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this subject, and we venture to suggest that he should seize upon his first leisure and give us a volume on the Aryan question. We want a volume from him giving us the result of his study of Latham, Penka, Rendal, Schrader, and Rydberg, with his own researches into this interesting field.
- The Discovery of America” contains a fine portrait of the author, a large number of old maps, several modern maps, and facsimiles and other illustrations of great help to the reader. No scholar can afford to neglect this work, which constitutes one of the most important contributions ever made to the historical literature of our country.
RASMUS B. ANDERSON.
place, anent a conos
of supe and fy vision
THE MICROSCOPE AND BIOLOGY.* Everybody is surprised the first time he enters the immense world of little things that lies just beyond the range of ordinary vision - a world of variety of shape and form and color for the curious, of symmetry and wonderful finish and adaptation of parts to uses for the deeper student, whether he be utilitarian in his motives, or purely philosophical. When in early days the navigators of the globe had sailed hither and yon, and discoyered the great continental boundaries, they were followed by scores of explorers who scrutinized every darkest cranny, some in greed of material gain which they often secured, others in desire of pure knowledge ; and these were always rewarded. So the early students of nature discovered continents of knowledge, and hosts of later followers are exploring their darkest depths in hope of gain or love of truth.
Perhaps the first who used a microscope in this search was Galileo. On this point there is some dispute ; but the first one whose discoveries by means of that instrument were considerable enough to notably enlarge the sum of knowledge was Anton Leeuwenhoeck, a Hollander. In 1673 he began sending to the Royal Society of Great Britain, then in its infancy, accounts of the numerous surprising discoveries he made with an instrument of the crudest simplicity, it being merely a glass bead set in a brass plate, through which he viewed specimens carried on a needle mounted in a
post fixed to the opposite side. His instrument was in effect much like the little “ watchcharms” which surprise us by a view of St. Peter's at Rome or the full text of the Declaration of Independence. With this simple little instrument this man of immense industry showed that popular dictum was in error when it declared that fresh-water mussels were made from mud, for he discovered that they grow from eggs, and, perhaps for the first time, watched the now familiar phenomena of their development. He first proved that fleas develop, not from “ heaps of moist dust,” but from eggs; he saw the scales of a butterfly's wing, the claws of the spider's foot and her spinnerets, also the insect's compound eye, and hundreds of other facts now perfectly familiar and commonplace.
With the use of the microscope and the needs of improvement a constant development has taken place, and microscopic construction has been pushed forward from the single lens magnifying only a few diameters, to the modern instrument magnifying ten thousand diameters and improved in every part. It is little wonder, in view of the technical excellence required by the needs of modern research, that technique in the microscope has suffered at times from the danger which besets technique in all art, of becoming an end in itself; and that in consequence a department of pseudo “ microscopy " has sprung up. The unscientific microscopist, companion of the coleopterist whom Holmes satirizes for his interest in mere collecting, is a man who adds continually to his treasures of specimen or appliance, but uses none for the purpose of quizzing Nature; he sees only what others tell him, and limits his ambition by the ownership of a homogeneous immersion objective and a fine collection of mounted slides. He cannot find you a specimen of ameba, or demonstrate its nucleus after you have found it for him. Yet technique is of the most fundamental importance to modern biological research. Not so many years ago the biological problems were largely what one may call tissue problems"; the shapes of cells were studied as components of tissues, but the phenomena within the cells were not studied or thought of. To-day all the biological problems are of the cells. Biology has at last become thoroughly informed by the idea that the cells are not only the units of structure but also the units of function, and that it is all-important that the condition of life and growth, action and death, of these individuals
* THE MICROSCOPE AND ITS REVELATIONS. By the late William B, Carpenter, C.B. Seventh edition, with text reconstructed by the Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co.
