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beings, "a masterless slave.” And is not the condi-, it is knowing, acute, sharpened; it never prattles." tion of the laboring poor of other countries too often Imagine such a description applied to the children of that of masterless slaves ? Take the following descrip- negro slaves, the most vacant of human beings, whose tion of a free laborer, no doubt highly colored, quoted life is a holiday. by the author to whom I have before referred.

And this people, to whom these horrors are familiar, “What is that defective being, with calfless legs and are those who fill the world with clanor, concerning stooping shoulders, weak in body and mind, inert, pu. the injustice and cruelty of slavery. I speak in do insillanimous and stupid, whose premature wrinkles and vidious spirit. Neither the laws nor the government furtive glance, tell of misery and degradation ? That is of England are to be reproached with the evils which an English peasant or pauper, for the words are syno- are inseparable from the state of their society—as little, nimous. His sire was a pauper, and his mother's milk undoubtedly, are we to be reproached with the existwanted nourishment. From infancy his food has been ence of our slavery. Including the whole of the United bad, as well as insufficient; and he now feels the pains States—and for reasons already given, the whole ought of unsatisfied hunger nearly whenever he is awake. to be included, as receiving in no unequal degree the But half clothed, and never supplied with more warmth benefit-may we not say justly that we have less than suffices to cook his scanty meals, cold and wet slavery, and more mitigated slavery, than any other come to him, and stay by him with the weather. He country in the civilized world? is married, of course; for to this be would have been That they are called free, undoubtedly aggravates driven by the poor laws, even if he had been, as he ne- the sufferings of the slaves of other regions. They see ver was, sufficiently comfortable and prudent to dread the enormous inequality which exists, and feel their the burden of a family. But though instinct, and the own misery, and can hardly conceive otherwise, tban overseer have given him a wife, he has not tasted the that there is some injustice in the institutions of sociehighest joys of husband and father. His partner and ty to occasion these. They regard the apparently more his little ones being like himself, often hungry, seldom fortunate class as oppressors, and it adds bitterness, that warm, sometimes sick without aid, and always sorrow they should be of the same name and race. They feel ful without hope, are greedy, selfish, and vexing ; so, indignity more acutely, and more of discontent and to use his own expression, he hates the sight of them, evil passion is excited; they feel that it is mockery and resorts to his hovel, only because a hedge affords that calls them free. Men do not so much hate and less shelter from the wind and rain. Compelled by pa- envy those who are separated from them by a wide rish law to support his family, which means to join distance, and some apparently impassable barrier, as them in consuming an allowance from the parish, he those who approach nearer to their own condition, and frequently conspires with his wife to get that allowance with whom they habitually bring themselves into comincreased, or prevent its being diminished. This brings parison. The slave with us is not tantalized with the beggary, trickery, and quarrelling, and ends in settled name of freedom, to which his whole condition gives craft. Though he have the inclination, he wants the the lie, and would do so if he were emancipated tocourage to become, like more energetic men of his morrow. The African slave sees that natore herself class, a poacher or smuggler on a large scale, but he has marked him as a separate—and if left to himself, I pilfers occasionally, and teaches his children to lie and have no doubt he would feel it to be an inferior-race, steal. His subdued and slavish manner towards his and interposed a barrier almost insuperable to his begreat neighbors, shews that they treat him with suspi- coming a member of the same society, standing on the cion and harshness. Consequently he at once dreads same footing of right and privilege with his master. and hates them; but he will never harm them by vio.

That the African negro is an inferior variety of the lent means. Too degraded to be desperate, he is only human race, is, I think, now generally admitted, and thoroughly depraved. His miserable career will be his distinguishing characteristics are such as pecushort ; rheumatism and asthma are conducting him to liarly mark him out for the situation which he occupies the work-house, where he will breathe his last without among us. And these are no less marked in their orione pleasant recollection, and so make room for another ginal country, than as we have daily occasion to observe wretch, who may live and die in the same way." And them. The most remarkable is their indifference to this description, or some other, not much less revolt- personal liberty. In this they have followed their ining, is applied to "the bulk of the people, the great stincts since we have any knowledge of their continent, body of the people.” Take the following description by enslaving each other; but contrary to the experiof the condition of childhood, which has justly been ence of every other race, the possession of slaves has called eloquent.*

had no inaterial effect in raising the character, and pro“The children of the very poor have no young times; moting the civilization of the master. Another trait is it makes the very heart bleed, to overhear the casual the want of domestic affections, and insensibility to street talk between a poor woman and her little girl, a the ties of kindred. In the travels of the Landers, after woman

of the better sort of poor, in a condition rather speaking of a single exception, in the person of a woabove the squalid beings we have been contemplating. man who betrayed some transient emotion in passing It is not of toys, of nursery books, of summer holidays, by the coantry from which she had been torn as a slare, (fitting that age,) of the promised sight or play; of the authors add : "that Africans, generally speaking, praised sufficiency at school

