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indoctrinate the public on all imaginable subjects, are called the duties to ourselves and to society, all whether of art, science, or general literature. Nay, emanate from, and are imperatively enjoined by this more, that should any person dare publicly to question same christianity, under a penalty too, of everlasting their high behests, however modestly it may be done, misery in the world to come, for an habitual violation they are bound in duty to their own dignity, lo treat of them. And lastly, education should be, to impress on such offenders with unmeasurable severity. Formerly the youthful heart and mind, in characters as distinct too, what was called “the liberty of the press,” was and durable as if cut in brass or marble, that, duty to never imagined, even by its wildest asserters, to be ourselves, consists in bringing to their highest state of nearly synonymous, as it now is, with the liberty of attainable perfection, all our powers both of mind and tearing to pieces private character, for no better cause, body; that the great object of our ever beneficent than political hostility; or indeed, for any cause other maker in bestowing them, was, to enable us to insure than notorious, well ascertained criminality. Now, our own happiness in both worlds, by rendering these this tearing and rending has not only become the con. powers as conducive as we possibly could, to the eter. stant business of hundreds of our newspaper popes, nal as well as temporal happiness of the whole human but he who sets up a paper, and will neither take a race; and that man's highest honor here, as well as his hand at the game himself, nor suffer others to do it sole chance of felicity hereafter, are utterly unattainable therein, is very soon compelled to shut up shop, or to by any other conceivable means. Lei such be the apply all his powers to eclipse every other competitor basis, the sure foundation of youthful education, and in the lacerating process. Here, again, I call for a fair the teaching of every useful art, science, language, and trial and judgment between the old and the new fashion. desirable accomplishment, will then become a work of
My last contrast shall be a few remarks, which, I comparative ease-nay, of indescribable pleasure and find, that I have omitted, in regard to the physical enjoyment—which, that it may soon be, is the daily training of children in the two periods. Formerly it wish, the nightly dream, the constant prayer of your was universally believed, that the best way to procure old fashioned friend for our children sound minds, was first to give them, if possible, sound bodies. Hence the constant, instinctive
Essex, June 11th, 1838, desire manifested by them for locomotion, was freely indulged, at all times, by suffering them generally to choose and to take their own gambols in the open air, at every season, and frequently every day. Many LETTER FROM MALTA. times have I seen the little urchins playing barefoot, even in the snow. These gambols they called, and
(To the Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger.) felt to be, sport; for they were all voluntary. In these Departure from Valetta ; Citta Vecchia ; Beggars; Catacombe; times they must even play, if allowed to do it at all, St. Paul's Cave ; Statue of St. Paul; Hand of St. John ; Anetby rule and measure ; for instead of being allowed to
dote of Bonaparte ; Turkish history; Bajazet; Zemes; the
Grand Master D’Aubusson. harden and invigorate their bodies by the promptings of nature, they, especially the poor girls, are cooped At an early hour on the morning after our arrival at up like chickens under the fattening process, until their Valetta, we had a cicerone at our doors, to accompany constitutions in thousands of instances are irretrieva- us to Citta Vecchia. These idle fellows will at all bly ruined; or, in cases wherein the destruction has hours be found in these southern countries, in the imnot been quite completed, they are sent to be patched mediate vicinities of the best hotels, to offer their serviup by the compulsory gymnastics
, callisthenics, and ces to strangers, and to gain a couple of shillings by various other “nicks” and “sticks” of modern inven their attendance. The wind was at the west, which in tion—the bare names of which I have neither Latin this climate is saying that the weather was mild and nor Greek enough to remember, and still less to under- beautiful. Getting into our one-horse carriage, which stand.