- ---- - - -- = shall be thoroughly understood. So new is, and finely illustrated. In it the plant and then this department of biological study that the the animal kingdoms are reviewed by typical young science of cytology, or the biology of the forms, representing principal groups, beginning cell, is not separately represented in as modern at the simpler and advancing through the sima work as the - Encyclopædia Britannica," pler multicellular to the highest organisms in which includes separate and very valuable ar both kingdoms. The microscopic plants and ticles on histology, or tissue science, and path animals receive most attention, and are deology, or tissue disease. Investigations of cells, scribed in detail, together with their life histohowever, require the utmost attention to tech ries, and with numerous references to importnique,-in fact, to every detail of using the ant and generally accessible monographs in microscope and preparing the object.
which the subject can be more fully investiThe revision of that standard work, Car gated if desired. The myriad forms of pond penter on the Microscope," is, on the technical life, both plant and animal, are many of them side, brought thoroughly down to date. The described and figured, and abundant suggesfirst half of the book (459 pages) presents a , tions for collection are given, together with very exhaustive and most valuable treatise | many biological details. Here the microscopupon every aspect of technique, optical princi. ist who has found some curiosity of life--mayples, theory of vision and the compound micro- hap a chain of emerald beads, with one, two, or scope, history of the instrument, various modi three large ones in the centre-can learn that ern models, measuring and drawing, devices, it is Vostor, an alga akin to Spirogyra, the and sundry accessory apparatus, including the beautiful long green filamentous plant so comlife-slide, for cultivating living micro-organ-mon in running water, and can further learn isms where they can be kept under continuous i details about its mode of life; or he sees an observation, and the preparation of objects for elongate creature swimming about with a pair observation by a great variety of methods, in- of small-sized whirlpools at one end, and he cluding many of the most modern. This part can readily find among the pictures a rotifer of the book is so clear and detailed that any enough like his specimen to assist his identifiinterested and patient student can acquire cation, and then by search he can find out a from it the necessary principles of microscopic great deal about his specimen,--and this every manipulation in all departments better than microscopist is anxious to do. The higher orfrom any other single work we know of. In ganic forms, both plant and animal, are treated this portion of the work the optical and me- histologically rather than cytologically, so that chanical side have received more attention than the modern biological standpoint is not fully histological technique, or the preparation of attained, though it is constantly bordered upon. the object for examination. The preservation In the opening paragraphs of Chapter XXII.. of biological material is so large a department on the Vertebrata, the importance of protoof technique to-day, and so many individual plasmic units, the cells, as the real agents, is methods exist, that only in special works on dilated upon, and foot-note references to the the subject can it be fully elucidated ; but the general literature of the subject are given ; subject deserves more space than it has re- but the writer goes on to say that as the work ceived, even at the expense of curtailing some is not designed for the professional student what the description of the instrument. A in histology, but to supply scientific informaplace should have been given for the formulas tion to the ordinary microscopist," no attempt of various preparation fluids, many of which is made " to do more than describe the most the working microscopist must learn to make important of those distinctive characters which for himself as the need of them arises. It is the principal tissues present." This is to be only just, however, to say that the care and regretted, for the ordinary microscopist is not preparation of the object has received very 'only interested in seeing the significance of detailed and considerable attention, and that tissue structure as an outcome or result of cellenough methods have been given for the ma- . life, but is inspired for further researches by jority of readers, while the specialists who use having a motive for study supplied him, - for the work will not be likely to go to it for such this problem of the meaning of structure is purposes.
sure to add real interest, and is perfectly appreThe second half of the book is devoted to hensible. The admirable manner in which the an account of the revelations of the micro- general anatomy of the minuter animals and scope. This is a volume in itself, thoroughly histology of the larger ones has been set forth does accomplish the aim of the editor and his
MORE OF MCMASTER'S HISTORY.* co-workers, and the “ordinary microscopist”
Nine years ago Professor McMaster began can find in it the help he needs for his researches; and yet we must regret that in ad
the publication of his - History of the People
of the United States.” “Much,” he announced, dition the scientific standpoint of to-day was
“ must be written of wars, conspiracies, and not constantly expounded.
