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continue ; but that one race must be driven out by the obliterate the every memory of it. These will be reother, or exterminated, or again enslaved. I have sisted. The blacks will be tempted to avenge themargued on the supposition that the emancipated negroes selves by oppression and proscription of the white race, would be as efficient as other free laborers. But what. for their long superiority. Thus matters will go on, ever theorists, who know nothing of the matter, may until universal anarchy, or kakistocracy, the governthink proper to assume, we well know that this would ment of the worst, is fully established. I am persuaded not be so. We know that nothing but the coercion of that if the spirit of evil should devise to send abroad slavery can overcome their propensity to indolence, and upon the earth all possible misery, discord, horror and that not one in ten would be an efficient laborer. Even atrocity, he could contrive no scheme so effectual as the if this disposition were not grounded in their nature, it emancipation of negro slaves within our country. would be a result of their position. I have somewhere The most feasible scheme of emancipation, and that seen it observed, that to be degraded by opinion, is a which I verily believe would involve the least danger thousand fold worse, so far as the feelings of the indi- and sacrifice, would be that the entire white population vidual are concerned, than to be degraded by the laws. should emigrate, and abandon the country to their They would be thus degraded, and this feeling is incom- slaves. Here would be triumph to philanthropy. This patible with habits of order and industry. Half our wide and fertile region would be again restored to anpopulation would at once be paupers. Let an inhabit- cient barbarism—to the worst of all barbarism—barba. ant of New York or Philadelphia conceive of the situa- rism corrupted and depraved by intercourse with civilition of their respective States, if one half of their zation. And this is the consummation to be wished, population consisted of free negroes. The tie which upon a speculation, that in some distant future age, they now connects them, being broken, the different races may become so enlightened and improved, as to be would be estranged from each other, and hostility would capable of sustaining a position among the civilized grow up between them. Having the command of their races of the earth. But I believe moralists allow men own time and actions, they could more effectually com- to defend their homes and their country, eren at the bine insurrection, and provide the means of rendering expense of the lives and liberties of others. it formidable. Released from the vigilant superinten. Will any philanthropist say that the evils, of which dence which now restrains them, they would infallibly I have spoken, would be brought about only by the be led from petty to greater crimes, until all life and obduracy, prejudices and overweaning self estimation property would be rendered insecure. Aggression of the whites in refusing to blend the races by marriage
, would beget retaliation, until open war-and that a and so create an homogeneous population. But what war of extermination-were established. From the if it be not prejudice, but truth, and nature, and right still remaining superiority of the white race, it is proba- reason, and just moral feeling? As I have before said, ble that they would be the victors, and if they did not throughout the whole of nature, like attracts like, and exterminate, they must again reduce the others to that which is unlike repels. What is it that makes so slavery—when they could be no longer fit to be either unspeakably loathsome, crimes not to be named, and slaves or freemen. It is not only in self defence, in hardly alluded to ? Even among the nations of Europe, defence of our country and of all that is dear to us, but so nearly homogeneous, there are some peculiarities of in defence of the slaves themselves, that we refuse to form and feature, mind and character, which may be emancipate them.
generally distinguished by those accustomed to observe If we suppose them to have political privileges, and to them. Though the exceptions are numerous, I wil be admitted to the elective franchise, still worse results venture to say that not in one instance in a hundred, is may be expected. It is hardly necessary to add any the man of sound and unsophisticated tastes and prothing to what has been said by Mr. Paulding on this pensities so likely to be attracted by the female of a subject, who has treated it fully. It is already known, foreign stock, as by one of his own, who is more nearly that if there be a class unfavorably distinguished by conformed to himself. Shakspeare spoke the language any peculiarity from the rest of society, this distinction of nature, when he made the Venetian senator attribute forms a tie which binds them to act in concert, and they to the effect of witchcraft, Desdemona's passion for exercise more than their due share of political power and Othello-though, as Coleridge has said, we are to con influence and still more, as they are of inferior charac-ceive of him not as a negro, but as a high bred, ter and looser moral principle. Such a class form the Moorish chief. very material for demagogues to work with. Other If the negro race, as I have contended, be inferior lo parties court them and concede to them. So it would our own in mind and character, marked by inferiority be with the free blacks in the case supposed. They of form and features, then ours would suffer deteriorawould be used by unprincipled politicians of irregular tion from such intermixture. What would be