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Yet wand'ring far mid crowds of men,
gers--and it has been but for a moment on your unearthly loves—it is because he knows such beautiful affections hath but a little abiding place on this thorny and troubled earth, ere they wander to the peaceful heavens. He turns from the ideal to the real-- he turns from the quiet vales and the unclouded skies, to the cloud, the mountain, and the avalanche! and yet he would fain listen to the gushings of your young hearts, ere he portrays the harsher and the sterner passions of this noisy world. In bitterness, and in loneliness, he turns from ye, and fain would longer dwell on that rare and gentle affection, which, when it burns no longer, will cause every nightingale to pine, and every angel to weep!
And with that worship, as I burn'd,
XIII. No longer could I keep the flame Close hidden, which I did not nameI bent my knee--I burst the thrall, My tongue was loosed--I told her all.
A dark-eyed flower with leaflet pale,
And she-Heaven bless the maid !-she sailed,
A quiet sky its shelter made,
And then she spoke, and I was blest !
These, when the summer sun was bright,
From worldly toils and worldly view,
It was a worship led me there,
And in my soul that dark-eyed flower
POPULAR ERRORS. 1. That a contract, made on Sunday, is not binding.
2. That those who are loudest or most unceasing in their professions of regard for the People, are the People's truest friends.
3. That genuine courage is shown by vaporing or bravado.
4. That it is consistent with the character of a gentleman, to smoke in a stage-coach.
5. That green, or unseasoned wood, is as good for making fires, as dry, or seasoned wood.
6. That, in order to exclude a child from a share in his father's estate, the father's will must give him something, however small; or mention him, in any manner.
7. That hot bread, or any bread less than twentyfour hours old, is wholesome.
8. That excessive familiarity is not dangerous to friendship. When I hear two men, whose intimacy does not date from childhood, calling each other “Tom," and “ Nat,” I look for a speedy, and perhaps a violent death to their friendship. True friendship is not only shown, but strengthened, by mutual respect
9. That a lawyer, to succeed in his profession, is obliged to utter falsehoods.
10. That those who are constantly talking of the dishonesty of other people, are themselves honest.
Nor had I placed it there to gain
And still I came, but dared not speak;
11. That the citation of many books, or the use of
A LECTURE learned words, is a sign of learning.
Delivered before the Richmond Lyceum, on Friday evening, 12. That persons who clamor for practice as better
July 13, 1838--by James E. Heath." than theory, and are celebrated by themselves and their friends as practical men, are always more trustworthy
Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Lyceum : than those whom they deride as "theorists." The for
Had I taken counsel of prudence, I should probably mer bave usually no guide but their own (often narrow) have declined the honor of now addressing you. My experience : the latter sometimes have the lights gath- pursuits in life for some years past, have not qualified ered by a thousand clear and active minds, during
ages me for occasions of public display; and I am altogether of diligent and enlarged observation. A properly con
unpractised in the arts of oratory. You have informed structed theory is the methodized, the digested result, me, however, that the design of your institution, is to of what has been seen and done by hundreds of “ prac. I feel that I should be recreant to duty, to refuse my
encourage literature, science, and general morals; and tical men.” 13. That a first love is necessarily purer, or stronger,
humble contribution to so noble a cause. than a second, or third, or fourth love.
You were pleased to refer to my own judgment, the 14. That keeping the door open in cold weather, is selection of a suitable topic upon which to address you, conducive to health.
and I have chosen one, which, without possessing the 15. That other people have not as many, or as great
charm of novelty, is at least interesting to us all. I causes of unhappiness, as ourselves.
propose to call your attention to the PRESENT CONDITION 16. That any simpleton will do for a legislator.
OF OUR COUNTRY, AND ITS PROBABLE FUTURE DESTINIES ; 17. That a man, whom his neighbors would not trust
to point out the DANGERS WHICH AWAIT us, and THE with a hundred dollars of their own money, is fit to be ONLY PROBABLE MEANS BY WHICH THOSE DANGERS MAY trusted with the most important public interests.