. It is of mangling and betray the most perfect indifference on losing their clear starching; of the price of coals, or of potatoes. liberty, and being deprived of their relatives, while The questions of the child, that should be the very out- love of country is equally a stranger to their brcasts, as pourings of curiosity in idleness, are marked with fore- social tenderness or domestic affection." " Marriage cast and melancholy providence. It has come woman, before it was a child. It has learnt to go to ble; a man thinks as little of taking a wife, as of cutting

to be a is celebrated by the nations as unconcernedly as possimarket; it chaffers, it haggles, it envies, it murmurs; an car of corn-affection is altogether out of the ques: Essays of Elia.

tion.” They are, however, very submissive to autho

rity, and seem to entertain great reverence for chiefs, / senses. If the inferiority exists, it is attributed to the priests, and masters. No greater indignity can be of- apathy and degradation produced by slavery. Though fered an individual, than to throw opprobrium on his of the hundreds of thousands scattered over other counparents. On this point of their character, I think I tries, where the laws impose no liability upon them, have remarked, that, contrary to the instinct of nature none has given evidence of an approach to even mediin other races, they entertain less regard for children ocrity of intellectual excellence; this too is attributed than for parents, to whose authority they have been ac

to the slavery of a portion of their race. They are customed to submit. Their character is thus summed regarded as a servile caste, and degraded by opinion, up by the travellers quoted: “The few opportunities and thus every generous effort is repressed. Yet though we have had of studying their characters, induce us to this should be the general effect, this very estimation is believe that they are a simple, honest, inoffensive, but calculated to produce the contrary effect in particular weak, timid, and cowardly race. They seem to have no social tenderness, very few of those amiable private deformed persons and eunuchs, that though in general

instances. It is observed by Bacon, with respect to virtues which could win our affections, and none of there is something of perversity in their character

, the those public qualities that claim respect or command admiration. The love of country is not strong enough

disadvantage often leads to extraordinary displays of in their bosoms to incite them to defend it against a

virtue and excellence. “Whosoever hath any thing despicable foe; and of the active energy, noble senti- fixed in his person that doth induce contempt, háth also ments, and contempt of danger which distinguishes the a perpetual spur in himself, to rescue and deliver himNorth American tribes and other savages, no traces are self from scorn.” So it would be with them, if they to be found among this slothful people. Regardless of were capable of European aspirations-genius, if they the past, as reckless of the future, the present alone in possessed it, would be doubly fired with noble rage to fluences their actions. In this respect, they approach rescue itself from this scorn. Of course, I do not mean nearer to the nature of the brute creation, than per- to say that there may not be found among them some haps any other people on the face of the globe." Let of superior capacity to many white persons; but that me ask if this people do not furnish the very material great intellectual powers are, perhaps, never found out of which slaves ought to be made, and whether among them, and that in general their capacity is very it be not an improving of their condition to make them limited, and their feelings animal and coarse—fitting the slaves of civilized masters? There is a variety in them peculiarly to discharge the lower, and merely the character of the tribes. Some are brutally and sa-mechanical offices of society. vagely ferocious and bloody, whom it would be mercy And why should it not be so? We have among doto enslave. From the travellers' account, it seems not mestic animals, infinite varieties, distinguished by variunlikely that the negro race is tending to extermina- ous degrees of sagacity, courage, strength, swiftness, tion, being daily encroached on, and overrun by the and other qualities. And it may be observed, that this superior Arab race. It may be, that when they shall is no objection to their being derived from a common have been lost from their native seats, they may be

origin, which we suppose them to have had. Yet these found numerous, and in no unhappy condition, on the

accidental qualities, as they may be termed, however continent to which they have been transplanted.

acquired in the first instance, we know that they transThe opinion which connects form and features with mit unimpaired to their posterity for an indefinite succharacter and intellectual power, is one so deeply im- cession of generations. It is most important that these pressed on the human mind, that perhaps there is varieties should be preserved, and that each should be scarcely any man who does not almost daily act upon applied to the purposes for which it is best adapted. it, and in some measure verify its truth. Yet in spite No philo-zoost, I believe, has suggested it as desirable of this intimation of nature, and though the anatomist that these varieties should be melted down into one and physiologist may tell them that the races differ in equal, undistinguished race of curs or road horses. every bone and muscle, and in the proportion of brain