thought ambition, for the advancement of their schemes, until of the moral conduct of the parent who should voluntathey should give them political power and importance rily transmit disease, or fatuity, or deformity to his offbeyond even their own intentions. They would be spring? If man be the most perfect work of the Creacourted by excited parties in their contests with each tor, and the civilized European man the most perfect other. At some time, they may perhaps attain politi- variety of the human race, is he not criminal who would cal ascendancy, and this is more probable, as we may desecrate and deface God's fairest work; estranging suppose that there will have been a great emigration of it further from the image of himself, and conforming it whites from the country. Imagine the government of more nearly to that of the brute ? I have heard it said
, such legislators. Imagine then the sort of laws that will as if it afforded an argument, that the African is as well be passed, to confound the invidious distinction which satisfied of the superiority of his own complexion
, forma has been so long assumed over them, and if possible to l and features, as we can be of ours. If this were tree,
as it is not, would any one be so recreant to his own as to their happiness. Even if no such feelings or decivilization, as to say that his opinion ought to weigh signs should be entertained or conceived by the slave, against ours—that there is no universal standard of they will be attributed to him by the master, and all his truth and grace and beauty—that the Hottentot Venus conduct scanned with a severe and jealous scrutiny. may perchance possess as great perfection of form as Thus distrust and aversion are established, where, but the Medicean? It is true, the licentious passions of for mischievous interference, there would be confidence men overcome the natural repugnance, and find tran- and good will, and a sterner control is exercised over sient gratification in intercourse with females of the the slave who thus becomes the victim of his cruel adother race. But this is a very different thing from vocates. making her the associate of life, the companion of the An effect is sometimes produced on the minds of bosom and the hearth. Him who would contemplate slave holders, by the publications of the self styled such an alliance for himself, or regard it with patience, philanthropists, and their judgments staggered and when proposed for a son, or daughter, or sister, we consciences alarmed. It is natural that the oppressed should esteem a degraded wretch-with justice, cer- should hate the oppressor. It is still more natural that tainly, if he were found among ourselves and the esti- the oppressor should hate his victim. Convince the mate would not be very different if he were found in master that he is doing injustice to his slave, and he at Europe. It is not only in defence of ourselves, of our once begins to regard him with distrust and malignity. country and of our own generation, that we refuse to It is a part of the constitution of the human mind, that emancipate our slaves, but to defend our posterity and when circumstances of necessity or temptation induce race from degeneracy and degradation.
men to continue in the practice of what they believe to Are we not justified then in regarding as criminals, be wrong, they become desperate and reckless of the the fanatical agitators whose efforts are intended to degree of wrong. I have formerly heard of a master bring about the evils I have described ? It is sometimes who accounted for his practising much severity upon his said that their zeal is generous and disinterested, and that slaves, and exacting from them an unusual degree of their motives may be praised, though their conduct be labor, by saying that the thing (slavery) was altogecondemned. But I have little faith in the good motives ther wrong, and therefore it was well to make the of those who pursue bad ends. It is not for us to scru- greatest possible advantage out of it. This agitation tinize the hearts of men, and we can only judge of them occasions some slave holders to hang more loosely on by the tendency of their actions. There is much truth their country. Regarding the institution as of quesin what was said by Coleridge: “I have never known tionable character, condemned by the general opinion a trader in philanthropy who was not wrong in heart of the world, and one which must shortly come to an somehow or other. Individuals so distinguished, are end, they hold themselves in readiness to make their usually unhappy in their family relations—men not escape from the evil which they anticipate. Some sell benevolent or beneficent to individuals, but almost hos- their slaves to new masters (always a misfortune to the tile to them, yet lavishing money and labor and time slave) and remove themselves to other societies, of on the race-the abstract notion." The prurient love manners and habits uncongenial to their own. And of notoriety actuates some. There is much luxury in though we may suppose that ië is only the weak and sentiment, especially if it can be indulged at the ex. the timid, who are liable to be thus affected, still it is no pense of others; and if there be added some share of less an injury and public misfortune. Society is kept envy or malignity, the temptation to indulgence is in an unquiet and restless state, and every sort of imalmost irresistible. But certainly they may be justly provement is retarded. regarded as criminal, who obstinately shut their eyes Some projectors suggest the education of slaves, with and close their ears to all instruction with respect to a view to prepare them for freedom-as if there were the true nature of their actions.
