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of a division of English guards, and a brigade of cavalry, | and without any supreme head, was of little importance. which had just arrived upon the field. Then it was The Emperor was no longer with them, and the ele. that there was cause to regret the imprudent movementments of resistance, which the imprudence of the march which had involved the brigade of carabiniers. When of the enemy might have rendered powerful, were this fatal movement was ordered, this brigade was sta- paralyzed from the want of any direction. It was with tioned precisely at the point where the English cavalry difficulty that the exertions of the fourth corps of debouched ; and this cavalry Na himself attri- cavalry at Senlis, succeeded in enabling the wrecks of buted the retreat of the guards. It is probable that the French army to arrive before the enemy under the this brigade would have been enabled to arrest the walls of Paris. It has been said that the news of the movement of the English cavalry, and thus have pro- abdication of the Emperor, decided Wellington and tected the retreat of the only reserve of the army. Blucher to march directly on Paris; this is a mistake.
Now, everything was finished; a retreat was inevi- The report addressed to the English government by table. Night came on-it was impossible to re-establish Lord Wellington, immediately after the battle of Wa. order, or to arrest those who were running away. terloo, contains these words: “I shall direct my course There was nothing but confusion and a fearful and by forced marches, and by the shortest route, towards Paris." irremediable rout, and such as might be expected after When he wrote this on the evening of the 18th, he had a battle, in which the whole army, even to the last received various news from Paris, but he could have battalion, had been engaged.
had no knowledge of the abdication, which was only The causes of the loss of the battle of Waterloo have signed on the 22d. been long discussed. There was one great cause, It was on the 29th of June that the army entered the predominant over the rest, and that was the great dis- lines of Paris, and not until the 1st of July that the proportion of the forces. When armies are nearly corps of Marshal Grouchy rejoined it. Marshal Daequal in intelligence, discipline and valor, victory will voust assumed the command. His first care was to naturally range itself with the greatest number of send a detachment of three hundred horsemen to St. troops, unless some miracle, some one of those extraordi- Germain, for the purpose of guarding that point, and nary events, on which it is always imprudent to reckon, seeing to the destruction of the bridge of Pecq, and intervene.
watching all the passages of the Seine as far as Mantes; The picture of disorder and confusion on the fearful but in the meantime, a Prussian detachment bad prenight that followed this battle was frightful indeed; it sented itself, and treason had opened a passage for it. was a general sauve qui peut.
The occupation of this important point, which opened From this moment the Emperor completely disap- to the enemy a passage over the Seine, decided its pears from the military operations. At Charleroi, general movement in that direction. They had thus where he had left no orders for rallying the army, they the double advantage of turning our positions at Montwere even ignorant of the direction he had taken. martre, and of attacking Paris in the rear, if it was deSome troops of cavalry were united, who succeeded in cided to force an entry. It obtained, besides, positions covering the retreating movement, and corps were that would menace us. It sufficed, in fact, to glance at formed on the route of such fragments as they encoun- the heights of Meudon, St. Cloud, and St. Germain, to tered. It was only at Avesnes that it was known that be convinced that the French army was not in a condiLaon was indicated as the rallying point.
tion to dislodge the enemy. Marshal Davoust has We are only at the 20th of June. The second been reproached for not having profited by this moveabdication of the Emperor, signed the 22d, was only ment, to fall on the flank of the enemy in passing by known to the army on the 24th. But from the 20th St. Denis, and thus to have let slip an opportunity for the cause of Napoleon was lost, even among his own crushing it. But could so decisive an action have been troops. The word abdication had been pronounced by attempted with troops oppressed by fatigue, and absothe army, even before it was debated at Paris. On the lutely demoralized ? And at what moment could this 20th of June many of the most distinguished Generals sortie have been made? The march of the enemy was of the army were assembled at Avesnes. At this meet- not known, when, thanks to a timely treason, it was ing, in the presence of a Prince of the Emperor's family, executed ; and the instant that it was executed it was and with his approbation, the errors of Napoleon were too late to act with effect. denounced in the most violent terms, and the necessity
But the General-in-chief of the French army was, of depriving him of the command was as boldly as- and ought to have been influenced by an anxious desire serted.