Slavery, as it is said in an eloquent article published and nerves, yet there are some, who with a most bigoto in a southern periodical work,* to which I am indebted ted and fanatical determination to free themselves from for other ideas," has done more to elevate a degraded what they have prejudged to be prejudice, will still race in the scale of humanity ; to tame the savage; to maintain that this physiognomy, evidently tending to civilize the barbarous; to soften the ferocious; to enthat of the brute when compared to that of the Cauca lighten the ignorant, and to spread the blessings of sian race, may be enlightened by as much thought, and christianity among the heathen, than all the missionaanimated by as lofty sentiment. We who have the ries that philanthropy and religion have ever sent forth.” best opportunity of judging, are pronounced to be in- Yet unquestionable as this is, and though human ingecompetent to do so, and to be blinded by our interest nuity and thought may be tasked in vain to devise any and prejudices-often by those who have had no means other means by which these blessings could have been of judging and we are to be taught to distrust or dis- conferred, yet a sort of sensibility which would be only believe that which we daily observe, and familiarly mawkish and contemptible, if it were not mischievous, know, on such authority. Our prejudices are spoken affects still to weep over the wrongs of “injured Afri. of. But the truth is, that, until very lately, since cir- ca.” Can there be a doubt of the immense benefit cumstances have compelled us to think for ourselves, which has been conferred on the race, by transplanting we look our opinions on this subject, as on every other, them from their native, dark, and barbarous regions, to ready formed from the country of our origin. And so the American continent and islands? There, threedeeply rooted were they, that we adhered to them, as fourths of the race are in a state of the most deplorable most men will do to deeply rooted opinions, even against

* Southern Literary Messenger, for January, 1835. Note to the evidence of our own observation, and our own | Blackstone's Commentaries.

VOL. IV.-79

personal slavery. And those who are not, are in a wealth-so laudable when kept within proper limits, sa scarcely less deplorable condition of political slavery, to base and mischievous when it exceeds them so infecbarbarous chiefs—who value neither life nor any other tious in its example-an infection to which I fear we human right-or enthralled by priests to the most abject have been too much exposed-should be pursued by no and atrocious superstitions. Take the following testi- arts in any degree equivocal, or at any risk of injustice mony of one of the few disinterested observers, who to others. So surely as there is a just and wise gover. has had an opportunity of observing them in both situ- nor of the universe, who punishes the sins of nations ations. * “The wild savage is the child of passion, un- and communities, as well as of individuals, so surely aided by one ray of religion or morality to direct his shall we suffer punishment, if we are indifferent to that course; in consequence of which his existence is stained moral and intellectual cultivation of which the means with every crime that can debase human nature to a are furnished to us, and to which we are called and level with the brute creation. Who can say that the incited by our situation. slaves in our colonies are such ? Are they not, by com- I would to Heaven I could express, as I feel, the conparison with their still savage brethren, enlightened viction how necessary this cultivation is, not only to beings? Is not the West Indian negro, therefore, our prosperity and consideration, but to our safety and greatly indebted to his master for making him what he very existence. We, the slave holding States, are in is-for having raised him from the state of debasement a hopeless minority in our own confederated republicin which he was born, and placed him in a scale of civi- to say nothing of the great confederacy of civilized lized society? How can he repay him? He is pos- States. It is admitted, I believe, not only by slave sessed of nothing-the only return in his power is his holders, but by others, that we have sent to our comservitude. The man who has seen the wild African, mon councils more than our due share of talent, high roaming in his native woods, and the well fed, happy character and eloquence. Yet in spite of all these most looking negro of the West Indies, may, perhaps, be able strenuously exerted, measures have been sometimes to judge of their comparative happiness: the former I adopted which we believed to be dangerous and injustrongly suspect would be glad to change his state of rious to us, and threatening to be fatal. What would boasted freedom, starvation and disease, to become the be our situation, if, instead of these, we were only reslave of sinners, and the commiseration of saints.” It presented by ignorant and grovelling men, incapable of was a useful and beneficent work, approaching the raising their views beyond a job or petty office, and heroic, to tame the wild horse, and subdue him to the incapable of commanding hearing or consideration ? use of man; how much more to tame the nobler animal May I be permitted to advert-by no means invidi. that is capable of reason, and subdue him to usefulness ? ously—to the late contest carried on by South Carolina