any method of a man's being educated to freedom, but It must be manifest to every man of sane mind, that by himself. The truth is, however, that supposing that it is impossible for them to achieve ultimate success; they are shortly to be emancipated, and that they have even if every individual in our country, out of the limits the capacities of any other race, they are undergoing of the slave holding States, were united in their purpo- the very best education which it is possible to give. ses. They cannot have even the miserable triumph of They are in the course of being taught habits of regular St. Domingo-of advancing through scenes of atrocity, and patient industry, and this is the first lesson which blood and massacre, to the restoration of barbarism. is required. I suppose, that their most zealous advoThey may agitate and perplex the world for a time. cates would not desire that they should be placed in the They may excite to desperate attempts and particular high places of society immediately upon their emanciacts of cruelty and horror, but these will always be pation, but that they should begin their course of freesuppressed or avenged at the expense of the objects of dom as laborers, and raise themselves afterwards as their truculent philanthropy. But short of this, they their capacities and characters might enable them. But can hardly be aware of the extent of the mischief they how little would what are commonly called the rudiperpetrate. As I have said, their opinions, by means ments of education, add to their qualifications as laborlo us inscrutable, do very generally reach our slave po- ers? But for the agitation which exists, however, pulation. What human being, if unfavorably distin their education would be extended further than this. guished by outward circumstances, is not ready to be. There is a constant tendency in our society to extend lieve, when he is told, that he is the victim of injustice ? the sphere of their employments, and consequently Is it not cruelty to make men restless and dissatisfied in to give them the information which is necessary their condition, when no effort of theirs can alter it? to the discharge of those employments. And this for The greatest injury is done to their characters, as welll the most obvious reason; it promotes the master's interest. How much would it add to the value of a slave, assure us that the results may not disappoint our expecthat he should be capable of being employed as a clerk, tations, and that we may not do evil instead of good. or be able to make calculations as a mechanic? In But are we therefore to refrain from efforts to benefit consequence, however, of the fanatical spirit which has our race and country ? By no means: but these mo. been excited, it has been thought necessary to repress tives, this labor and self distrust, are the only conditions this tendency by legislation, and to prevent their ac- upon which we are permitted to hope for success. Very quiring the knowledge of which they might make a different indeed is the course of those, whose precipitale dangerous use. If this spirit were put down, and we and ignorant zeal would overturn the fundamental inrestored to the consciousness of security, this would be stitutions of society, uproar its peace, and endanger its no longer necessary, and the process of which I have security, in pursuit of a distant and shadowy good, of spoken would be accelerated. Whenever indications which they themselves have formed no definite concepof superior capacity appeared in a slave, it would be lion-whose atrocious philosophy would sacrifice a gecultivated ; gradual improvement would take place, neration-and more than one generation-for en hypountil they might be engaged in as various employments thesis. as they were among the ancients—perhaps even liberal ones. Thus, if in the adorable providence of God, at a time and in a manner which we can neither foresee nor conjeclure, they are to be rendered capable of freedom,
ODDS AND ENDS. and to enjoy it, they would be prepared for it in the best and most effectual, because in the most natural and To Mr. T. W. WHITE, gradual manner. But fanaticism hurries to its effect at
Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. once. I have heard it said, God does good, but it is by I have been, for many months past, "in a peck of imperceptible degrees; the Devil is permitted to do troubles," lest my non-appearance among your corresevil, and he does it in a hurry. The beneficent pro- pondents might realize, in my own case, the old adage, cesses of nature are not apparent to the senses. You "out of sight out of mind.” But no man above the cannot see the plant grow or the flower expand. The grade of a brute beast is willing to be forgotten by his volcano, the earthquake and the hurricane, do their fellow men,-especially by that portion of them with work of desolation in a moment. Such would be the whom he has long maintained friendly intercourse. I desolation, if the schemes of fanatics were permitted to hope, therefore, that this natural feeling will plead my have effect. They do all that in them lies, to thwart excuse for knocking once more at your door for adthe beneficent purposes of Providence. The whole ten mittance. This would have been done long ago, but I dency of their efforts is to aggravate present suffering, was so thrown “all a-back” on the last occasion, by ile and to cut off the chance of future improvement; and fearful anathemas of certain popes of the press, (as oor in all their bearings and results, they have produced, modern newspaper editors may justly be called,) for and are likely to produce, nothing but "pure, unmixed, being “too old fashioned,” that I have hardly yet redephlegmated, defecated evil.”