of preserving Paris from an assault. He could not have Certainly France had still other resources. An army been justified in sacrificing the capital to the hope of a of imposing size might, in the early days of July, have triumph without object, and of which, the result would been assembled at Aisne. It might still have been expect. probably have been unimportant. ed that the enemy would march with prudence ; it could The passage of the Seine, and the establishment of hardly have been supposed that, inflated with the pride the main body of the enemy on the heights of Meudon of victory, it would have neglected all the ordinary and Châtenai, had rendered the situation of Paris and measures of precaution; that it would have left strong that of the French army much more critical. The places behind it without taking the necessary steps for army had to repass in great haste to the left bank to masking them, and have marched upon Paris without cover the capital, which was completely exposed on that troubling itself with our army thus left on its flanks. side. It was anxious for battle, and would have deBut certain devoted friends had taken the pains to re- fended, with desperation, the trust confided to it; but assure the enemy upon the condition of the interior; the Generals of the enemy would have taken care to and an assembly of disorganized troops, without orders, lavoid hazarding an ill-timed attack against troops, de
termined to struggle to the very last, and for the sole | ness and sang froid of the old regiments destroyed in purpose of advancing, by only a few days, their entry Russia, and in the campaign of 1813. into Paris. They accordingly took up their positions That there were treasons in the interior, I have no on the formidable heights of St. Cloud and Meudon, doubt. I have spoken of that of the bridge of Pecq, stretching out their right towards the road to Orleans, the author of which is well known: there were others with a view to surround the French army, and to starve besides. The Generals of the enemy would not have out the capital. Will it be pretended that Marshal risked a direct movement on Paris, had they not been Davoust should have sought out the enemy? He might invited thither. Fouché, a man of great cunning, perand ought to have received battle on the plain of Mon- fectly comprehended the dangers of the Emperor's situatrouge; he desired it and he waited for it, but it would tion; he had foreseen the issue of his attempt, and had have been the height of imprudence to have offered it abandoned him for the purpose of providing for his own elsewhere. He could not suffer himself to be shut up future interests. But these treasons were of but little in Paris, necessity forcing him to absent himself before service to the enemy, who did not require them. the roads were closed against him; nor could he allow To arrive at the truth concerning the catastrophe of the capital to fall unconditionally into the hands of the 1815, we must always recur to the same point. Sucenemy. In this delicate situation he was compelled to cess could only have been secured by a miracle, and treat for the surrender of a place which he was unable fortune was weary of serving us. any longer to preserve; and to take advantage of the impatience of Wellington and Blucher, to secure the fate of Paris and the retreat of the army. These considerations determined the capitulation of the 3d of July. Had that capitulation not been made, it would
WATER. not have been the less necessary for the army to quit Paris; orders indeed, had been given, to effect that very that does not at once feel and confess the influence of a body of
There is no man, however cold or unexcitable in disposition, night a retreat which it would have been imprudent to water. Go where you will, or with whom you may, when you defer. The loss of a battle would have delivered Paris approach the ocean, or an inland stream, or lake, every one to the horrors of a city carried by assault-and yet will, in some way, by some exclamation, show that if all other battle was not refused ; but in consequence of the ene-things fail, this, at least, will awake the "sleeping poetry of
the soul.” The most grand and magnificent view of water, ig my's inaction in avoiding a coinbat, a retreat was forced from some craggy cliff, to watch the ocean in its wrath, when upon us.
