labor. Political economists have established fact is not so. Let any one who doubts, read the book as the natural standard of wages in a fully peopled to which I have several times referred, and he may be country, the value of the laborer's subsistence. I satisfied that it was forced upon us by the extremest exi. shall not stop lo inquire into the precise truth of this gency of circumstances, in a struggle for very existence

. proposition. It certainly approximates the truth. Without it, it is doubtful whether a white man would Where competition is intense, men will labor for a be now existing on this continent-certain, that if there bare subsistence, and less than a competent subsistence. were, they would be in a state of the utmost destitucioa

, The employer of free laborers obtains their services weakness and misery. It was forced on us by Decesduring the time of their health and vigor, without the sity, and further fastened upon us, by the superior aucharge of rearing them from infancy, or supporting thority of the mother country. I, for one, neither them in sickness or old age. This charge is imposed on deprecate nor resent the gift

. Nor did we institute the employer of slave labor, who, therefore, pays higher slavery. The Africans brought to us had been, speak wages, and cuts off the principal source of misery-theling in the general, slaves in their own country, and


only underwent a change of masters. In the countries freeman. The change was made in subserviency to of Europe, and the states of our confederacy, in which the opinions and clamor of others, who were utterly inslavery has ceased to exist, it was abolished by positive competent to form an opinion on the subject; and a legislation. If the order of nature has been departed wise act is seldom the result of legislation in this spirit. from, and a forced and artificial state of things intro- From the fact which I have stated, it is plain that they duced, it has been, as the experience of all the world less need protection. Juries are, therefore, less willing declares, by them and not by us.

to convict, and it may sometimes happen that the guilty That there are great evils in a society where slavery will escape all punishment. Security is one of the comexists, and that the institution is liable to great abuse, pensations of their humble position. We challenge the I have already said. To say otherwise, would be to comparison, that with us there have been fewer murders say that they were not human. But the whole of of slaves, than of parents, children, apprentices, and human life is a system of evils and compensations. Other murders, cruel and unnatural, in societies where We have no reason to believe that the compensations slavery does not exist. with us are fewer, or smaller in proportion to the evils, But short of life or limb, various cruelties may be than those of any other condition of society. Tell me practised as the passions of the master may dictate. of an evil or abuse ; of an instance of cruelly, oppres. To this the same reply has been often given—that they sion, licentiousness, crime or suffering, and I will point are secured by the master's interest. If the state of out, and often in five-fold degree, an equivalent evil or slavery is to exist at all, the master must have, and abuse in countries where slavery does not exist. ought to have, such power of punishment as will com

Let us examine without blenching, the actual and al- pel them to perform the duties of their station. And is leged evils of slavery, and the array of horrors which not this for their advantage as well as his ? No human many suppose to be its universal concomitants. It is being can be contented, who does not perform the dusaid that the slave is out of the protection of the law; ties of his station. Has the master any temptation to that if the law purports to protect him in life and limb, go beyond this ? If he inflicts on him such punishment it is but imperfectly executed; that he is still subject to as will permanently impair his strength, he inflicts a excessive labor, degrading blows, or any other sort of loss on himself, and so if he requires of him excessive torture, which a master pampered and brutalized by labor. Compare the labor required of the slave, with the exercise of arbitrary power, may think proper to those of the free agricultural, or manufacturing laborer inflict; he is cut off from the opportunity of intellectual, in Europe, or even in the more thickly peopled portions moral, or religious improvement, and even positive of the non-slave holding states of our confederacyenactments are directed against his acquiring the rudi- though these last are no fair subjects of comparisonments of knowledge; he is cut off forever from the they enjoying, as I have said, in a great degree, the adhope of raising his condition in society, whatever may vantages of slavery along with those of an early and be his merit, ta lents, or virtues, and therefore deprived simple state of society. Read the English parliamenof the strongest incentive to useful and praiseworthy ex. lary reports, on the condition of the manufacturing opeertion; his phy sical degradation begets a corresponding ratives, and the children employed in factories. And moral degradation; he is without moral principle, and such is the impotence of man to remedy the evils which addicted to the lowest vices, particularly theft and the condition of his existence has imposed on him, that