covered sufficient courage to show my antiquated ir Wilberforce or Clarkson were living, and it were phiz again, among your numerous fashionable visitors. inquired of them “Can you be sure that you have pro- Some short time ago, however, I was just beginning, moted the happiness of a single human being ?” I once more, to excogitate a few addenda to my former imagine that, if they considered conscientiously, they " Odds and Ends," when I was startled by the sight of would find it difficult to answer in the affirmative. if my own name, in your Messenger. Not even imaginit were asked “Can you be sure that you have not ing that any other person would so fall in love with it been the cause of suffering, misery and death to thou- as to counterfeit the signature, and being most deplosands?”—when we recollect that they probably stimu- rably forgetful, I began to ask myself, "Is it I? Can I lated the exertions of the amis des noirs in France, and already have done and forgotten what I supposed I was that through the efforts of these, the horrors of St. Do- just about to do; or am I dreaming ?" The thought mingo were perpetrated, I think they must hesitate suddenly flashed across my mind, that Cogia Hassan, long to return a decided negative. It might seem eruel, or “the sleeper awakened,” when in a somewhat simiif we could, to convince a man who has devoted his lar predicament, as recorded in the “Arabian Nights life to what he esteemed a good and generous purpose, Entertainments," had severely pinched himself to make that he has been doing only evil-that he has been sure of his personal identity. I resorted instanter to worshipping a horrid fiend, in the place of the true God. the same rousing process, and immediately discovered But fanaticism is in no danger of being convinced. It upon beginning to read, that "a fresh hand bad taken is one of the mysteries of our nature, and of the divine hold of the bellows." The perusal of a few lines only, government, how utterly disproportioned to each other, convinced me thoroughly of his blowing it far better are the powers of doing evil and of doing good. The than I had ever done, or could do ; and I was on the poorest and most abject instrument
, that is ulterly im- point of publicly surrendering my name in his behalf, becile for any purpose of good, seems sometimes endow- and praying for an act of our legislature to sanction the ed with almost the powers of omnipotence for mischief. transfer, (as the law requires,) when it occurred to me
, A mole may inundate a province-a spark from a forge that I owed it to myself, before such petition to our may conflagrate a city—a whisper may separate friends; beneficent law-makers, at least to attempt some sell a rumor may convulse an empire—but when we would vindication against the alarming charge of being “ too old do benefit to our race or country, the purest and most fashioned." This, however, is no easy task, in the enchastened molives, the most patient thought and labor, tire absence of all those specifications which the lawren with the humblest self distrust, are hardly sufficient to quires in every case of indictment, showing the hore and
the wherein the alleged offence has been committed, and to the maxims of Dr. Franklin's Poor Richard, where moreover, in a case where the accused has scarcely a they will find it stated as an axiom, that “other people's chance of being tried by a jury of his peers. The only eyes cost us more than our own.” And between ourselves, plan I can think of to effect my object, if possible, is, I must think, that this most silly and ridiculous passion by contrasting many old fashions with new ones, in re- for show, which I verily believe has existed ever since lation to similar things; and if all fails, to throw myo the Devil tempted our mother Eve to eat the apple of self on the mercy of your court. Even then, unless knowledge, is far more virulent in these days of perfechalf at least of its members are sexagenarians and past tibility, than in those by.gone days which I am laboring that age, I cannot cherish much hope of acquittal. to vindicate against the anathemas of our newspaper But the charge against me is still recorded in your Mes- popes. senger, and not a word have I yet offered in my defence. As to our daily meals, either with or without compaNow then, or never, let me offer it, unless I am barred ny, the cheap, homely tables once used for them, would by your act of limitation.
now go near to destroy all appetite among the fashionaBefore I begin my contrasts of old and new fashions, bles of the present race; whilst the substantial viands I must tell you what a quandary I have been in, relative which they formerly held, and which every body knows to the proper application of the term fashion. After as familiarly as household words, have been banished, half an hour's hard study in Mr. Crabb's admirable in a great measure, especially from our large towns and work on English synonymes, to determine when cities, the established arbiters and dictators of all fashshould use that term, or custom, or practice, or habit, 1 ions to the country. The successors of these viands gave the matter up in despair, and resolved, “meo are certain Frenchified kickshaws, the very names and perienlo,” to make fashion act as a sort of omnium ga- substances of which are culinary mysteries, necessarily therum for every meaning of which Mr. Crabb had requiring some explanation before old-times-people can constituted the four terms, distributees. Against his venture to eat any thing: unless, indeed, when simulapportionment I have not a word to say; for I plead taneously pressed by resistless hunger and the fear of incompetence clearly to understand his rules of choice; betraying their rusticity, they could content themselves and I make this confession in hope of propitiating, in to follow the laudable example of an old country. some degree, our newspaper-popes, of whom I am in gentleman, once at President Jefferson's table, who, (as such mortal dread; and whose next anathema, I fear, report says,) incontinently made his dinner, --" entirely may be against my style. With this propitiatory offer- of baked Irish potatoes!” they being the only old acing to their acknowledged supremacy in giving the law quaintance he could recognise among the sophisticated on all matters of taste, of science, arts, morals, politics host of materials most abundantly spread before him. and religion ; in short, on all subjects about which But this mystification of eatables, is not the worst of it, printers' ink can be shed, I proceed to my array of old since they must be served up, for consistency sake, on fashions against new ones : and first, on the score of very costly tables, and in sets of fine china, cut-glass, economy, in which a greater minuteness of detail will and sometimes silver, the first cost alone of which would be necessary, than I would enter into, if I could well purchase a full year's allowance of bacon for the largest avoid it.