lashed to fury by the howling tempest. The most soothing and And besides, were the French army and its leaders pleasant view, is of some small lake in the heart of the woodswell convinced of the disposition of the population ? the sun just tipped by the trees, and not a sound nor a breath The royalist party, overwhelmed by the event of the moving, or aught to disturb, save some “ hastening bird on
weary wing." The beautiful and clear reflection of every tint 20th of March, had been restored to life by the rumor and delicate tracery of the woods in the glassy water, the calmof the defeat at Waterloo. The Emperor had quitted ness of its surface, and the holy silence that reigns around, never Paris, and left his most decided partizans without de- fajl to speak to the heart. There is every variety of water fence and without hope. From the 22d, the minister, view, all pleasing and exciting-such as the heavy water-fall
the little mountain stream, dashing in merry haste to the valley then become the head of the provisionary government, below-the village rivulet, with its farm houses and rural beau. had been negotiating with the Bourbons; a second re- ties, or the broad inland river that affords vigorous support to storation was inevitable. What good then would have busy industry. But, altogether, I have never met with any been effected by the floods of blood which might have water view more varied and beautiful, or peculiar in its influ. still been shed ? Far from condemning Marshal Da- ence, than that of the James River, near Richmond. Every
stranger, as well as inhabitant, confesses its charms, and the voust (and without minutely scrutinizing his intimate pencil has striven, in vain, to trace its beauties. But lovely as motives), we may thank him for not having yielded to is the river by day, yet to me, there is a melancholy pleasure the puerile vanily of risking a battle which might have and fascination in it at night, which I have never experienced added something to his military glory, but which, even
elsewhere. The variety of its course, and the steady, unceas.
ing roar, made doubly impressive by the absence of other in the event of the most brilliant success, could not sounds, lead on the imagination with an irresistible impulse. have prolonged the struggle more than eight days if I am alone in this peculiar feeling, I am not alone in my ad. farther.
miration of its other attractions. While under this influence a Finally, treason has been spoken of; there was none few nights since, I penned the following hasty in the army. There were three desertions on the
ADDRESS TO JAMES RIVER. evening of the 17th ; but they had no influence on the events of the campaign. Faults committed at that 'Tis sweet, as falls the twilight hour period, have also been spoken of. There were some, O'er river, hill, and scented glade, doubtless, but the principal were those of the Emperor. When bees have left the closing flower, It has been asserted, that the Generals exhibited weak And all is soft in deep'ning shade, ness and indecision, and that the devotion of the sol. To muse within some woody spot, diery was thus paralyzed. In this statement there is Or near some gently sighing stream, some truth and some falsehood. It will not be asserted 'Till worldly cares are all forgot, that the Generals Count Lobau, Count de Valmy, And life seems like a pleasant dream. Duhesme, Foy and some others, exhibited weakness or But sweeter far, when day hast cast indecision. But there was but little enthusiasm in the Its closing glance upon the scene, army. The Generals, for the most part, fatigued with To moralize upon the past, war, dared not risk anything, because they no longer And dream of things that once have been. found in their soldiers, who were too young, the firm Fair river ! by thy troubled tide
When those that hear thee now are gone
And fades within Eternity.
L. R. S,
THE USURPER OF MILAN.
Oft have I watched the daylight fade,
I'll tell thee what, my friend,
And I'll keep him so
King John. The death of Lorenzo de' Medici, surnamed the Magnificent, on account of the lustre of his private virtues and his enlightened patronage of letters and arts, preceded the commencement of an era fraught with events destined to be fatal to the interests of Italy. The policy, prudence and reputation of this prince had contributed to maintain the balance of power among the republics, and to restrain the ambition of many petty sovereigns, particularly those of Naples and Milan.
