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sing our American ignorance; but certainly we were of the forest. Steadfast in their faith, they considered "taken aback”--to use what we believe is a well-ac- persecution a privilege; torture, beatitude; and mar. credited sea-phrase—when Paul Powis, on parting with tyrdom, glory; with spirits which oppression could not Eve Effingham and her father, whose lives he had saved crush, nor cruelty tame, they had learned in the school on the coast of Africa, by his bravery and skill, politely of adversity, the worth of that freedom they could not remarked,

enjoy. They it was who brought to the western he""Chance has several times thrown me into your misphere the germ of liberty, out of which the indepensociety, Mr. Effingham-Miss Effingham--and, should dence of these United States was unfolded to the world. the same good fortune ever again occur, I hope I may

Though history proper makes us acquainted with be permitted to address you at once as an old acquaint- the grand features and general outline of those times,

Probably Mr. Cooper had found in his well-thumbed by revealing to us the persecutions and sufferings, and copy of the "Laws of Etiquette,” with which he is, formal manner, the spirit of the times. It is such works

heroism of the noted few, we cannot catch from ber doubtless, as familiar as Captain Truck with his favorite author, Vattel, that passing acquaintances, formed at

as the present, that complete the picture. Mr. Fon. places of public resort, and in journeying by sea and taine takes us familiarly by the hand, leads us to his land are not to be renewed, as of course, at after meet-home, points us to the ruins of his church, which bigoings!

try had razed, and where persecution forbade him to Mr. Cooper is soon to give us the sequel of his story, minister. He conducts us thence with his neighbors to in which he will attempt a complete delineation of secret worship in the wood. And entering into their American society. We predict that this attempt will feelings, we follow him and them to prison, where we prove a signal failure. His cosmopolitism, or so-called witness the sufferings, and are made fully acquainted freedom from prejudice, will be greatly in the way of a with the condition of a Huguenot of the 17th century. fair representation of our national characteristics. Be- Mr. Fontaine commences the annals of his family sides, as we have before remarked, bis fort does not lie from his great grandfather, John de la Fontaine, who in the description of refined and polished life :-now bore a commission in “Les ordonances du Roy," in the we think that there is enough refinement and polish in household of Francis I. He conducted himself so the United States, to put him at fault in the endeavor honorably and uprightly, that even after his father and to personify them in a fictitious character. We pre- himself had embraced protestantism at its first preachdict that he will fail; yet with all our hearts—for his ing in 1535, he remained in his office, and continued in country's honor, his own reputation, and our entertain- it during the reigns of Henry II, Francis II, and until ment-wish him, even at the expense of the prophet's the second year of Charles IX. disgrace, the most abundant success.

At the edict of Pacification, called the January Edici, granted in 1562, the protestants were lulled into

false security, and induced to lay down their arms. A TALE OF THE HUGUENOTS, John de la Fontaine trusting to the immunities guaran. OR, THE MEMOIRS OF A FRENCH REFUGEE FAMILY, tied to them, deemed himself secure without the proleco Translated and compiled from the original manuscripts of James Lion afforded by his office, and threw up his commission.

Fontaine, by one of his descendants. John S. Taylor: New But, continues our biographer, “Some of the sworn York. 1838.

enemies of God and his gospel, who had long watched An entertaining little story, plainly told, of one of John de la Fontaine, and conceived a deep hatred the most interesting periods in European history. The against him, thought the time had now arrived when naïveté with which Mr. Fontaine, in his old age, sits they might safely put him out of the way; and such down to entertain his Huguenot children with a family a man being got rid of, it would be comparatively tale—the simple manner in which he relates the stir- easy to disperse the rest of the congregation to which ring incidents and hair-breadth escapes of his adven- he belonged. turous life-carries the mind irresistibly back to the “It was in the year 1563 that some of these ruffians winter evening tales of childhood, and forcibly reminds were despatched from the city of Le Mans in search of us of the absorbing interest with which we used to him; and in the night time, when he least expected devour the legends of the nursery.

such a fate, he was dragged out of doors, and his throat Though it purports to be the tale of a family, the cut; his wife, within a few weeks of her confinemerit