if marriage be not disallowed, it is little bet- it is much to be doubted whether the attempts by legis. ter than a state of concubinage, from which results gene. lation to improve their situation, will not aggravate its ral licentiousness, and the want of chastity among evils. They resort to this excessive labor as a choice females-this indeed is not protected by law, but is of evils. If so, the amount of their compensation will subject to the outrages of brutal lust; both sexes are be lessened also with the diminished labor ; for this is a liable to have their dearest affections violated; to be matter which legislation cannot regulate. Is it the sold like brutes; husbands to be torn from wives, chil part of benevolence then to cut them off even from this dren from parents ;—this is the picture commonly pre- miserable liberty of choice? Yet would these evils exsented by the denouncers of slavery.

ist in the same degree, if the laborers were the property It is a somewhat singular fact, that when there exist- of the master-having a direct interest in preserving ed in our state no law for punishing the murder of a their lives, their health and strength? Who but a drislave, other than a pecuniary fine, there were, I will velling fanatic, has thought of the necessiiy of protectventure to say, at least ten murders of freemen, for one ing domestic animals from the cruelty of their owners ? murder of a slave. Yet it is supposed they are less And yet are not great and wanton cruelties practised on protected, or less secure than their masters. Why, they these animals ? Compare the whole of the cruelties inare protected by their very situation in society, and ficted on slaves throughout our southern country, with therefore less need the protection of law. With any those elsewhere, inflicted by ignorant and depraved porother person than their master, it is hardly possible fortions of the community, on those whom the relations of them to come into such sort of collision as usually gives society put into their power-of brutal husbands on their rise to furious and revengeful passions; they offer no wives; of brutal parents—subdued against the strongest temptation to the murderer for gain ; against the mas- instincts of nature to that brutality by the extremity of ter himself, they have the security of his own interest, their misery--on their children ; of brutal masters on and by his superintendence and authority, they are apprentices. And if it should be asked, are not similar protected from the revengeful passions of each other. I cruelties infticted, and miseries endured in your society ? am by no means sure that the cause of humanity has I answer in no comparable degree. The class in quesbeen served by the change in jurisprudence, which has tion are placed under the control of others, who are inplaced their murder on the same footing with that of al terested to restrain their excesses of cruelty or rage.

VOL. IV.-78


Wives are protected from their husbands, and children taken to give any sanction to slavery as it exists in from their parents. And this is no inconsiderable com- America. Yet human nature is the same in all coun. pensation of the evils of our system ; and would so ap-tries. There are very obvious reasons why in those pear, if we could form any conception of the immense countries there should be a nearer approach to equality amount of misery which is elsewhere thus inflicted. in their manners. The master and slave are often of The other class of society, more elevated in their po- cognate races, and therefore tend more to assimilate. sition, are also (speaking of course in the general) more | There is in fact less inequality in mind and character, elevated in character, and more responsible to public where the master is but imperfectly civilized. Less opinion.