from its fashion, we thought might, like a "landed proFearing that your patience is, by this time quite perty,” have descended from father to son, for the last exhausted, I hasten to apprise you that my “odds and iwo hundred years, we were driven at a rate of fire ends” are all run out, except the few brief remarks miles the hour, to the foot of the hill, on the summit of with which I promised to conclude relative to what which the ancient city was built. The driver never for education should be. If then, an old man who has had a moment was seated, but was at all times visible, runmuch to do with the education of both sexes, may be ning alongside of our horse, with his right hand on the permitted to offer an opinion, without too great hazard shaft and a small cord in his left, with which he guided of incurring another newspaper anathema for being too the animal, until we had arrived at the end of our jaunt, old fashioned, I will say that education should be, first which had been, according to our watches, of an hour and above all, to teach, not only by words, but by and a hall's duration. the most exemplary practice, one ounce of which is The moment a stranger is observed from the neighworth a ton of mere precept, both in parents and other boring heights to be approaching the catacombs, it instructers, that the truths of christianity are quite as would appear from the number of miserable objects who demonstrable as mathematical truth; that it is a duty congregate around the entrance, as if all the inmates of most sacred, most indispensable, not only to prize the the hospitals, and alms houses, both within and withknowledge of it, yery far above all other knowledge, but out the walls, had been let loose to annoy him. We to love it, or rather its divine author, with all our heart, here noticed among the crowd those who were lame, and mind and soul and strength. Secondly, it should be, blind, and dumb; while a little apart from the others
, thoroughly to convince the young aspirants, that what' and in a more conspicuous situation were seated (wo
wretched beings, who, more than any of their fellows, ing a wish to place his name on this curious tablet, I served to excite our commiseration, and claim that pit could not but be amused to see how readily our clerical tance, which we had carried solely for the objects of companion scraped a clean place, most clearly solving charity. The one was a boy afflicted with leprosy, the question which had been but the moment before and the other a maniac, who required the utmost atten- asked, why all the names and visits were of so modern tion of his keepers to prevent his escape, and who was a date. Surely, therefore, no one can expect to be imretained by them, as we were informed, as a sort of mortalized by penning a line, the subject of which, show-chey, doubtless, appropriating the alms, which doubtless, would be his own name, with the day and were intended by the donors for him whom they had in year of his visit, and placing the same on what was in custody, for their own private benefit and support. by-gone ages the allar of the Saracens, in the catacombs With shame be it told, that this nuisance was permitted of Citta Vecchia. It is an idle and useless practice, and by the authorities; nothing being allowed to those who one in which no foreigner, save the English and Amerihave charge of the insane, for their attention and ex- cans, are ever found to indulge. We observed that the pense, save only what they could procure by exciting stone was so soft, that with our penknives we could the pity and consequently trusting to the generosity easily penetrate it the whole length of the blade, and of those who might chance to visit the place. After so porous that the water was continually dropping upon passing through several clean and narrow lanes, we us, caused by the heavy rains of the few previous days. were stopped by our guide opposite to a small door, In different places and at different distances small tunthrough which, when opened, we descended some nine nels were to be seen, which had evidently been used in or ten steps; the walls on either side being damp, and former times to carry the water without the cells of this covered with ivy, when we landed on a platform, on once extended and populous subterranean city. which, standing for a time, to enable a person to light Our guide was particular in pointing out one pathour torches, we had exposed to our view a low entry, way, which had, by order of the English governor been at the end of which the excavations were commenced. recently blocked up. Report says, that some years The wind, which was blowing freshly, the moment we since a Sicilian schoolmaster entered, with his scholars, entered was unheard; the light from the sun could only this narrow passage. Every precaution was taken at be seen at different distances, through the small aper- the time, for their safe return; each one of the party tures which had evidently been cut through the stone to having been furnished with a rope, a torch, and a lanserve as chimnies, having been made directly over those tern. No one, however, of those who went in at that places which had been used for the baking of bread and time, ever returned ; and it remains to this day unex. the cooking of food.
plained in what manner this party, to a person, perishThe silence in these cells remains uninterrupted ed. Within the recollection of the present inhabitants, throughout the year, save only when broken by the a Maltese family was lost in these intricate windings, voices of those who wander through the different aisles and for some days after their disappearance, persons and cells to witness the singularities of the place. As were accustomed to enter with torches and drums, we continued our way, the utmost care was required, hoping by the light to discover their remains, or by the being one moment where the passage was five feet high, sound to hear their moans in return; but all to no pur. and the next where we were obliged almost to creep on pose—their fate is veiled in mystery. There is no our hands and knees, to avoid bringing our heads in doubt that many have lost their lives in these places, contact with the craggy ceiling above. The priest who who have incautiously ventured too far; and it was has served for years as a guide in these catacombs, was very right that a necessary precaution should have been very anxious to explain for what purposes he supposed, taken, to prevent the too curious traveller from entering during the time of the Saracens, the different cells were those parts from which he would have found it diffiused. One place, and that immediately on our entrance, cult to have extricated himself, even with the assistance appeared to have been adapted for those who had been of a lantern or a guide. There is a tradition which I engaged in the active duties of life. Here was the oil have heard from good authority, that a drove of