We believe that the tendency of slavery is to elevate against federal authority, and so happily terminated the character of the master. No doubt the character by the moderation which prevailed in our public coutespecially of youth-has sometimes received a taint cils? I have often reflected, what one circumstance, and premature knowledge of vice, from the contact and more than any other, contributed to the successful issue association with ignorant and servile beings of gross of a contest, apparently so hopeless, in which one weak manners and morals. Yet still we believe that the and divided State was arrayed against the whole force entire tendency is to inspire disgust and aversion to- of the confederacy—unsustained, and uncountenanced

, wards their peculiar vices. It was not without a know- even by those who had a common interest with her. It ledge of nature, that the Spartans exhibited the vices of seemed to me to be, that we had for leaders an unusual slaves by way of negative example to their children. number of men of great intellectual power, co-operating We flatter ourselves that the view of this degradation, cordially and in good faith, and commanding respect and mitigated as it is, has the effect of making probity more confidence at home and abroad, by elevated and honorstrict, the pride of character more high, the sense of able character. It was from these that we-the folhonor more strong, than is commonly found where this lowers at home-caught hope and confidence in the institution does not exist. Whatever may be the pre-gloomiest aspect of our affairs. These, by their elovailing faults or vices of the masters of slaves, they quence and the largeness of their views, at least shook have not commonly been understood to be those of dis- che faith of the dominant majority in the wisdom and honesty, cowardice, meanness or falsehood. And so justice of their measures-or the practicability of carry; most unquestionably it ought to be. Our institutions ing them into successful effect, and by their bearing and would indeed be intolerable in the sight of God and well known character, satisfied them that South Caroman, if, condemning one portion of society to hopeless lina would do all that she had pledged herself to do. ignorance and comparative degradation, they should Without these, how different might have been the result ? make no atonement by elevating the other class by And who shall say what at this day would have been higher virtues, and more liberal attainments—if

, besides the aspect of the now flourishing fields and cities of degraded slaves, there should be ignorant, ignoble, and South Carolina ? Or rather without these, it is probedegraded freemen. There is a broad and well marked ble the contest would never have been begun; but that line, beyond which no slavish vice should be regarded without even the animation of a struggle

, we should with the least toleration or allowance. One class is have sunk silently into a hopeless and degrading subcut off from all interest in the State-that abstraction jection. While I have memory-in the extremity of 60 potent to the feelings of a generous nature. The age—in sickness—under all the reverses and calamities other must make compensation by increased assiduity of life—I shall have one source of pride and consolation and devotion to its honor and welfare. The love of that of having been associated according to my bum

* Journal of an officer employed in the expedition, under the bler position—with the noble spirits who stood prepared command of Capt. Owen, on the western coast of Africa, 1822. to devote themselves for Liberty—the Constitution

the Union. May such character and such talent, never condition with respect to female virtue. Here, there is be wanting to South Carolina.

that certain and marked line, above which there is no I am sure that it is unnecessary to say to an assem- toleration or allowance for any approach to license of bly like this, that the conduct of the master to his slave manners or conduct, and she who falls below it, will should be distinguished by the utmost humanity. That fall far below even the slave. How many will incur we should indeed regard them as wards and dependants this penalty? on our kindness, for whose well being in every way we And permit me to say that this elevation of the female are deeply responsible. This is no less the dictate of character is no less important and essential to us, than wisdom and just policy, than of right feeling. It is the moral and intellectual cultivation of the other sex. wise with respect to the services to be expected from It would indeed be intolerable, if, when one class of sothem. I have never heard of an owner whose conduct ciety is necessarily degraded in this respect, no compenin their management was distinguished by undue seve- salion were made by the superior elevation and purity of rity, whose slaves were not in a great degree worthless the other. Not only essential purity of conduct, but the to him. A cheerful and kindly demeanor, with the ex- utmost purity of manners, and I will add, though it may pression of interest in themselves and their affairs, is, incur the formidable charge of affectation or prudery,– perhaps, calculated to have a better effect on them, than a greater severity of decorum than is required elsewhat might be esteemed more substantial favors and where, is necessary among us. Always should be indulgencies. Throughout nature, attachment is the strenuously resisted the attempts which have been reward of attachment. It is wise too in relation to the sometimes made to introduce among us the freedom of civilized world around us, to avoid giving occasion to foreign or European, and especially of continental manthe odium which is so industriously excited against ners. This freedom, the remotest in the world from ourselves and our institutions. For this reason, public that which sometimes springs from simplicity of manopinion should, if possible, bear even more strongly and ners, is calculated and commonly intended to confound indignantly than it does at present, on masters who the outward distinctions of virtue and vice. It is to practise any wanton cruelty on their slaves. The mis- prepare the way for licentiousness—to produce this creant who is guilty of this, not only violates the law effect-that if those who are clothed with the outward of God and of humanity, but as far as in him lies, by color and garb of vice, may be well received by society, bringing odium upon, endangers the institutions of his those who are actually guilty may hope to be so too. It country, and the safety of his countrymen. He casts may be said, that there is often perfect purity where a shade upon the character of every individual of his there is very great freedom of manners. And, I have fellow-citizens, and does every one of them a personal no doubt, this may be true in particular instances, but injury. So of him who indulges in any odious excess it is never true of any society in which this is the geneof intemperate or licentious passion. It is detached ral state of manners. What guards can there be to instances of this sort, of which the existence is, per- purity, when every thing that may possibly be done inhaps, hardly known among ourselves, that, collected nocently, is habitually practised; when there can be no with pertinacious and malevolent industry, afford the impropriety which is not vice? And what must be the most formidable weapons to the mischievous zealots, depth of the depravity when there is a departure from who array them as being characteristic of our general that which they admit as principle ? Besides, things manners and state of society.