, work before us is the story of thousands. Varying the had followed him, hoping by her entreaties, to save his detail, with slight alterations, many, besides his two life; but she shared the same fate. thousand descendants, may read their family bistory in “James de la Fontaine, my grandfather, then thirthe auto-biography of Mr. Fontaine. The persecutions teen or fourteen years old, with Abraham, two years and oppressions which drove him from his belle France, his junior, and another brother still younger, fied from drove our ancestors to the rock of Plymouth, and peo- the bloody scene, full of horror and consternation, with pled the wilds of a new world with the champions of out a guide save the providence of God, and no aim but civil and religious liberty. The protestants of Ger- to get as far as possible from the barbarians, who had many, the Huguenots of France, with the dissenters and in one moment deprived them of both father and mother, congregationalists of England and Scotland, fled from They did not stop until they reached Rochelle, then a their father-land, to seek a place in an unexplored wil very safe place for protestants, containing as it did, derness, where they might worship God, according to within its walls, many faithful servants of the living conscience and to reason.

God. These poor lads were actually begging their The early protestants were dragooned from place to bread when they arrived there, and were without any place in Catholic Europe, and hunted down like beasts recommendation save their appearance. A charitable

man, *

shoemaker, who feared God, and was in easy circum- “A rumor prevailed that there were meetings in our stances, received James into his house, and into his parish, and that I was the preacher; but we had no traiaffections also, and taught him his trade. They all lor in our ranks, and the papists were unable to discothree lived poorly enough, until James reached man- ver any thing with sufficient certainty to make a handle hood; he then entered upon commercial pursuits, and of. Our holy intercourse continued without any drawhis career afterwards was comparatively prospernus. back till Palm Sunday, 1684. On that day some of my In the year 1603, he married, and had two daughters neighbors came to my house as usual, and not finding and one son, (James) my father. He married again, me there they retired to the wood behind my house, and but had no addition to his family; and better would one of their number, a mason by trade, who read very it have been for him had he remained a widower, for well, officiated as their pastor. He read several chaphis last wife attempted to poison him; and though un- ters from the Bible, the prayers of the church, a sermon, successful, the affair became too notorious to be hushed and they sang psalms. This meeting having been up. She was carried to prison, tried, and condemned to open, it was noised abroad, and on Holy Thursday death. It so happened that Henry IV was then at from seven to eight hundred persons assembled on the Rochelle, and application was made to him for pardon ; same spot, the mason again their pastor; and on Easter he said before he granted it, he must see the husband day the number increased to a thousand. * * * * she had been so anxious to get rid of. When my “Warrants were issued; and the Grand Provost grandfather appeared before him, he cried out, 'Let her and his archers were in search of us. I was absent ; be hanged, let her be hanged, ventre saint gris! he is the the country people, having had timely notice, hid them. handsomest man in my kingdom.' I have seen his pic-selves in the wood, and after scouring the country, the ture, and it certainly did represent him as a handsome archers found no one but the poor mason, who had offi

ciated; him they took, fastened to a horse's tail, and "I now proceed to my own father, who at an early dragged to Saintes, a distance of fifteen miles. They age discovered great aptitude for study, and a very threatened him in all kinds of ways, and assured bim serious turn of mind. I was the youngest child of my that he would be hanged as soon as they reached the parents, and have but little personal recollection of your capital. It was late when they arrived--100 late, they grandfather, being only eight years old when he died. cold him for him to be hanged that night, and that one He was a man of fine figure, clear complexion, pure solitary chance for life yet remained to him, and that red and white, and of so dignified a deportment, that was to recant without delay; for if he once got within he commanded the respect of all with whom he came the walls of the prison, a hundred religions would not in contact. He absented himself on festive occasions, save him from death." but never failed to visit every family in his flock twice Mr. Fontaine was also thrown into prison; and here a year. The sick and afflicted were visited as soon as commences the adventurous lise of this singular man. their affliction was made known to him. When it was At the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, after he understood that he was praying with the sick, crowds had failed in the council of elders and ministers, to would fock to hear him, filling the house for you must prevail on that body to resist persecution, and call on know that in that district all were protestants, save the protestants to take up arms in defence of their relifour or five families. He was most zealous and affec- gion, their lives, and their property, he found himself no tionate, and employed all his knowledge, his talents, and longer useful as a minister, and fed from France, he and his studies in the service of God. He had great learn- his ladye-love, in an open boat, and passed as drunken ing, quick and ready wit, clear and sonorous voice, fishermen, under the guns of a man-of-war that guarded natural and agreeable action, and he always made use the coast against the escape of protestant refugees. He of the most chaste and elegant language; and genuine landed pennyless in England; mortgaged the jewelry humility, crowning the whole, gave such a charm to his of his intended ; engaged in commerce ; married; bediscourses, that he delighted all who heard him. * * *came a schoolmaster; then a preacher; afterwards a