pigs press, the ovens, and the seats of the workmen; while was once driven into these passages as far as the driver a little farther onward, was the church, the pillars of dared to venture; that after the lapse of several days, which, to the present day, are in a good state of preser- and very much to the surprise of the good inhabitants vation. The altar, at the northern part, is somewhat of Burgo, these same animals came grunting from a small defaced ; having been broken at different times, as we hole at the edge of the water, and at a distance of a thought, either to gratify the wish of come distant friend, couple of leagues from where they were so cruelly imor to be placed in the cabinet of some curious traveller. mured. It is said, and I think with some truth, that The whole front was covered with the pencillings of these catacombs extend for miles, and indeed in making those who have visited and scribbled upon it. In a some excavations, a short time since at Pieta, an aveplace far distant from the writings of others, we observ- nue was discovered which it was thought might have ed the name of “Byron”—whether this was placed had some connection with these subterranean passages there by the noble lord himself, or was the idle act of from Medina, or the ancient city. The farther onward another, which we were the more inclined to believe, we went, the more narrow and intricate the several we had not the means of knowing-certain, however, it windings appeared, while the confined state of the air, is, that the name of this British peer and distinguished rendered the more oppressive and unhealthy from the prepoet, has been in that place for years, and will probably valence of a sirocco, the wind having changed, caused, remain undisturbed for a long period yet io come, with some of our companions, a nauseous and fainting serving as it does a double purpose-tó interest the sensation, which obliged us to return hastily to the door stranger and reward the guide. On a friend's express from which we had entered. Retracing our steps by a different path, we saw the long, low ranges of tombs, the fingers of which had been recently broken off by some of which were for single persons, some for groups some inebriated young officer of Her Majesty's navy. of children, while others served for families. Some of This circumstance was much to be regretted by the these inclosures remain to this day unopened, and from Maltese, who, from various associations and traditions, not having been exposed to the weather, the appearance almost venerated the image, and by all others for its of them was, as if the persons who had slept there for antiquity, and as a good specimen of ancient sculpture. ages, had been entombed but yesterday. Several writers It is a curious fact, that the priests have persuaded have remarked, but more particularly Boisgelin, whose the inhabitants of Citta Vecchia to believe, that let the words I quote : “That the stone from which those cata- quantity of stone be as large as it may, which the nucombs are dug, is of so soft a nature that vegetables merous yearly visiters may carry with them from this and shrubs grow in them; the roots of many of the place, yet that the grotto will never be enlarged—that latter, in the upper surface, have pierced through the the stone increases as fast as it may be removed. The rock without splitting it ; these appear to grow natu- dust of this place is thought to be very efficacious in all rally, even to the height of twelve or fourteen feet, and febrile complaints; and at various times crowds of peo are two, three, and sometimes more, lines in diameter. ple have been seen 10 congregate around the entrance, It is remarkable that the roots of the shrubs thus to ask permission to gather a little, as the last and growing in the heart of the rock, should be as large surest remedy for a sick relative who may be lying ill as if exposed to the open air; for it is natural to in a distant casal. This request is never refused; and, suppose that so confined a situation would impede their frequently in a stormy night, a priest has entered with growth.”
the applicant, thinking that should he refuse, and the Indeed it would be most remarkable were it true, as is ill man die before the morning, his death would be on above stated that shrubs would take root on these cata- bis hands. Much indeed there is in faith, and it often combs, and shoot up a height of twelve or fifteen feet. happens that when the sick recover, it is considered a Never as yet have I been able to discover, in the vicinity miracle; and when not, it is said to have been God's of these excavations, a shrub which would live at all will it should prove otherwise. Therefore, let the reand certainly in a place where there is not a sufficient sult be as it may, it cannot be other than right—a most soil for a weed to exist, you will not be very apt to find sure and pleasing way of reasoning to the ignorant and a countryman collecting his crops of potatoes, peas, or bigotted applicant. This small place is one of the most corn, in their season. Often have I visited the spot interesting spots on the island, from the fact of its harabove mentioned, both alone and with friends, and can- ing been used by the primitive christians as a chapel not at this day find any thing of the kind; neither do in which to worship, and also from its having afforded the inhabitants, who are well acquainted with Boisgelin, to St. Paul a temporary shelter, when persecuted for recollect the circumstance, and who, when informed of preaching the cause of Christ. This cave is also noted this assertion, say, that on this subject, if no other, the for having been, about the year fifteen hundred, the ideas of the worthy knight were vague and erroneous residence of a celebrated Sicilian hermit, who, from his It is true that trees will jut out where there is a soil austere method of living, and oratorical powers, dres between two rocks, and as the roots increase, they will around him crowds of people from all parts of Malte, imbed themselves in the stone. This is found to occur and even from the neighboring islands of Sicily and in all parts of Malta ; the rock being of the same soft- Gozo. It has also served, in times past, for the refuge ness throughout. The Maltese are inclined to believe of criminals, who, when they had committed murder, any thing which might occur in the vicinity of the resi- and fled for safety to this grotto, could never be remored dence of St. Paul, but this statement carries with it too for trial and punishment. It was only necessary to much of the marvellous, and is pronounced by them, fast such a number of days, and oftentimes to ask for without hesitation, as being most singularly incorrect; giveness on their bended knees, at the statue, to be or, indeed, that it is an assertion for which there never acquitted of any crime, in its nature however revokhas or never can be the least foundation.