rebellions; of presidents, of congresses, of emWe have written as if the microscope were
bassies, of treaties, of the ambition of political the tool of biologists solely. Until of late it was very largely so, but within a few years its
leaders in the senate-house, and of the rise of
great parties in the nation." Yet his chief use has opened a new and most important field of study in geological science. The new sci
theme should be the history of the people :
their dress, occupations, and amusements; the ence of petrography, also born since the last
changes in their manners and morals; the imedition of the - Encyclopædia Britannica,” re
provements in their economic and social conceives a very brief but valuable notice in Chap
dition. ter XXIII. It has been found possible to sectionize specimens of rocks, study their struc
The third volume of this notable work has
now appeared, covering the years from 1803 to ture, and, by the appearances of the component minerals, to read much of the previous history
1812. While not so conspicuously important of the mass,- a feat impossible before the ap
as the preceding twenty years, the period is plication of this method. The opinion is daily
still significant. In the purchase of Louisiana,
| Jefferson and his party abandoned their pringaining ground that some of the schistose rocks are not metamorphosed sediments, but
ciples of strict construction. They strained,
if they did not violate, the Constitution, and true igneous rocks which have been altered by
made the Union, in the late Alexander Johnpressure into schists. The optical methods now in use enable the petrologist to determine
ston's phrase, “ a fixed fact.” Then came the the constituents of rock-masses with astonish
Embargo and its arbitrary enforcement, until ing success, and the microscope is employed in
by 1808 the political somersault seemed com
plete. Democrats now stood where the Fedthe study of fossil botany and zoology with
eralists had stood ten years before, while Fedvaluable results. The departments of chem
eralists adopted the language of the Virginia ical crystallization and polarization do not re
and Kentucky Resolutions and openly advoceive notable attention in the work, for the
cated a dissolution of the Union. Placed bereason that they do not interest the ordinary
tween the combatants in the great European microscopist. The number of those who use the micro
struggle, attacked by English orders in coun
cil and French decrees, yet determined to rescope as a toy rather than a tool — that is, as
main neutral and “ conquer without war," the amateurs rather than professionally — is very
United States drifted from embargo into nonlarge, both in this country and in England;
intercourse and from non-intercourse into war. and there is a large sphere of usefulness for
These, with Burr's conspiracy and the war this revision of a popular work now in its seventh edition. It can be used safely, for it is
with the Barbary powers, are probably the
most obvious features of the period ; yet they as accurate as any work in so new a science as biology can be, and contains a vast amount of
form but a part of its real history. The pur
chase of a vast empire beyond the Mississippi, useful and stimulating matter. But its sphere
and the extinguishment of Indian titles in the of usefulness is by no means confined to the class to whom its editors so modestly recom
Northwest and the region south of the Ohio, mend it, for students of biology can hardly
opened a new territory to settlement. West
ward emigration increased rapidly. Up the find a more generally useful and handy book,
Mohawk valley toward the Great Lakes, over both for its valuable table and for its technical
the mountains, down the Ohio, went the streams matter, for its very numerous anatomic and histological figures, many from the best and most
of population, settling western New York and
Pennsylvania, southern Ohio and Indiana, recent writers, and for its very numerous bibliographical references. All the details of the
overflowing Kentucky and Tennessee, and
reaching northern Georgia and Alabama. bookmaker's art have received the most scrupulous attention, and a very comfortable vol. *A HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, "From this rush of people into the new country Newspapers, pamphlets, and statute-books have came economic consequences of a most serious nature.
from the Revolution to the Civil War. By John Bach Meume is the result.
| Master, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. In five HENRY L. OSBORN. I volumes. Volume III. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
been explored, and the mass of material thus The rapidity of the movement and the vastness of the
collected has been presented in a manner which area covered made it impossible for the States to do many of the things they ought to have done for the shows clearly its relation to later events, and welfare of their new citizens. The heaviest taxes that particularly to the “ American system ” of could have been laid would not have sufficed to cut out Henry Clay. Professor McMaster is an avowed half the roads, or build half the bridges, or clear half
protectionist, and is sometimes led into extreme the streams necessary for easy communication between the new villages, and for the successful prosecution of
statements. Thus: trade and commerce.”