which may perhaps be practised innocently where they I would by no means be understood to intimate, that are familiar, produce a moral dilaceration in the course a vigorous, as well as just government, should not be of their being introduced where they are new. Let us exercised over slaves. This is part of our duty towards say, we will not have the manners of South Carolina them, no less obligatory than any other duty, and no changed. less necessary towards their well being than to ours. I have before said that free labor is cheaper than the I believe that at least as much injury has been done labor of slaves, and so far as it is so, the condition of and suffering inflicted by weak and injudicious indul- the free laborer is worse. But I think President Dew gence, as by inordinate severity. He whose business is has sufficiently shown that this is only true of northern to labor, should be made to labor, and that with due countries. It is matter of familiar remark that the tendiligence, and should be vigorously restrained from ex. dency of warm climates is to relax the human constitucess or vice. This is no less necessary to his happiness tion and indispose to labor. The earth yields abunthan to his usefulness. The master who neglects this, dantly-in some regions almost spontaneously—under not only makes his slaves unprofitable to himself, but the influence of the sun, and the means of supporting discontented and wretched-a nuisance to his neighbors life are obtained with but slight exertion : and men and to society.

will use no greater exertion than is necessary to the I have said that the tendency of our institution is to purpose. This very luxuriance of vegetation, where no elevate the female character, as well as that of the other cause concurs, renders the air less salubrious, and other sex, and for similar reasons. In other states of even when positive malady does not exist, the health society, there is no well defined limit to separate virtue is habitually impaired. Indolence renders the constituand vice. There are degrees of vice from the most fa- tion more liable to these effects of the atmosphere, and grant and odious, to that which scarcely incurs the these again aggravate the indolence. Nothing but the censure of society. Many individuals occupy an une- coercion of slavery can overcome the repugnance to quivocal position; and as society becomes accustomed labor under these circumstances, and by subduing the to this, there will be a less peremplory requirement of soil, improve and render wholesome the climate. purity in female manners and conduct; and cften the It is worthy of remark that there does not now exist on whole of the society will be in a tainted and uncertain the face of the earth, a people in a tropical climate, or one approaching to it, where slavery does not exist, that soil; rolled the tide of conquest, not as in later times, is in a state of high civilization, or exhibits the energies from the south to the north; extended their laws and which mark the progress towards it. Mexico and the their civilization, and created them lords of the earth. South American republics,* starting on their new ca. reer of independence, and having gone through a farce

“What conflux issving forth or entering in; of abolishing slavery, are rapidly degenerating, even

Prætors, pro-consuls to their provinces,

Hasting, or on return in robes of state. from semi-barbarism. The only portion of the South Lictors and rods, the ensigns of their power, American continent which seems to be making any fa- Legions and cohorts, turms of horse and wings: vorable progress, in spite of a weak and arbitrary civil Or embassies from regions far remote,

In various habits, on the Appian road, government, is Brazil, in which slavery has been retain

Or on th’ Emilian; some from fartherest south, ed. Cuba, of the same race with the continental re

Syene, and where the shadow both way falls, publics, is daily and rapidly advancing in industry and Meroe, Nilotic isle, and more to West, civilization ; and this is owing exclusively to her slaves. The realms of Bacchus to the Blackmoor sea; St. Domingo is struck out of the map of civilized