ing, in its termination however diabolical. With shame At the moment of our leaving the catacombs, we were be it told, and with disgrace be it recorded, that during fortunate in meeting the Canonico Grech, who had for the whole period of the administration of the knights
, fifty years been performing divine service in the small and indeed until very recently, this was the only place .but ancient chapel which covers the entrance of the which would afford such villains protection against the grotto of St. Paul. It chanced to be on the afternoon of laws which they had violated, and the murders they the grand festa of the saint after whom the cave was had committed. The revered Howard, on his visite named, and of all seasons of the year the best adapted the principal hall of the hospital (de St. Jean de Jertfor a stranger's visit. This small place was beautifully salem) at Malta, in April, 1786, wrote as follows: decorated; the whole walls being lined with tapestry “The number of patients was from five hundred and of the richest and most splendid description. The nu- ten to five hundred and thirty-two. These were served merous priests were seated around the altar, each one by the most ragged, dirty and unfeeling persons, l eser being clad in his best garments, and decorated with a saw. I once found eight or nine of them highly inte gold chain, on which was suspended a crucifix, with the rested with a delirious dying patient. The governar image of our Saviour engraven upon it. To enter the told me that they had only ewenty-two servants
, and grotto of St. Paul, we descended some twenty stone that many of them were debtors and felons, who had steps, proceeded a few yards to the right, and entered fled thither for refuge.
Even a murderer cannot be a cave, which might contain some forty persons, in the caken if found in this hall. Every church in Malby centre of which stands a statue of the apostle, in while where the sacrament is administered, is a sanctuary marble, and as large as life, with one hand extended, for debtors and felons ; in that of the Dominicans and
also of the Augustines, there were one or two persons.' and companion, the Canonico Grech, on my expressing What protection was there for a man's life, if an assas- a wish, removed the hand from the altar, and with the sin had only to remain on the steps of a church to com- assistance of a small wax candle, with which all visitmit a fiend-like deed? What consolation was it to an ers are furnished, I was enabled to see enclosed withaged father, when following the remains of his mur- in, a bone, said to be the remains of the hand of the dered son, to know that the murderer lived? Or what apostle ; and also to observe, in the small glass case in temptation could there be to pray in a church, the altar which the same is placed, the insignia of the duke of of which was stained by the blood from an assassin's Mantua, whose property and gift it was. Respecting hand? Very recently, during the time of Sir Thomas the modern history of another hand, that of St. John, Maitland, a man who had committed murder in a dis- which was far more prized by the order, I would state tant casal, fled to the altar for protection ; he was, how- an anecdote, which occurred at the time Bonaparte ever, by the command of the spirited governor, quickly was passing through the island on his way to Egypt. removed, carried to prison, after a few days tried, found It was customary also, at that period, on St. John's guilty, condemned, and executed. This is the last day, to expose this hand to the gaze and admiration of instance which has ever occurred, or which it is to be the people, on a finger of which was a valuable ring, hoped ever will occur, where a criminal will be found so with a large diamond in the centre, the gift of one of ignorant as to expect to find safety in a sacred place, the order: by touching a spring this brilliant would when his deserts should be his death. On the same open, and present a decapitated image of the apostle to platform with the entrance of this grotto, and in a the view of the beholder. It may be unnecessary to small recess in the wall, stands a wooden image of our add, that the first consul was much pleased with the Saviour, which from the circumstance of its having been ingenuity which had been shown in the mechanism of brought from Rhodes by the knights, at the time of the ring, and placing it on his own finger, pointedly their removal, is worthy of a passing notice. One of remarked, that it could not be of any possible service the arms is wanting, the feet are mostly decayed, and to let it remain for ages to come, as it had for centuries the legs and body are, by time alone, of a spongy past, to be concealed amidst the treasures of the nature; in their appearance resembling a honeycomb.church; but to him, who was on his way to conquer It is indeed a most precious relic of antiquity, and as the Egyptians, and introduce christianity among the such highly prized; often have large sums been offered wandering tribes of Arabs in Africa, it might be of the for it, and as often been refused. Retracing our steps utmost service, as he doubled not but that the influence a few feet, we observed an iron railing, serving as a of the apostle; or in other