“I now return to my own history. I went to Saintes weaver ; then a manufacturer of calimancos, and a groto reside, in order to have the assistance of two able and cer. His skill and success in the two last excited the pious ministers, Mr. Mainard and Mr. Borillak, in admiration, and soon the envy and jealousy, of those pursuing my theological studies. After awhile they around him. also were cast into prison, and I returned home. From England he retired to Cork, where he became

“My brother Peter had been minister of my father's a dyer and a manufacturer of broadcloths. Here he parish ever since his death, and about this time he was distinguished himself as a preacher, and was presented seized under a 'lettre de cachet,' and confined in the with the freedom of the city. But preaching from the castle of Oleron. The church at Vaux was levelled to decalogue, his sermon on the eighth commandment, the ground, and most of the churches in our province “ chou shalt not steal," applied with so much force to shared the same fate; thus my neighbors could not reach some of his congregation, exciting them against him, a place of worship without great fatigue; and feeling that he deemed it expedient to resign his charge as compassion for them, as sheep without a shepherd, I felt minister. He again engaged in commerce ; entered myself called on to invite them to join me in my family into the tobacco trade of Virginia ; removed to Bear devotions. The number who came soon increased to Haven; turned fisherman; became a justice of the one hundred and fifty, and I then recommended to them peace; was attacked by a French corsair; he, assisted not to come daily as heretofore. I frequently changed by his wife and children, defended themselves against the days of assembling, giving previous notice to the great odds ; drove off the privateer, who recruited ; repeople ; and we continued this endearing intercourse newed the attack; battered down the house ; capituuninterruptedly during the whole winter.

lated and carried his son off as a hostage. And he himself became a pensioner of the British government. / brance, so that we may never degenerate from those moHe retired from Bear Haven, always a poor man, and dest and estimable privileges. Let their example serve again became a schoolmaster.

us instead of the distinctions they could not transmit. Amidst all his misfortunes, he contrived to give his “The conformity of name appears to indicate idenchildren good educations. His sons, James, Peter and city of race. I wish with all my heart we could disco. Francis, and his son-in-law, Matthew Maury, emigra- ver the proof of it. For if we do spring from one stem, ted to Virginia about 1717; from whom have descended the separation cannot be far distant. It would be very the Maurys and Fontaines of this country.

agreeable to me to be related to a man who introduces Mr. Fontaine's grandson, the Rev. James Maury of himself with so much kindness as you do. But if it Albemarle county, was the lutor of our Jefferson and may not be by blood, it shall at any rate be by esteem, Madison, and the father of Mr. Maury of New York, well and the consideration and sincerity with which I have known in Virginia as the “Old Consul.” Many years the honor to be, sir, your most obedient and very humago, when in Europe, this last gentleman wishing to ble servant,

“MAURY, (Jean Siffrein,) trace the relationship between his branch of the family, “Abbé de l'acadamie des arcades de Rome in 1773. and the celebrated Abbé Maury, opened a correspon- Commendutaire de la Frenade, Chanoine, Vicaire dence with that dignitary, from which we venture the Général qui official de Lombez qui Prédicateur orfollowing extracts.

dinaire du Roi.

“ To JAMES MAURY, of Virginia.”

Paris, Sept. 8, 1777.. “I have just received the letter, sir, with which you

Paris, May 12, 1778 have honored me, and I hasten to thank you for the "I am no more in the habit, Monsieur, of being the many polite things you are so kind as to say of me, as slave of ceremony than you are. Your letters bespeak a well as for the desire you express to know whether we man amiable, educated, and well-bred, and far from belong to the same family. From the details into which finding any fault with your conduct towards me, I am you enter, it would appear we have a common origin; on the contrary much flattered. Do more justice to and in order that you may form your own opinion, 1 yourself and to me also, and above all make no apology think I ought to tell you at once all I know of the when I alone am to blame. * * * * name I bear.