From th' Asian kings, and Parthian among these ;

From India and the golden Chersonese, existence, and the British West Indies will shortly be

And utmost Indian isle, Taprobane, so. On the other continent, Spain and Portugal are

Dusk faces, with white silken turbans wreathed; degenerate, and their rapid progress is downward. From Gallia, Gades and the British West; Their southern coast is infested by disease, arising from Germans, and Scythians, and Sarmatians, North

Beyond Danubius to the Tauric Pool! causes which industry might readily overcome, but that

All nations now to Rome obedience pay." industry they will never exert. Greece is still barbarous and scantily peopled. The work of an English Such was and such is the picture of Italy. Greece physician, distinguished by strong sense and power of presents a contrast not less striking. What is the observation,t gives a most affecting picture of the con cause of the great change? Many causes, no doubt, dition of Italy—especially south of the Appennines. have occurred; but though With the decay of industry, the climate has degenerated towards the condition from which it was first

"War, famine, pestilence, and flood and fire

Have dealt upon the seven-billed city's pride," rescued by the labor of slaves. There is poison in every man's veins, affecting the very springs of life, I will venture to say that nothing has dealt upon it dulling or extinguishing, with the energies of the body, more heavily than the loss of domestic slavery. Is not all energy of mind, and often exhibiting itself in the this evident ? If they had slaves, with an energetic civil most appalling forms of disease. From year to year government, would the deadly miasma be permitted to the pestilential atmosphere creeps forward, narrowing overspread the Campagna and invade Rome herself ? the circles within which it is possible to sustain human Would not the soil be cultivated, and the wastes relife. With disease and misery, industry still more claimed ? A late traveller* mentions a canal, cut for rapidly decays, and if the process goes on, it seems miles through rock and mountain, for the purpose of that Italy too will soon be ready for another experi- carrying off the waters of the lake of Celano, on which ment in colonization.

thirty thousand Roman slaves were employed for eleven Yet once it was not so, when Italy was possessed by years, and which remains almost perfect to the present the masters of slaves; when Rome contained her mil- day. This, the government of Naples was ten years lions, and Italy was a garden ; when their iron energies in repairing with an hundred workmen. The imperof body corresponded with the energies of mind which ishable works of Rome which remain to the present made them conquerors in every climate and on every day, were for the most part executed by slaves. How * The author of England and America thus speaks of the Co. wretched lazzaroni were substituted negro slaves, em

different would be the condition of Naples, if for her lombian republic:

During some years, this colony has been an independent ployed in rendering productive the plains whose fertility state ; but the people dispersed over those vast and fertile plains, now serves only to infect the air ! have almost ceased to cultivate the good land at their disposal; To us, on whom this institution is fastened, and who they subsist principally, many of them entirely, on the flesh of could not shake it off

, even if we desired to do so, the wild cattle; they have lost most of the arts of civilized life ; not a few of them are in a state of deplorable misery; and if they great republics of antiquity offer instruction of inestishould continue, as it seems probable they will, to retrograde as mable value. They teach us that slavery is compatible at present, the beautiful pampas of Buenos Ayres will soon be with the freedom, stability and long duration of civil fit for another experiment in colonization. Slaves, black or government, with denseness of population, great power

, yellow, would have cultivated those plains, would have kept and the highest civilization. And in what respect together, would have been made to assist each other ; would, by keeping together and assisting each other, have raised a sur? does this modern Europe, which claims to give opinions plus produce exchangeable in distant markets ; would have to the world, so far excel them-notwithstanding the kept their masters together for the sake of markets ; would, by immense advantages of the christian religion and the combination of labor, have preserved among their masters the discovery of the art of printing? They are not more arts and habits of civilized life." Yet this writer, the whole free, nor have performed more glorious actions

, nor dispractical effect of whose work, whatever he may have thought or intended, is to show the absolute necessity, and immense be played more exalted virtue. In the higher departments nefits of slavery, finds it necessary to add, I suppose, in defer- of intellect-in all that relates to taste and imaginaence to the general sentiment of his countrymen," that slavery tion—they will hardly venture to claim equality

, might have done all this, seems not more plain, than that so Where they have gone beyond them in the results of much good would have been bought too dear, if its price had mechanical philosophy, or discoveries which contribute been slavery." Well may we say that the word makes men mad.

* Eight days in the Abruzzi.-Blackwood's Magazine, Neres: Johnson on Change of Air.

ber, 1835.

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