Ludovico Sforza (Il Moro) governed Milan as Regent during the minority of his nephew Gian Galeazzo ; and when the latter attained the full age of manhood, continued to exclude him from the exercise of any share of the power belonging rightfully to him. The young duke was feeble and imbecile in character, and of infirm health, ill able to struggle against the encroachments of his uncle; but he had married Isabel of Arragon, daughter to the Duke of Calabria ; and the lofty spirit of that princess ill brooked Ludovico's usurpation. With the timidity ever attendant on the consciousness of wrong, Ludovico stood in awe of the courageous resolution of this lady, whom he knew to have appealed to her grandfather, the Neapolitan king, in behalf of her husband; and his fears were increased by the intelligence of a league between Piero de' Medici and Ferdinand of Naples; intelligence followed speedily by a demand that the Milanese duke should be put in possession of his legitimate authority. Determined not to relinquish the power so unjustly gained, Sforza looked abroad for aid; endeavored to persuade the Pope, the Venetians and the Duke of Ferrara to unite with him for their mutual protection, and apprehending this measure insufficient for his security, took the fatal step of inviting the French king into Naples; thus sealing forever the ruin of Italian independence.
The throne of France was at that time occupied by The apartment was hung with various pictures, conCharles VIII. A grant of the kingdom of Naples by spicuous among which was one larger and more highly Urban IV, in 1274, to the brother of St. Louis, the Count finished than the rest, the work of a Cremonese pencil. of Anjou and Provence, had often been the ground of It was the full length portrait of one of the former claims on the part of the French monarchs to the sove. Dukes of Milan; a green silk curtain, drawn to one reignty of that portion of Italy; and when the pro- side of the gilded frame, showed the care taken to mise of aid from Milan offered a fair opportunity for protect it from dust and smoke, with which defilement securing so rich a province, Charles VIII, in whose it was especially threatened from two chimneys, whose right ancient pretensions had merged, resolved to lose immense jambs, bright with burning faggots, yawned no time in making good his claim. He prepared to like some tomblike chasm on either side of the room. pass the Alps with a powerful army.
In front of the portrait was a seat covered with cloth, Though Ludovico had judged his application to the embroidered with silver, designed for the occupation of French king to be his only means of humbling Ferdi- the principal individuals in affairs of state business; five nand, and securing himself against the danger of being or six other seats arranged with less luxury, completed compelled to resign his illegal authority, he was not the furniture of the room. without misgivings in his secret heart, as to the ultimate The Regent remained sitting with his head leaning consequences of the step he had taken, in tendering on his hand, apparently lost in thought; nor started his arms and treasures for the assistance of Charles. from his revery, when a footstep without, and a pressure Scarcely was be certain that his invitation had been on the fastenings of the door, gave notice of the approach eagerly accepted-scarcely saw he, in prospect, the first of an intruder. When the door opened, his eyes glanlances of France gleam along the defiles of the Alps, ced towards it; yet without changing his position, he than his restless fears were again awake; and a thou- pursued his meditations; while the air of his visitor sand apprehensions of which he had never dreamed in indicated the easy familiarity of one used at all times his eagerness for revenge, started up before him. But to approach unbidden the presence of his superior. it was now no time to shrink; he had but to rush on. His garment of black serge was simply fastened by a ward in his dark and crooked career, and close his eyes ribbon of the same color ;-thick bushy mustaches gave to the dangers that menaced himself.