Virginia family. Add to all this, and, likewise, for In by-gone times, our families generally, could ad- consistency sake, those dishes so numerous, so variegated, just their limbs much to their own comfort and satis- so exquisitely foreign in composition, taste, and titles, faction, in what were familiarly and figuratively called must, ex necessitate rei," be well washed down with “flag-chairs." These cost from two shillings and six- equally exquisite foreign potations, maugre the cost ! pence, lo three shillings, while those of a more patrician provided, always, that credit enough to buy them, can order, and specially intended for company, were only a once be established. Hence the former comparatively few shillings more costly. But to compensate, in some cheap drinks, which were used in the olden time,” at degree, for this extra expense, they were covered with the tables of what were then called, (par excellence) "the good substantial leather, quite strong enough for chil gentry," have been nearly excluded, to make way for dren's shoes, or dancing pumps ; when the then fashion such a motley multitude of French, Spanish, Portu. able style of "chicken-flutter and cross-shuffle,” required guese, German, and other foreign wines, that I can no quadruple the strength which similar articles now do, more recollect, even their names and titles than I could under the "Jackadaisical system,” of practising this remember and repeat all the names and genealogies reexhilarating amusement, which, (by the way,) seems corded in the book of Genesis. Yet the many silly adentirely to have changed its nature by becoming most venturers in the still more silly race after gentility, dash decidedly soporific. In these days, a large portion of us, through them all, as if they belonged to their motherhave become so very, delicate and sensitive in our tongue, although they make quite'as sad havoc among members, that it is indispensable to their repose from the them, as the cost of these foreign wines does among their wearisomeness of existence, to deposite them gen. purses. This latter havoc is, not unfrequently such, in erally, upon rocking chairs with spring bottoms, cost- a single day, if the party be given by a planter or ing from fifteen to forty dollars each ; or on sofas farmer, (whose only return probably, will be ridicule equally elastic, and covered with expensive materials, for his folly,) as to require some months of hard agriat thirty, forty, fifty times the price of the old fashioned cultural labor to pay for it. But, if such parties be frereceptacles for our basement stories, which formerly quent, the inevitable end of this tragi-comic farce is, supported their superstructures quite as well, quoad all that the performers must very soon exchange all the the purposes of health and comfort, as their modern comforts, luxuries, and social intercourse which they successors do, and at one-eighth or tenth of the expense. enjoyed in the old States, for the coarsest fare, incessant For the moral of this fact I refer you and your readers drudgery, and the constant risk of dirks or Bowie knives being thrust into their vitals, in the new States and | lence"--" the Forsythe colton ;" then as common as territories, if they only crook their fingers at any any other kind, under the title of "nankeen-cotton," one out of their own family. Here, if theory can although usually so mottled, that the arnotto-dye was be determined by practice, liberty means that every generally used to produce uniformity of color ; after man shall do as be pleases to the full extent of his which, a country congregation of males, thus equipped physical powers, to indulge his brutish or any other pro- for Sunday exhibition, looked at a little distance for all the pensities. That there are hundreds and thousands of world like an assemblage of the tropical birds, -called men in these parts of our country, who deeply deplore Flamingos. Happy then, the country beau whose such a state of things, I have not the smallest doubt; breeches had most of this Flamingo hue; and still hapfor I have several personal friends among them, who pier the house-wife who had succeeded best in com. have assured me of the fact. But all their communica- pounding the arnotto-dye to adorn the lower extremitions contribute to confirm what I have just said; and ties of her husband, son, or brother, as the case that they, for the time being, are suffering a sort of “mought” be. But this is a digression (to which I am moral martyrdom for the sacrifices which they formerly most unfortunately, and I fear incurably, addicted ;) made, in some one or other of the old United States, to let me, therefore, add to the above, two pair of shoes; obtain the mere soap-suds-bubble of superior fashion one for every day, the other for Sundays, with one and gentility. Most of the competitors in this prepos- Sunday coat, -and the summer wardrobe for an oldterous,--may I not say, immoral race,--have been times' gentleman was complete. His external habilitaught by the morbid public sentiment on this subject, ments for winter, were, a good " beaver hat," made, not to lavish their money for that which all the money in like Peter Pindar's razors “only to sell," but to last UDthe world cannot purchase. They have been most fa- til he was tired of it, and long after ; a plain, neat