“You are then on the eve of returning to Virginia. “My family, down to my father inclusive, was origi- I wish you all kinds of good luck. I shall be overjoyed nally from Arnagon, a small village in Lower Dau- if I can be of any service to you in Paris during your phiny, where they possessed several manors, and where residence in America. You should not doubt of my they had professed the protestant religion for nearly wish to hear from you as soon as you arrive. Besides two centuries. At the time of the revocation of the the ties of blood, which perhaps unite us, those of friendEdict of Nantes, my grandfather, who had eleven older ship are sufficient to inspire me with a lively interest. I brothers—himself too young to leave home with them- entreat you to believe that I can never be indifferent to was brought up by one of his maternal relatives in the success of a man who makes himself known with as another village, called Péage, three leagues distant from much merit as you do. Tell your countrymen that they Arnagon ; he married there, and abjured ; and at the are dear to all France; that we wish for their pros• commencement of the present century he settled at perity; that we glory in their triumphs; that we admire Valais, a town in the county of Avignon, where my their courage, and respect their virtues; and that we father died, after having re-established his fortune by could not feel more interested in a French army, than commerce and an advantageous marriage. Thanks to we are with the troops of Congress. Nothing is talked his good example, and the education he gave his chil- of here but the brave Americans ; and we must ac dren, they have done well, and he had the satisfaction knowledge that for three years past, they have multiof living to witness my advancement. Having given plied actions calculated to keep up our admiration. you this history of the branch from which I spring, I This people is destined to play a grand part on the will proceed to relate what I have heard of the others theatre of the world; but to whatever pitch of glory whom I have never known.

your descendants may rise, they will never forget the "Immediately after the revocation of the Edict of present generation, and the liberators of America will Nantes, all our property was confiscated. The eleven live forever in the memory of man. * brothers of my grandfather entered the king's service; three were killed at Mal Plaquet; another made his for the moment of your departure ; and be assured of the

“I pray you to accept my wishes for your welfare at tune, and died in 1762—he was a brigadier in the Royal distinguished consideration with which I have the honor Life Guards ; another settled on the confines of Peri- 10 be, sir, your most obedient and very humble servant, gord, or Guienne: but we have never had any inter

"MAURY, course with him, because of my grandfather having left

“Abbé de la Frenade, &c. &c. his native place, and his children becoming orphans at " James Maury, of Virginia." an early age. We are in total ignorance of what has become of the remainder of the family.

The merit of rescuing this interesting little memoir " You see, sir, that in supposing yourself a descend from the dusty shelf, where it had remained for more ant of one of these dispersed children, you will find no than a hundred years, belongs to a lady. In the office illustrious titles : we have little to boast of but the honor, of translator and compiler, she has acquitted herself with the virtues, and the reputation for honesty and upright-much grace, and deserves the thanks of the reading ness, which our ancestors always enjoyed in the neigh- public, no less than of her two thousand kinsfolk to borhood where they lived. Let us cherish the remem I whom her work is dedicated.

Vol. IV.

RICHMOND, DECEMBER, 1838.

No. XII.

T. W. WHITE, Editor and Proprietor.

FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

BY A SOUTHRON.

of our travail in the discussion of the perplexing ques. THOUGHTS ON SLAVERY.

tion, which we have placed at the head of this article.

Sternly fixed in our conviction that the best interests

and the ultimate destiny of this people are inseparably Addressed to the Hon. Hugh S. Legaré of South Carolina. connected with the maintenance of the bond of union;

with no prejudices or prepossessions for or against any “Truth is the supreme good, the first aliment of the sectional division of the confederacy; looking neither to soul. To search after truth, is the only employment the North, nor the South, to the East, nor to the West, correspondent with the high destinies of man. But like but filled with a holy love for our common country; the Egyptian Isis, truth is a mystic divinity covered thoroughly assured that the perpetuity of our instituwith a veil, which the wise and the virtuous of all ages tions mainly depends upon a calm and dispassionate have labored to raise, but which no one can entirely consideration of the exciting question of slavery; we remove." To attain truth, is to see and to know God, have buldly resolved to unfold those views which have for God alone is truth. In the merciful dispensations been the result of much reading and reflection. of Providence, the mind of man is made inquisitive, and We maintain the following propositions : its powers elastic and expansive ; and while to the 1. That slavery is coeval with society, necessary for faithful and persevering worshipper the light of truth its formation and growth, and was in the primitive ages is slowly revealed from the depths of the sanctuary, it a natural condition of a large portion of the human can never burst upon him in the fulness of its glory, for family. none can look upon it and live. It is only when this 2. That it is universal, and has existed in all ages. corruption shall have put on incorruption, when this 3. That it is neither prohibited by the MORAL nor the mortal shall have been clothed with immortality, that divine law. truth can be fully revealed. Such is the divine excel