words, that the charm which door-way, through which we passed, and entered into the ring possessed, would preserve him from dangers to a small apartment, in which there was an altar, and on which otherwise he would have been necessarily ex. which stood, amidst vases of freshly plucked flowers, posed. The French officers were pleased with the reaanother and truly beautiful statue of St. Paul, the soning, and admired the wit of their general, while work of Gaffa, a Maltese sculptor, who flourished at the canons in attendance gave their consent only in Rome in the fifteenth century. This is also of white their silence, deeming it most politic, as it certainly marble, and nearly as large as life ; the face, arms and was most prudent, to yield the ring without murmuring, fingers are perfect, and decidedly, without exception, than, by complaining, to have it followed by the golden the finest specimen of sculpture on the island. With hand, and the precious bones therein contained. common care, this statue will remain for ages, as a It will to the reader doubtless appear a most curious lasting memento of the talent displayed by a native in circumstance, that one of the Ottoman emperors, who the line of his profession, so honorable to himself and obtained possession of this relic at the conquest of Conso creditable to his countrymen. The grand master, stantinople, and who, during his long reign, distinguishwhen this statue was received, gave orders that prayers ed himself for his enmity to the christians, should have should be returned in the church for so valuable a pre- presented so valuable a token to the grand master of a sent; and on the anniversary of the decease of the band of soldiers, who styled themselves as the bulwark sculptor, it was decreed that a mass should be observed of christendom, and on whose admittance as one of as a requiem for his soul. It is not at all surprising, the order, it was necessary an oath should be taken, when it is known that Gaffa is the only Maltese who testifying their eternal hostility to the followers of has ever distinguished himself in this art, that the citi- Mahommed, and signifying their readiness at any time zens of his native village should have yearly subscribed to sacrifice their lives in defence of their religion. This a small sum, to have his name handed down to poste mystery is, however, explained in the Turkish history rity, serving a double purpose, of testifying their res of that period, into which I shall enter most fully. On pect for his memory, and also to induce others to culti- the death of “Mahomet the Great,” at Genisen, a city vate their talent in a profession which is, of all in the of Bythinia, Anno Domini fourteen hundred and eighty old world, the most admired by the better class, and, one, his two sons, Bajaret the elder, and Zirimus, made if I may use the word, adored by the ignorant. pretensions to the Ottoman throne, the former by right
Previous to my taking leave of this place, I must of birth, which the latter disputed, stating that although not neglect to mention respecting the golden hand and being the younger, he was born when his father was arm of St. Paul, which was also on the altar--and reigning over the Ottoman empire, a plea his brother which is but once during the year; and that it is on the could not make, and which was a sufficient reason, anniversary of the day when the apostle converted the in his opinion, to authorise his making any attempt to inhabitants of the island from being the worshippers of claim his rightful succession ; and stating also, that he idols, to be the followers of Christ, that this valuable was supported in his demands by many of the most relic is exposed to the public gaze. My worthy friend | powerful chiefs in the Turkish dominions. After various intrigues and skirmishes, with as various success to thereunto by thy injurious declining, and the dangerous each of the contending parties, the matter of dispute practices which thou incessantly attemptest against was terminated, by the result of which it was proved, me, yea even in my extreme misery. But this assured after a hard fought battle, and with great slaughter on hope I carry with me, that the time will come, when both sides, that the fortune of Bajaret, conducted by thou, the author of so great wrong, or thy children, the policy of Achmetes, who was the best general in shall receive the just guerdon of this thy present ty. the Turkish army, and who was greatly beloved by ranny against thy brother.” The sultan, not wishing the soldiers, had prevailed against Zirimus-he having that his brother should remain on so friendly terms been compelled to fly first to Iconium, and afterwards with such a distinguished band of warriors, sent am. to Cairo, where he begged the protection of Caytheins, bassadors laden with presents, and among others with who was at that period the powerful sultan of Syria this identical hand of the apostle, and a large sum of and Egypt. On coming before the emperor, Zirimus, money, to request that Zemes might be delivered into or as he was more generally known, Zemes, made one their hands; this being refused, a treaty was formed, of the most pathetic and powerful speeches narrated in by which it was stipulated that the Turkish