, tally led to believe, that the greatest spendthrift among broadcloth coat, rarely if ever costing more than thirty them will always gain the prize of gentility, in pre- shillings or thirty-six shillings a yard, with the coat of ference to the men most distinguished for their good the previous year, for daily use, -except Sunday, morals, manners, and mental endowments--qualities when the best was put on as a matter of course. The which the wise and the good, whether poor or rich, and breeches, or “ inexpressibles"-as it became the modest from time immemorial, have always determined can fashion to call them, before the beaux, who had no alone constitute any just title to the character of a calves to their “spindle-shanks," succeeded in their final real gentleman. Those who are truly entitled to this expulsion-seldom exceeded two pair, neither of them highly honorable distinction, may adopt different exter- very costly ; his shoes were the same in number, but nal modes, (all of which may be good,) at distant pe- more water proof; and with them he associated a single riods, of evincing their claims, and therefore I shall pair of stout boots-worn only upon grand occasions, -not now attempt to compare the present with the for- such as musters, county courts, and elections. More mer fashions, any farther than to say, that it is much over, these said boots were made of leather 80 strong easier now, than in the olden time, to counterfeit the and durable that no fair play could wear them out in gentleman, since in these levelling-downward days, fit much less than three or four years : for be it remensubjects for a penitentiary not unfrequently smuggle bered that boots were not then as now, the wear for themselves into the genteelest society, under the spe- every day in the year. To finish the winter wardrobe, cious disguise of a good suit of clothes and fashionable and furnish a defence against rain or snow, (for mere manners. In by-gone days, such an occurrence was cold was little regarded in those days, even by ladies, hardly possible, for infinitely greater pains were taken one great coat was kept, of some very strong cloth, to guard against such impostors. To aspire to the costing from ten to twenty shillings a yard, and so lastcharacter of a true gentleman is certainly both honora- ing as to perform most effectual services through several ble and highly improving in every point of view; winter campaigns. “Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros :"
But now, what do we find to be deemed all essential
in forming a gentleman's wardrobe, for both seasons ? But to rest our pretensions on the success of the Not only an entire change of form-against which I struggle, who shall squander the most money in the shall say nothing,—but a most striking one in the numvain pursuit, is quite as great a folly, to say nothing of ber, materials, and cost of the articles ;--10 an amount the sin, as we can possibly commit. In this
, as in nu- more than triple what it formerly was, while individual merous other popular fallacies, we may rest perfectly income, especially from agriculture, the paymasterassured, that "the race is not always to the swift, nor the general, has diminished in nearly an equal ratio. battle to the strong.”
In by-gone days, we deemed our heads quite hard Take another contrast. Fifty years ago, indeed still enough, if protected by a hat with some brim around it, later, a gentleman's summer dress, especially in the to encounter any degree of summer heat, without the country, usually consisted of a home-made straw-hat, smallest risk to our brains of being either addled
, baked worth perhaps twenty-five cents; a single change of or roasted. Now, our craniums have become so exo coats of some cheap material; a few pair of nankeen ceedingly tender, and the consequent hazard of such breeches (if I may be pardoned for using so vulgar a disaster so imminent, as lo render fur caps and bandterm in these days of exquisite refinement ;) and as box hats for winter, with non-descript noddle covers of many pair of thread or cotton stockings, protected, silk, for summer,--but umbrellas also-articles of vital when he rode on horseback, by what were called necessity, and thereby adding two or three hundred "leggins," of check or "brown holland." The afore per cent to what may well be called our self-imposed said breeches, (by the way,) were made, during the skull tax, for both seasons. Even the beaux and belles revolutionary war, of what is now called " par excel.lamong our darkies have adopted the fashion, and hare