“The protective system of the United States began
on the fourth day of July, 1789, when Washington Along the coast, capital was drawn to inter
signed the first of our many tariff acts. The day was nal improvements, but on the outbreak of the well chosen, for that act was a second declaration of inEuropean war turned quickly to shipping. dependence. It was a formal statement that hence“But the movement of the people westward not only
forth domestic manufactures were to be encouraged in went on, but went on with increasing rapidity. The
the United States, that henceforth we were to be in
dustrially independent, and that the goods, wares, and high price of wheat, of corn, of flour, due to the demand for exportation, sent thousands into the Genesee
merchandise of foreign nations should come into our country and the borders of Lake Champlain to farm,
ports on such terms as best suited our interests. ...
• The framing of the Constitution of the United and from them came back the cry for better means of transportation. The people of the shipping towns were
States was the direct and immediate consequence of the
ruin of every kind of trade, commerce, and industry quite as eager to get the produce as the farmers were to send it, and with the opening of the century the old
that followed the close of the Revolution. Nothing did
so much to break down the old confederation as its inrage for road-making, river improvements, and canals revived. The States were still utterly unable to meet
ability to regulate trade and encourage manufactures. the demand, and one by one were forced to follow the
It is not surprising, therefore, that the moment Conpolicy begun by Pennsylvania in 1791 and spend their
gress met under the Constitution urgent calls were
inade for the immediate exercise of the ample powers money on roads and bridges in the sparsely settled counties, and, by liberal charters and grants of tolls,
that had been given it." encourage the people of the populous counties to make This is strong doctrine, and we doubt such improvements for themselves.”
whether many qualified scholars would mainIn every part of the country were sought tain that the Confederation failed in any con" better means of communication, shorter chan siderable degree for lack of power to encournels of inland trade, and less costly ways of age manufactures. It is easy to exaggerate transportation.” Gallatin prepared his famous the demand for a protective policy before the report on internal improvements. Congress war of 1812; American manufactures were founded the coast survey and began the Cum- largely the creation of the Embargo, and owed, berland Road. “ After twenty years of cold as Mr. Henry Adams says, “ more to Jefferson indifference, the people ... found use and Virginians, who disliked them, than to for the steamboat.” The number of banks in Northern statesmen, who merely encouraged creased. Manufactures began to thrive, stim- them after they were established.” ulated by the exclusion of foreign goods and The other parts of the volume do not call the necessity of supplying the home market. for extended comment. The political and dipPolitical ideas changed, too. Democracy spread lomatic history of the period is told in a pleasrapidly. Property qualifications were abol ant and interesting style, which preserves its ished, religious tests were removed, life tenure distinct flavor of Macaulay, with somewhat of judges and the use of common law in the less of the flaring contrasts and forced transicourts were attacked. A body of young Re- tions that mar the earlier volumes. Characpublicans arose, bent on war with England terizations of men or events we rarely find, exand “ willing to face debt and probable bank- cept so far as these are implied in the selection ruptcy on the chance of creating a nation, con and grouping of material. To discover the quering Canada, and carrying the American author's opinion of Jefferson, we must combine flag to Mobile and Key West.” Debate was widely scattered comments. Thus, we are told checked in Congress by the introduction of the of his scientific tastes, of his “sluggish naprevious question. Henry Clay transformed ture” at last “ roused to feeble action," of his the Speaker from a presiding officer into the “manly courage," of his proneness to intrigue, leader of the House.
of his devotion to popularity ; his idealism, The account of such economic and social perhaps his most significant characteristic, is movements is the most distinctive part of the not mentioned. Perhaps Professor McMaster third volume of Professor McMaster's work. / shrank from attempting the portrait of a man
importance as the schism in the Democratic party are omitted entirely or given but brief mention. The neglect of political institutions is particularly noticeable. Something more is needed than outlines of acts of Congress or summaries of political pamphlets and debates. Social and economic facts can be properly understood only when we have a “bony framework” of institutions to fit them to, and no history of a people can be adequate which does not furnish such an institutional framework.