labor is exacted, because the master has fewer molives But besides the interest of their master, there is to accumulate. But is it an injury to a human being, another security against cruelty. The relation of mas- that regular, if not excessive labor should be required ter and slave, when there is no mischievous interference of him? The primeval curse, with the usual benignity between them, is, as the experience of all the world de- of providential contrivance, has been turned into the soclares, naturally one of kindness. As to the fact, we lace of an existence that would be much more intolerable should be held interested witnesses, but we appeal to without it. If they labor less, they are much more subuniversal nature. Is it not natural that a man should lject to the outrages of capricious passion. If it were be attatched to that which is his own, and which has put to the choice of any human being, would he prefer contributed to his convenience, his enjoyment, or his to be the slave of a civilized man, or of a barbarian or vanity? This is felt even towards animals, and inani- semi-barbarian ? But if the general tendency of the inmate objects. How much more towards a being of su- stitution in those countries is to create kindly relations, perior intelligence and usefulness, who can appreciate can it be imagined why it should operate differently in our feelings towards him, and return them? Is it not this? It is true, as suggested by President Dew-with natural that we should be interested in that which is the exception of the ties of close consanguinity, it forms dependant on us for protection and support? Do not one of the most intimale relations of society. And it men every where contract kind feelings towards their will be more and more so, the longer it continues to es. dependants ? Is it not natural that men should be more ist. The harshest features of slavery were created by attached to those whom they have long known—whom, those who were strangers to slavery—who supposed perhaps, they have reared or been associated with from that it consisted in keeping savages in subjection by infancy-than to one with whom their connexion has violence and terror. The severest laws to be found on been casual and temporary? What is there in our at- our statute book, were enacted by such, and such are mosphere or institutions, lo produce a perversion of the still found to be the severest masters. As society begeneral feelings of nature ? To be sure, in this as in all comes settled, and the wandering habits of our countryother relations, there is frequent cause of offence or ex. men altered, there will be a larger and larger proportion citement on one side, for some omission of duty, on of those who were reared by the owner, or derived to the other, on account of reproof or punishment inflicted. him from his ancestors, and who therefore will be more But this is common to the relation of parent and child; and more intimately regarded, as forming a portion of and I will venture to say that if punishment be justly his family. inflicted-and there is no temptation to inflict ic un- It is true that the slave is driven 10 labor by stripes ; justly—it is as little likely to occasion permanent es. and if the object of punishment be to produce obedience trangement or resentment as in that case. Slaves are or reformation, with the least permanent injury, it is perpetual children. It is not the common nature of the best method of punishment. But is it not intoleraman, unless it be depraved by his own misery, to de. ble, that a being formed in the image of his Maker, light in witnessing pain. It is more grateful to behold should be degraded by blows? This is one of the percontented and cheerful beings, than sullen and wretched versions of mind and feeling, to which I shall have

That men are sometimes wayward, depraved occasion again to refer. Such punishment would be and brutal, we know. That atrocious and brutal cru- degrading to a freeman, who had the thoughts and 38elties have been perpetrated on slaves, and on those who pirations of a freeman. In general it is not degrading were not slaves, by such wretches, we also know. But to a slave, nor is it felt to be so. The evil is the bodily that the institution of slavery has a natural tendency to pain. Is it degrading to a child ? Or if in any particuform such a character, that such crimes are more com- lar instance it would be so felt, it is sure not to be i3mon, or more aggravated than in other states of society, Alicted—unless in those rare cases which constitute the or produce among us less surprise and horror, we ut- startling and eccentric evils, from which no society

is terly deny, and challenge the comparison. Indeed I exempt, and against which no institutions of society have little hesitation in saying, that if full evidence can provide. could be obtained, the comparison would result in our The slave is cut off from the means of intellectual, moral

, favor, and that the tendency of slavery is rather to hu- and religious improvement, and in consequence his moral manize than to brutalize.

character becomes depraved, and he addicted to degreding The accounts of travellers in oriental countries, give vices. The slave receives such instruction as qualifies a very favorable representation of the kindly relations him to discharge the duties of his particular station. which exist between the master and slave; the latter The Creator did not intend that every individual buman being often the friend, and sometimes the heir of the for- being should be highly cultivated, morally and intellemer. Generally, however, especially if they be Eng. tually, for as we have seen, he has imposed conditions lish travellers--if they say any thing which may seem on society which would render this impossible. There to give a favorable complexion to slavery, they think it must be general mediocrity, or the highest cultivation necessary to enter their protest, that they shall not be must exist along with ignorance, vice, and degradation.


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