an air of gravity to features which, though strongly It was towards the close of a brilliant day in the marked, were indicative of low cunning and repulsive autumn of 1494. In the castle of Pavia the ill-fated to the utmost degree, nor rendered less so by an eviyoung duke of Milan, then lying dangerously ill, was dently assumed expression of audacity, meant to pass retained with his duchess, who was permitted to attend for conscious dignity. He came near the table, and him. Apartments were assigned them in a remote part remained standing a few moments, till Ludovico, with of the castle ; and in a solitary room used as the pri- a deep sigh, removed his hand, and spoke, more as if vate council chamber, sat he who held their destiny communing with his own mind than addressing his in his hands, the crafty Regent. Ludovico was alone: companion. the rich light of the setting sun streamed through the “It will not do!” he exclaimed in a tone of desponhigh arched painted windows, and colored with crimson, dency; "the train is fired, and I fear me, will spread fell full upon his figure. He was seated at a table cov- further than we wot of. He has leagued with Maxiered with a carpet and strewn with par nents and milian; the cowardly Florentine is ready to throw himpapers, on which his eye seemed to rest with an expres- self at his feet; fate opens him a golden path to vicsion of vexed dissatisfaction; he looked like some lonely cory-worse than all-Orleans is on his way to Genoa! and baffled magician, cheated by the very agents he had Ah! well I know at what prize he is aiming!-Signor summoned to minister to his success. His features, as Malvezzi, look not so fateful! here alas ! even thine far as they could be discerned, haltshaded by his hand, art cannot avail me-unless I could send thee to cure were most forbidding; his complexion, from the dark. :he distemper at Asti." ness of which he is supposed to have received the ap “If in aught I could pleasure your highness”-began pellation of "the Moor,” wore yet a gloomier tinge the courtier-like physician. from his aspect of disappointment; his eyes, oversha “Talk not of pleasure to me, I am foiled—entangled dowed by thick bushy brows, flashed with painful keen in the web mine own policy hath helped to weave. I ness. The whole expression of the countenance, was would to heaven, Malvezzi, thou wert as wise a statesnot one of malignity, but of cunning, and shuffling man as thou art a skilíul leech! thou, at the least, meanness; the quick glance, and momentary contrac- art faithful.” tion of the brows, showed too the workings of a mind “Hath aught chanced to trouble your grace ?”. oppressed by fear of approaching evil; while the occa “All-all-falls out to my discomfort. Look al sional movement of his lips denoted that he was labo- these pacquets; they bear me the intelligence that ruin, ring to form some decisive determination.
on every side, is falling upon Naples; yet from my A loose robe of dark colored velvet, lined with grey soul I repent me that I prepared that ruin! Charles of miniver, gathered round his waist by a belt from which France is recovered of his malady—and hastens to protruded the hilt of a poniard studded with gems-consummate my vengeance—yet would the ill-fated and an undervest of silk, composed his dress ;-a bon project had never been born of my unlucky brain!" nel of the same material with the robe, was carelessly “Has your highness fears of him? Hath he not thrown upon his head, and a chain of gold, depending guaranteed you possession of your dominions ?” from a richly ornamented collar, fell as low as his waist, “ Mostro! what is the word of a king, pledged in bearing the star of a religious order which had been purchase of men and treasure, when his desires are fulconferred on him by the king of France.
filled, and its violation can pleasure an ambitious rela
tive? Thou know'st the claims of Orleans on the “This very night! I repeat it”-answered Sforza; Dukedom of Milan ?"
“the very fiend bath spurred him from Asti lither“Trust your fortune, my noble lord-shrink not from to visit, forsooth, his young cousin the duke, who he distant evils !"
has heard, lies ill at ease in this castle; I tell thee, “Never! Malvezzi!" returned the Regent, pushing leech, his coming must be provided for! I must forth from him the pile of papers, and rising from his seat. to meet him-and this moment; be it thy care to pre“Yet one step-one-ay, and that in my power, could vent his sight of the prince. Shorten the business, if place me higher, and secure my elevation. The inves- needs be-enough-Charles must not behold my netiture of this duchy, granted me by the king of the Ro- phew alive! I leave all in thy hands." mans, will avail nought with the discontented populace, The physician placed his hand on his heart—as if to nor with foreign courts, so long-so long—as any can intimate his sense of the responsibility--and with suldispute my rights.”
len haste, Ludovico departed. Ere an hour had passed, "I understand you,” replied the physician; "you the principal street of Pavia presented a gay and stirwill soon be undisputed lord of Milan.”
ring scene. The King of France, accompanied by “Ha! is my nephew _” gasped, rather than spoke twelve chevaliers, the flower of his nobility, entered the Regent.