CHARLES H. Haskins.
whom even Mr. Henry Adams's sure hand found a bundle of contradictions. Where a judgment is ventured, it is not always fortunate, and sometimes suggests the tone of the contemporary pamphlet. Thus, Governor Winthrop Sargent is represented as “ holding the Federal doctrine that none but New Englanders were fit to be free”; General Wilkinson's three volumes of memoirs are “ as false as any yet written by man”; “no act so arbitrary, so illegal, so infamous," as the removal of Judge Pickering, “had yet been done by the Senate of the United States.” Another example of hasty conclusions may be found in the account of the Georgia land cession of 1802, where the author says:
“The three Commissioners for the United States were, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attorney-General. They were nominated on the last day of December, 1799. They fell, therefore, under Jefferson's rule, that all appointments made after the result of the election was known should be treated as null. But he chose to find another reason for getting rid of them. They were Heads of Departments, and, construing the action of Adams to mean that the Commissioners should be chosen from the Heads of Departments, he removed them and nominated his own Secretaries and Attorney-General in their stead." Neither of these explanations of Jefferson's conduct is in accordance with the facts. The third commissioner appointed by Adams was not the Attorney-General, but Samuel Sitgreaves of Pennsylvania. The nominations made December 31, 1799, were not made after the result of the presidential election was known, for the election did not take place until 1800.
Taken as a whole, the third volume is an improvement on the first and second, although it shares with them a certain deficiency in historical perspective, implying the lack of a well thought out and clearly defined plan. Even the introductory announcement is at times disregarded. More space than was promised is given, and rightly, to “presidents, congresses, embassies, and treaties," and even more is said of “wars, conspiracies, and rebellions.” Thirty-five pages are devoted to a detailed account of Burr's conspiracy, and this in a history which dismisses the formation of the Constitution in less than half this space. It is difficult to see on what principle this can be defended; one can hardly keep down the suspicion that the picturesqueness of the subject has something to do with the extended treatment it receives. Such disproportion is the more to be regretted since matters of so much
A BOTANIST'S JOURNEYINGS.* The title of the recently published autobiography of Marianne North, “ Recollections of a Happy Life,” is hardly indicative of the real character of the book. In fact, it is a work of the same nature as Charles Darwin's “ Naturalist's Voyage Round the World,” and, though of lesser interest and importance, has nevertheless. considerable significance as a contribution to science and to knowledge of foreign lands. Miss North's chief interest in life was flowerhunting, her ambition being to examine and paint on the spot specimens of the flora of every country of the world.
The accomplishment of this purpose led her through many and long wanderings. One of the results is the magnificent collection of botanical paintings made and presented by her to the Kew Gardens, together with the building in which they are housed ; another is this diary of adventures on her sketching tours, which embraced Jamaica, South America, Japan, India, Borneo, Australia, Seychelles Islands, Africa, and many other localities. A “ happy”. life truly, since any successful achievement of a life purpose is a great happiness; yet surely it demanded an unusual gift for seeing the bright side of things, to carry one through these long and toilsome journeys, often in poisonous climates, with bad food, perils by land and sea, by fire and flood, and enduring hardships which few women travelling absolutely alone would have dared to face. One of Miss North's friends speaks of her faculty of finding pearls in every ugly oyster ; a driver in California left her with the parting recommendation that “she was one of the right sort; she neither cared for bears nor yet for Injuns." Warned
* RECOLLECTIONS OF A HAPPY LIFE: Being the Autobiography of Marianne North. Edited by her sister, Mrs. John Addington Symonds. In two volumes. New York: Macmillan & Co.