BE avoided. This, you will perceive, is a boundless 18. That Education consists only in being sent to field of investigation; one, which has often been exschool ; or in book learning.
plored by philosophers and statesmen; and, if I cannot 19. That political consistency is shown by adhering fruits which have been gathered by them, I may per
hope to present to you any of those ripe and excellent constantly to the same men, through all their changes of conduct and opinion.
haps be fortunate enough to pluck here and there an 20. That it is INCONSISTENCY, to think with one
idle flower, or to point out some sunny or shaded spot party on some points, and with an opposite party on
in the landscape, which may not have attracted the obother points.
servation of more adventurous spirits.
In describing the present condition of our country, it will be necessary to notice some of the more striking peculiarities which distinguish it from other civilized
nations. It is foreign to my purpose, however, and 'TWILL SOOTHE WHEN I AM GONE. would occupy far too much time, to compare it with
those great classic states of antiquity, familiarly, but I
think erroneously, styled the Roman and Grecian Re'Twill soothe when I am gone,
publics. Such a comparison would be the more unAnd sad my sleepless lot,
profitable, since the extraordinary changes wrought in To know, though but by one,
the structure of human society, have left between those That I am unforgot
nations and ourselves few points of resemblance. The That one remembers yet,
sublime dispensation of the christian religion, -the Though far and fast I flee,
conquests and settlement of the Gothic nations in EuAnd it shall chase each sad regret,
rope-lhe introduction of the feudal system,--the reIf thou art she.
formation in the 16th century, which emancipated the
human mind from a long night of bondage, che disGive me thy lingering thought,
covery of the art of printing, and the use of the mariner's Give me thy latest prayer;
compass,-with the important consequences which folOh! let thy heart be taught,
lowed each of these events, have effected a mighty To hold mine ever dear.
revolution in the moral, political, and social condition Watch o'er me in thy dreams,
of man. A guardian spirit prove,
It is not without its benefit however, on every suitable And bless my fortune with the beams
occasion, to study the history of those extraordinary Of thy true love.
*We trust that our readers will find in the merits of this dis. III.
course, an abundant justification for its republication; though As with thee in thy bowers,
it has been circulated already, by the newspaper press. Its Oh! let thy hand entwine,
chaste and perspicuous style is a fit vehicle for the valuable For me, the guardian flowers,
truths it conveys : and a happy augury may be formed, or the
future usefulness of the young association which has elicited a More beautiful as thine:
production so much calculated to excite thought, and to prompt And bid their fragrance bloom
virtuous effort. In mentioning the novelists of America, Mr. To cheer our lonely lot,
Heath of course omits himself: but what modesty forbade him to Still sweetly whisp'ring, through life's gloom
do, justice exacts of us--namely, to remind our readers that he
is the author of 'Edgehill,'-ranked by Professor Tucker, in his “Forget me not !
address, (for which see our last February No.) among the best of G. American novels.-(Ed. So. Literary Messenger.