the city, received with the show of cordial reverence “The malady gains strength apace. There are none and exulting friendship by the Regent. The young but myself to attend him”-answered the other-ap- monarch rode a superb Arabian horse, richly capariproaching nearer, and speaking in a whisper-while a soned in the Eastern style, which, with others of the glance supplied the horrid meaning to his words. same breed, he had received as a gift from Bajazet the
Sforza could not suppress an inward shudder as his Magnificent. The royal armor was of silver, elegantly “trusty friend” thus announced the partial success of wrought by Spanish artificers ; it covered his shoulders his villainy; but he quickly mastered the emotion-- and breast, but descended not lower than the hips ; and said in a low voice-"I fear me, we have been too from the lower border hung small plates of silver, light hasty; the life of a prince, good friend, hath too many and easily moved aside, so as to prove no impediment watchers to be safely tampered with ;--and the Lady to the rider. He wore a species of helmet of the same Isabel"
metal, the front of which was surmounted by a crown “Think not so lightly of mine art--your highness of the purest gold, while the back was turned up. It Her vigilance hath ample employment;-she has a was closed at the side of the crown by a nail in the child
form of a star, whose rays were alternately of gold and “Harm him not-on thy life, I charge thee !” ex- silver. The upper part of the helmet was divided, and claimed Ludovico, catching his arm, They can be resembled in shape the top of a cardinal's hat. The readily disposed of whenever they are no foes to dress was becoming, and added grace to the deportment mine ambition ! meddle not with the mother and child !” of the monarch, who had not been so fortunate as to
"Nay”--said Malvezzi--"I will pledge them health receive from nature the advantages of a fine figure, or and safe passage from this good city, when the young a prepossessing countenance. duke is no more. His days, I warrant me, will not be At his side rode Brissonet, his favorite, and one of long-for I know your highness' strait. But signify his chief encouragers to the present enterprise. His your will--he shall not live till midnight."
attire was a strange mixture of the dress of the soldier “My good Malvezzi,” replied Sforza, with a slight and the ecclesiastic. He wore a vest of white silk and ironical emphasis on the adjective, “we are beholden cloth of gold; a white mantle, fastened on his left for thy zeal. Could the state boast many servants true shoulder with a rich clasp of gems, was suffered to fall, as thyself—;" but ere he could finish the sentence, confined, however, at the waist by a belt embroidered an unwonted tumult without, and the sudden winding with gold. The sword at his side, the gift of his royal of a horn, changed the current of his thoughts. The master, was curiously ornamented; and in contrast to messenger who had sounded the signal for admittance, the implements of warfare, a cross of gold, attached to after a single blast, began to play an air of victory; the a violet ribbon, hung on his breast. In his left hand he wild and exulting tones of the instrument rang through carried a small shield, destined it would seem, more for the silent eorridors of the castle, and smote with no ornament than defence : upon a white field were blendwelcome music on the ears of its master.
ed two devices ;-one in French had for a motto “L' “By our Lady”-ejaculated Sforza~"but I should humilité m'a exalté ;" the other in Latin, ran thusknow that peal! without there-hoa !"
“ Ditat servata fides." The summons was speedily answered by the entrance The personage who after Brissonet rode next in the of an attendant, who with a deep obeisance presented king's train, was of a very different character from the a pacquet; the Regent glanced impatiently at the su- ambitious minister, yet one of no insignificant imporperscription, tore asunder the silken string that secured tance in those days in the equipage of the court—the its folds, and broke the massive seal, which bore the king's dwarf. He was mounted on a low horse, the royal arms of France. Whatever intelligence the letter trappings of the animal adapted to the figure of the contained, seemed most distasteful to the reader; it rider, who was arrayed in a doublet of yellow silk, was with deeper paleness on his dark features, that he with a square cap of deep red, so formed as not to add refolded the pacquet, and calling his attendants, bade even the fraction of an inch to his stature. He had at them prepare his train to go forth upon the instant; while his side a small flat sword, and a horn not unlike those he whispered some directions in the ear of Malvezzi. with which the swine herds of Germany were wont to
"To-night?" gasped the bewildered physician—"the summon home their charge. His small round eyes, King of France in Pavia to-night ?"
quick in motion and flashing with unusual brilliancy,