prince the page of Ottoman history,—wherein, after describ- should remain in honorable captivity ; that be should ing his ill-fortune, and stating that his brother would not be permitted to league with the powers of Europe, rather have him his enemy than his friend—would against his lawful sovereign; and for this consideration, rather drive him into exile than make him a partaker on the first of August, a yearly sum of thirty thousand in his counsels-he desired the sultan to send ambas- ducats “was to be paid into the treasury of the Rhosadors to Bajaret, to request him to grant his brother a dian knights.” Zemes, after a long captivity at small portion of his dominions to rule over, and which Rhodes, was delivered into the hands of Innocentius, request, he said, if refused, to quote his own words, he Bishop of Rome, A. D. 1488. For this political ser" would go with fire, sword and slaughter, by secret vice, the grand master was made a cardinal, receiving and open force, by right and wrong, and hatred, will all the honors and emoluments consonant with such a vex my hateful brother by all manner of mischief, uitle. On the death of Innocentius, Alexander, his by all manner of revenge. Neither will I make an successor, fearing the power of Philip VIII, who had end of confounding of all, until I either be received invaded Italy with a large army, leagued with Alphonso into a part of the empire, or else, together with my of Naples, against whom the French king had declared life, will leave those desperate and lost things for him war; and, sending ambassadors to Constantinople, alone to enjoy. For I deem it much better quickly to asked the assistance of the sultan. Bajaret, by his die, than, with disgrace and infamy, to protract a lin- minister, Dautius, intimated that on certain considera gering, loathed life.”
tions he would grant all the relief in his power-send. By permission of the sultan, Zemes employed the ing at the same time a letter written in Greek, in which period which must elapse for the conclusion of this he desired Innocentius to poison his brother, saying embassy, in making a pilgrimage into Arabia, for the that he was of a different religion from bim, and addpurpose of worshipping in the temple of Mahomet ing, that Zemes might escape from his confinement at Mecca, and visiting the place of his sepulture at and cause much trouble in his empire. “For the perMedina. It was all, however, to no purpose, as on formance of this request, he promised faithfully to pay his return to Cairo, he found that the answer which unto the bishop, two hundred thousand dueats, and had been received from Constantinople, was any thing never after, as long as he lived, to take up arms against but agreeable to his wishes or favorable to his designs. the christians.” The king of Caramania having been made acquainted Well may the christian blush, when he is informed with the result of this embassy, and conceiving it a that this Roman prelate, not only gave his consent to favorable opportunity to attempt a recovery of a por- this base proposition, but did, with his own hands, tion of his dominions, which had been seized upon by poison this Turkish prince, with a white powder of a Mahomet the Great, made proposals to Zemes to join pleasant taste, which was by the bishop mixed with his forces, and to declare war against Bajaret. The the sugar which Zemes was accustomed to mingle terms were readily accepted, and their respective ar- with “the water which he commonly drank !" This mies united. Bajaret having collected a force of two occurred in the year 1495, and on the seventh year of hundred thousand men, soon scattered his enemies, and his confinement at Rome. compelled his brother to fly to the coast of Silicia, Many historians have condemned, and we think where he embarked in a Turkish galley, and sailed for justly, the conduct of D'Aubusson for having received Rhodes: arriving safely at that island, he was well this Turkish fugitive, if he could not protect him. He received by D'Aubusson, who was at that time the should certainly have permitted him to have left, as grand master-was promised the protection of the or- unshackled by his Rhodian prison, as freely as he came der, and a favorable mention of his cause to the other to its gates--and not, for the hand of Su Paul, and great kings and princes of christendom.
yearly stipend, have consented to act as a jailer to the Zemes, at the moment of his departure from Silicia, sultan, which, as has been remarked, " is the foulest shot an arrow on shore, to which the following note stain which lies upon the fame of the order.” For his was attached, and which on its receipt by the emperor, delivery of Zemes, one writer observes, that the grand caused to him much fear and uneasiness, when in afier master lost all the renown he had won in that memo life 'trouble bent him to the earth. “Thou knowest, rable siege, in which he proved the victor, and in wbich most unkind and cruel brother, that I fly not unto the he so lavishly shed his blood, by the mercenary policy christians—the mortal enemies of the Ottoman family which induced him to violate the rights of hospitality, for no hatred of my religion or nation ; but enforced and consign the wanderer to a cruel durance. Some