nations to which I have referred. They shine so con- extent of our country—no less wonderful has been its spicuously in the twilight of ancient story-they were progress since the days of colonial dependence, in every80 remarkable in their origin, progress, and mournful thing that constilules the greatness and power of a nadecline, that we cannot fail to deduce from them highly tion. Ils population, which may now be unquestionauseful lessons, if properly considered and applied. bly estimated at seventeen millions, has more than Their example teaches us at least one great truth, -the quadrupled in fifty years. Its commerce and navi. mutability of all human things, and the emptiness of all gation, which for several years after the revolutionary worldly grandeur. Greece, which though surrounded war, were very inconsiderable, have reached an amount by barbarism and ignorance, sprung suddenly like her in imports, exports and tonnage, not exceeded by any fabled Minerva, into the maturity of wisdom and pow. olher nation on earth, Great Britain only excepted. er, Greece, whose volatile and ingenious people, by a What seas or oceans have not been furrowed by the sort of inspiration, carried the fine arts, in a short period keels of our daring navigalors ? What region exists into of time, to the ne plus ullra of perfection ; Greece, so re- which the genius of American commerce has not penenowned for her sages, heroes, poets and philosophers, trated, whether from Greenland to Cape Horn, or from what is she now ? Awakened it is true-recovered China to California ? Nothing is more common now somewhat from the stupefaction of centuries of slavery than to see an American ship strike into the path of the and degradation,-but no longer the land of Homer and selring sun, and following that burning luminary, as it Demosthenes,-of Aristides and Phocion. Where now dips its “glowing axle” in the wave of the Pacific, rise is the once powerful Carthage, the descendant of an- finally on the eastern horizon, after having circumna. cient Tyre, whose dominion is said to have extended vigated the globe. What nation can boast a body of 2,000 miles into Africa, —whose commercial spirit pene- men more bold and hardy, more skilful, enterprising trated every known region ; and whose power and and patient under suffering, than the south sea whalers? riches attracted the envy and hatred of imperial Rome? What country in the world, without exaggeration, las Where is Carthage ? So utterly extinct, that even the furnished a marine, both naval and commercial, more curious antiquary is puzzled to trace the spot where that adventurous, intelligent and patriotic, than that of proud and magnificent city once stood. And what is America ? Rome, imperial, gigantic Rome ?—that haughty and The rapid advance of our country in the mechanic luxurious nation, which once bestrode the earth like a arts and manufactures, is no less extraordinary. It was Colossus, and carried its victorious eagles into every the selfish policy of England, when she held us in cololand and among every people who dared to resist its nial subjection, to confine our labors to agriculture. lordly edicts? That great nation—at once so renown- Our workshops were on the other side of the Atlantic: in ed for virtue and infamy, wisdom and folly, splendor Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester; and it was the and misery, has passed from the earth like a shadow, boast of her statesmen, that not a hob-nail should be leaving behind her, it is true, a mighty name—and im- manufactured in America. Oar planters and farmers, pressing modern society with her laws, language and of that day, were compelled to despatch their orders to literature. A new Rome indeed sprung up after the the mother country for the plainesi articles of clothing, empire of the Cæsars, which, arrayed in its bloody tiara, and even for the common implements of agriculture ; and sustained by the thunders of the Vatican, exerted and their wives and daughters were decked almost ex: a powerful influence on the destinies of mankind: but clusively from foreign looms. But mark the extraordibehold her now—a feeble and toltering state-almost nary results which have been produced by commercial shorn of her spiritual as well as temporal power; the as well as political independence! The inventive ingeresort it is true of the classical and fashionable tourist, nuity, and untiring industry of our countrymen, have but immersed in sensuality and crime, scourged by a raised us to a rank which not only threatens formidable desolating malaria, and exhibiting all the symptoms of rivalry, but absolute supremacy over our ancient misa speedy decline. Sic transit gloria mundi !