4. That christianity alone, by its exalting influence, lence of truth, and such the inquisitive character of and by its peaceful and gradual operation, can abolish it. the human mind, that although truth be unattainable in 5. That its sudden abolition by any people, either by this life, the soul of man, in its progress towards this a fanatical perversion of the mild principles of chrishidden divinity, is so refreshed and illumined by every tianity, or by any intemperate agency, must be neces. emanation, that he is irresistibly attracted, and his sarily attended with frightful social, and political revulthirst for further knowledge increases with every ray of sions, destructive alike to the bond and free. light. This occupation, then, is the proudest and most In the discussion of this interesting question, we do beneficial exercise of the energies of man. To the con not design to treat each of these propositions separately, templative mind there is a striking similitude between or in the precise order in which they are announced ; the institution of the natural, and the correction and for, many of the evidences and illustrations, which mulenlargement of the moral and intellectual world. It tiply around us as the stars of the firmament, will throw was the exertion of the loftiest attribute of the Ancient their rays over the whole field we traverse. Before we of Time that imposed order on element, and gave to proceed to show that slavery derives its origin from the early confusion and commixture the impress of charac- very nature and condition of primitive man, it will be ter, and the form and figure of action. To power thus proper to form a correct idea of slavery itself. In treatexercised, and to benevolence so directed, there can be ing of the origin of slavery, we must carefully avoid the no homage so meet as that which proceeds from the common error of forming our opinions upon the present family reflecting his image ; and there can be no tribute state of things, or of permitting them to be influenced more correspondent or acceptable than the cultivation by the existing state of servitude ; but we must ascend and refinement of that intellect, which, emanating from at once to the primitive ages, and calmly observe the himself, lifts the creature man from the degradation of condition of the early settlers of the world. the dust, and places him in the scale of creation near to Of all the theories of the origin of slavery proposed the ministering angel. The intellect of man is the germ by modern writers--especially by those who immediately of truth. It is a spark struck from the eternal rock of preceded or followed the French revolution, when the ages, and its proper destination is the bosom of the attributes of the Deity himself were made to bow before parent. Let us remember that we have been endowed the insolent assertion of the “Rights of Man"—there with talents to be useful, and that the end of wisdom is are few which more feebly oppose the austere rules of truth. In all the vicissitudes of our earthly pilgrimage sound reason than those of M. de Montesquieu.. "Slalet us reflect, that, although the fulcess of truth is very,” says this far-famed writer, “slavery, properly unattainable here, there is a realm beyond the skies, so called, is the establishment of a right, which gives to where the chaste and virtuous mind will exult in a ful one man such a power over another, as renders him ness of vision, to which space will object no limit, and absolute master of his life and fortune.” And assuming to which time can oppose no barrier. It is this reflec- this position, he declares that "the state of slavery tion, which should incite us to untiring exertion in this is in its own nature bad ; that it is neither useful to the lofty and legitimate pursuit of the understanding. In master nor to the slave; not to the slave, because he accordance with these principles, truth is the sole object I can do nothing through a motive of virtue, nor to the

VOL. IV.-93

master, because by having an unlimited authority over unmitigated slavery, without fear of contradiction. He his slaves, he insensibly accustoms himself to the want proclaimed it at the head of the wisest philosophers of of all moral virtues, and becomes fierce, hasty, choleric, antiquity, who lived in the midst of slavery; in the face of voluptuous, and cruel.” This is not slavery as it exists all Greece, which concurred in his opinion ; he declared in this country, where it is protected by the laws, and it to the nations of the earth, which, as well as Greece, is by the fundamental compact made an integral portion possessed multitudes of intelligent slaves deeply interof the basis of federal representation. It is the abuse of ested in its refutation; it was advanced as an unquesslavery which is thus defined. And indeed the judicious tionable fact, open to the observation of the whole world, observer will readily perceive, that the denunciations of which none could question, because it was the delibeslavery in all the writers upon natural law, apply only rate opinion of the age in which he lived. Now, it to the flagrant abuse of this institution, and have no must be admitted that an assertion so positive, proreference to the qualified slavery or domestic servitude claimed without contradiction among a free people in an of the southern states.