tress. If it be not invidious to discriminale, we may reWe turn to a far more refreshing picture, in the con- member with pride, that Whitney, the inven'or of the templation of our own favored land. The first thing collon gin, (worth millions to the cultivators of that arwhich strikes an observer, in glancing at the map of the Licle,) and Fulton, who first successfully applied " allUnited States, is its immense territorial extent. Stretch conquering steam” to the uses of navigation, were both ing from the British possessions, and the great lakes of citizens of the United States. The products of our loons the north to the extreme southern cape of Florida, and and spindles, not only supply materially our home conextending from the Atlantic coast to the territory of sumption, but are wafted on the wings of commerce to Oregon, it presents a frontier line of nearly 10,000 the uttermost parts of the earth. We exchange them miles, and comprehends an area of about a twentieth for the silks and teas of China, the precious metals and part of the habitable globe. Equal in dimensions with costly gems of Souih America, and the fragrant spices Russia in Europe, this great domain is ten times more of the Indies. Our natural waterfalls
, which in the extensive than the kingdom of France, and sixteen solitude of past ages, might have been the favorite times larger than Great Britain and Ireland. It in- haunts of the Naiads, have yielded their delightful mar. cludes wiihin its boundaries every variety of soil, and murs to the more useful, but less nielodinus, hum of almost every degree of temperature in climate ; and its countless manufactories:-despite political and secsurface is variegated by magnificent forests and beauti- tional hostility, that great branch of national indasful prairies, and intersected by noble rivers and majes-iry has been steadily advancing, and has now reachtic chains of mountains. Ils mineral resources too, are ed a degree of perfection, whether we regard the inexhaustible in amount, and incalculable in value. quality or value of its fabrics, which would be utterly But, remarkable as are the natural riches and prodigious astonishing to those who are not familiar with the de
tails. It would consume far too much of your time, to ducted with great ability. Our own Commonwealth, dwell upon those details; but it is worthy of remark, so long neglectful of ornamental literature, may now that Mr. Webster, in a speech recently delivered in the boast of a periodical, which has concentrated the rays United States Senate, estimates, upon satisfactory data, of some of the finest intellects in the country. Of the the annual value of the manufactures of Massachusetts multiplication of American books and authors, it would alone, at upwards of one hundred millions of dollars. be tedious to speak. Some years since, it was tauntIf this be true, and there is no reason to doubt it, what ingly asked by the Edinburg Review, “Who reads surprising proof does it exhibit of the creative powers an American book ?" That question was propounded, of American industry !
however, in the spirit of petulance, and not in the sinNext in order, may very properly be considered the cerity of truth. There is not a department in science almost magical effects which a few years have produced or literature, in which our young and vigorous republic in the condition of the country, and in the facilities of has not produced her competitors for fame. In Metaintercommunication by means of railways and canals, physics and Divinity, the name of Jonathan Edwards and the employment of steam power in navigation. alone is a tower of strength. In Philosophy, who has Scarcely thirty years have ela psed since the first steam- not heard of Franklin and Rittenhouse, and of Godfrey, boat was launched upon our waters, and now, of our the inventor of the quadrant, to say nothing of others, numberless rivers, bays and lakes, where is there one, both living and dead, who have won distinction ? In which does not bear upon its bosom these winged mes Jurisprudence, the opinions of Chief Justice Marshall, sengers of commerce ? A few years ago, and a railway and the legal disquisitions of Story and Kent alone, was got even known by name to one in ten thousand, - (if these were all the illustrious names in that departnow, it is estimated that there are nearly one hundred, ment,) would be sufficient to redeem us from reproach. either finished or in a course of completion, besides In History and Biography, a long catalogue of distinnearly three thousand miles of canal navigation in the guished authors might easily be adduced if necessary. whole Union. States and cities, which were once far The Life of Washington, by Jared Sparks, is one of asunder, and knew each other only by report; are now the most pure and beautiful specimens of biographical brought into constant and easy intercourse. Barriers writing, ever produced in any age or country; and and obstructions, apparently insurmountable, have Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, will be read with adbeen levelled and removed. The ardent, and almost miration even in the immediate vicinity of the Edinburg profane, wish of the lover, that time and space might be Review. The various departments of Natural History, annihilated, in order that he should be brought to the have been explored with untiring zeal and talent, by object of his idolatry, seems not so extravagant as for native Americans, and Audubon alone, by his great merly; and the famous carpet of oriental fable, on work on Ornithology, has placed himself side by side, which, he who stood, might be suddenly transported to with the best naturalists in Europe. In the field of distant regions, without any other effort than simple Romantic Fiction, if it be true, that we have produced volition, appears not so much the figment of romance, no one writer who can dispute the palm with Sir Walas it did in the diys of childhood.
ter Scott--none who can rival the masterly sketches of What mighty efforts have been made, particularly character--the loftiness—pathos--and inexhaustible ferin the last qrarier of a century, in the cause of Ameri- tility of that Shakspeare of novelists ;--we may, nevercan education, science and literature ? At the era of in- theless, boast of names which have won golden opinions dependence, there were not more than six or seven even from the British public. The graphic pictures of universities and colleges in the United States --now, Cooper and Kennedy—the polished style of Irvingthere are at least fifty. At that time education was the humor and truth of Paulding, and the simple but almost exclusively confined to the wealthy,--now, it is pathetic morality of our country women Miss Sedgdiffused in a thousand channels by means of academies wick and Mrs. Sigourney, have, each in turn, been apand primary schools, and sheds its influence alike upon plauded by the literary world ; nor should the name of the collage and the palace. In New England alone, Bird by any means be omitted, whose historical novels, with a population of about one-sixth of the Union, there descriptive of the conqnest and scenery of Mexico, have are no less than ten thousand free schools in active certainly never been surpassed in this country, nor prooperation.
bably, by the great Scottish magician himself. In PoeNext to the pulpit and the school-room, the newspaper try too, who can deny but that some of our bards have and periodical press may be said to exercise an all pow- evinced decided excellence ? Which of you have not erful influence on the feelings and opinions of men. been occasionally soothed by the pensive muse of BryDuring the revolution, it is ascertained that there were ant, or thrilled by the splendid lyrics of Halleck, or only thirty-seven newspapers published in the United charmed by the sparkling effusions of Willis? It is true, States, whilst, at this time, the lowest estimate would that America never has, and probably never will proreach iwo thousand. In periodical literature, our pro- duce a Homer, a Shakspeare, or a Milton; but these gress has been equally remarkable. A century has were mighty men who stand alone in creation, luminaries not passed since Benjamin Franklin attempted to estab- of genius, around whom lesser orbs are destined forever lish a magazine in the city of Philadelphia ; but even to revolve. under that great man's auspices, it lingered through With respect to the growth of the fine arts, in a soil a feeble six months' existence. Even at the commence so long supposed to be uncongenial, let those who are ment of the present century there was scarcely a publi- curious to inquire into details, read the lives and labors cation of the kind deserving the name ; whilst now, in of American artists, as depicted in the volumes of Dunthe various states of the Union, there are a hundred at lap. England owes much of her own reputation, as a least, and many of them liberally sustained, and con- 1 patroness of the arts, to the genius and perseverance of our Benjamin West; and the young British Queen wey all ages and countries, the multitude have occasionally are recently informed, has not disdained to have her fea- exercised the right of dethroning their rulers, and overtures transferred to the canvass by our countryman Sully. turning their governments, but this has generally been
But it is in eloquence, in its most comprehensive attended by violence and bloodshed; whilst here, on the sense,—in the powers of oratory, as displayed in the contrary, the people, if they choose, may pull down pulpit, at the bar, and in the senate—that divine art, their government, as a man may demolish his house; which carries captive the passions, and enchains the and, indeed, with no better reason; for the power is reason of men--that magical spell which enabled De- the same, whether it is thought that the foundations are mosthenes
rotten, or the architecture merely distasteful. " To wield at will the fierce democracy,"-
2d. In the principle of perfect political equality, by
which we mean, not that equality that fanatics and vithat wonderful faculty, by which the immortal Tully sionaries have imagined to exist, but the equal participersuaded and controlled an empire, or by which Henry pation in legal and constitutional rights. In Great dispelled the illusion of British invincibility—it is in Britain, where there is far more political freedom than eloquence, that America, by her free institutions, has in the rest of Europe, there are, nevertheless, odious acquired an undisputed pre-eminence. The hired emis- distinctions in rank and privilege, which doom one porsaries of England, who, after enjoying our hospitality, tion of society to perpetual inferiority. have returned home to revile our institutions and ridi- 3d. In perfect religious liberty, and the entire separa. cule our manners, have some of them had the candor to tion of church and state. In some parts of Europe, acknowledge that American orators were almost equal there exists what is called toleration; but this is in fact to the same class of men in Westminster Hall and the not the opposite, but the counterfeit of intolerance. To two Houses of Parliament. They think that our Clay, permit the existence of what are called heterodox creeds, Webster and Preston, are not altogether contemptible; implies a pretended right to enforce uniformity, when and this is an important concession, coming from that required by state policy or caprice. In America, we quarter.