age of slavery, in the midst of a multitude of nations M. de Montesquieu proceeds to state the various who held in slavery men who were learned in all the theories which have prevailed in relation to the origin philosophy of the schools, and imbued with all the wisof slavery, and condemns them all. But we will soon dom of the times, many of whom were distinguished discover that its true origin has escaped his observation, writers, deeply interested in its denial,—that such an and that it neither originated in despotism, nor tyranny, assertion, fortified with such testimony, is not without nor contract, nor war, nor conquest, nor by captivity. much weight in the investigation of the subject we disIts origin will be traced to the infancy of social institu- cuss. tions, and the necessities and condition of the human Having thus considered the force of this declaration family in those primitive ages, when the whole world of Aristotle, let us inquire whether we shall reject the was an unsubdued wilderness, and the labor of the testimony of all antiquity in its favor, and whether we whole human family was absolutely necessary for the can concur with M. de Montesquieu in the opinion, erection of the first establishments of man upon the face that the reasoning of the Stagyrite is inconclusive. of the earth. If this be the true origin of slavery, then An attentive perusal of the first six chapters of Arisall other theories are false, and this condition is founded totle's political treatise will show, that this great phiin the nature of man; and Montesquieu himself declares, losopher has revealed the true cause of the necessity of that slavery ought to be founded in the nature of slavery in the first ages of man. The first step of the things.”

primitive men in their march towards civilization, their Elevating our minds then above the prejudices of the first effort to subdue nature, was in the erection of a age in which we live, let us ascend to the early ages, domestic establishment. And for that purpose, in that and with a docile and sober spirit, seek for information rude age, when nature herself was wild and unsubdued, of those primitive races by whom slavery was introdu- were required multitudes of men, beasts of burden, and ced, among whom it was firmly established, and from instruments and provisions of many kinds. In the very whom it has descended to us.

words of the philosopher: "Instrumentorum autem The inquisitive author of the Spirit of Laws says, that hæc sunt inanima, hæc autem animata; mansueta ani"Aristotle endeavors to prove that there are natural mantia propter cibum et propter usum, feræ autem slaves, but what he says is far from proving it.” To cibi, et aliorum adminiculorum causa.” Now, at the Aristotle, one of the most profound of the philosophers origin of things, in the infancy of man, when the first of antiquity, we confidently appeal, and with the more establishment was formed, to whom would necessarily confidence, because in this iron age of utilitarianism, his appertain the right of controlling and directing these material philosophy, fortified with all the powers of the necessary agents? To the younger born-or to the “greatest, wisest, meanest of mankind,” has been pre- father of the family alone? And while there was yet ferred to the spiritual sublimity of the divine Plato. upon earth but a single establishment, the descendants Aristotle has expressly declared, that "in the natural of this family were compelled to remain with the parent, state of man, from the origin of things, a portion of the since it was impossible for them to establish themselves human family must command, and the remainder obey; elsewhere, the labor of all being required to complete that the distinction which exists between master and and maintain the first, before other establishments could servant is a distinction at once natural and indispensable; be made. The authority exercised by the parent must and that when we find existing among men freemen and necessarily have been absolute, and the nature of the slaves, it is not man, but nature herself, who has ordained services required of his descendants essentially servile. the distinction.” “Naturâ plura quæ imperent, et quæ pa- So that whatever the French philosophists of modern rent; natura aliter herus, aliter servus; esse igitur naturâ, times may say of the natural condition of a people, it is hos quidem liberos, hos vero servos, apertum est.” And evident that in the earliest state of society, the slavery of Montesquieu-himself

, while, in blind obedience to the the after-born necessarily existed, and originated in the spirit of the age in which he lived, he denies the force very nature of things, and in the primitive condition of of Aristotle's reasoning, boldly affirms that slavery did man. Notwithstanding the objection of M. de Montesnot originate in the abuses of despotism, nor by con- quieu to this declaration of Aristotle, we find in various ventional compact, nor by human institution, but that passages of the Spirit of Laws, the cause of the indispenit must be derived from the very nature of things—"de sable necessity of slavery clearly indicated. In the la nature même.” And this enunciation of the natural thirtieth book we find this unquestionable and historiorigin of slavery, so revolting to the friends of the rights cal fact openly proclaimed: "que dans les premiers tems of man, so directly opposed to the prevailing notions of les enfans restaient dans la maison du père, et s'y etablisfreethinkers, was made by Aristotle, in a period of Isaient”-that in the earliest times the descendants

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