reject all right of interference whatsoever by the civil But whatever opinions may be entertained here, or in magistrate in matters of conscience. civilized Europe, of the merits of our orators and states
4th. We differ from Europe, including Great Britain, men, our poets and philosophers—all will concede, that in the almost unlimited freedom secured to the press America has produced one man, whose equal, in
and to private individuals, in animadverting upon the
every respect, has never been recorded in the annals of time. conduct of our rulers. We hold the doctrine that error of him, it might be said, without poetical exaggeration, of opinion may be tolerated, when reason is les free to that he was
combat it. Free as England is, a publication there, in
tended to bring monarchical government into contempt, “A combination, and a form indeed,
would be treated and punished as a libel; whilst in Where every god did seem to get his seal, To give the world assurance of a man."
America, we may if we choose, hurl the thunders of the press against republicanism itself
, with perfect impunity. of him, it may with truth be said, that human nature, 5th. This country is particularly distinguished by the uninspired of Heaven, could not have reached a higher freedom it allows in private pursuits and professions, degree of excellence. If his fame was not so brilliant and by abolishing all distinctions in the transmission of as that of Alexander, Cæsar or Napoleon, he had a property. Even in Great Britain there are regulations title to greatness which they did not possess, in a life so innumerable which shackle the efforts of industry; and spotless, that even suspicion has never tarnished its their laws of property devolve the estate upon the eldest purity. How pre-eminent indeed must have been the son, though an idiot, in exclusion of younger brothers character of WASHINGTON, who, though he had wrested and sisters. from England the fairest jewel in her crown, extorted I now call your attention to the probable future destifrom British statesmen the tribute of admiration! In the nies of this nation, and the dangers which await us. What language of the illustrious Fox, "he derived honor less shall we be at the end of the next half century—a mere from the splendor of his situation, than from the dignity span in the life of a nation? Can we penetrate the of his mind; before him all borrowed greatness sunk mysterious veil which hides from us the future? Can into insignificance, and all the potentates of Europe we unroll the sibylline leaves, and read the history of became little and contemptible."
unborn generations ? There are some things, undoubtSuch then, gentlemen, is the rather imperfect sketchedly, which, without the aid of prophecy, may be termwhich I have endeavored to present to you, of the con- ed the predictions of reason and experience ; and these, dition of our country up to its present period of exist if they do not reach, nearly arrive at absolute certainty. ence. Before I attempt to list the veil of the future, or From the well known augmenting principle of populaventure a prediction of what we shall be, even in the tion, for example, in a country whose capacity to pron lifetime of some of the youngest of my hearers, permit duce the means of subsistence is almost unlimited
, we me to point out some of the more striking peculiarities may safely conjecture, that at the end of fifty years by which we are distinguished from modern civilized from the present time, our boundaries will contain at nations.
least seventy millions of people. Reasoning either from And, ist. Our institutions differ essentially from those the past, or from well established principles of political of Europe, in the principle of self-government, or popu- economy, there is every probability of such a resul. It lar sovereignty. The right of the people to build up, is almost morally certain that our increase in wealth modify, or totally destroy the political fabric, is here re will be commensurate with the march of population. cognised as a part of the organic law. It is true, that in Agriculture will improve, and bring forth her immeas: