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T.W.WHITE, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.
PAGE 1. Prose Fragment. By a Bachelor.......
481 13. Benefits of the Reformation on the Happiness of Man. 2. Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. In reply
In reply to an article in the March and subsequent to an article in the April number of the Messenger
Nos. of the Messenger. By a Native of Goochland, entitled “The New York Review of Mr. Jefferson
491 14. Biographical Sketches of Living American Poets and 3. Notes and Anecdotes, political and miscellaneous,
Novelists. No. IV. William Gilmore Simms, Esq., from 1798 to 1930. Drawn from the port-folio of an
of South Carolina...
528 officer of the Empire, and translated from the French 15. Pelayo; a Romance of the Goth. Extracts from this for the Messeuger. Baron Taylor and the Pyramids
new work, now in the press, and to be published in a of Egypt. The Pacha of Egypt. The Slipper of M.
few days. By the author of "The Yemassee," de Peyronnet....
,!!" Guy Rivers," " The Partisan," 4. The Adventurers. Difficulties encountered by the
&c. &c. .....
535 early settlers of the State of Maine-baltles with the 16. Francis Armine; a Romance. By a Novice. Chapters Indians, treaties, &c. By Horatio King...
538 5. Spring Joys. By the author of " Love at the Shrines," 17. Washington, and the Patriot Army. Remarks on the “The Sleet Storm,” &c.......
biographical sketch of Judge Jeremiah T. Chase, 6. Leigh Hant, on Sonnet.Writing and Sonnet-Writers
published in the June No. of the Messenger.. 543 in general. (From Blackwood's Magazine for 1819.) 494 7. The Deeultory Speculator. The Rose. Its origin,
ORIGINAL POETRY. and the estimation in which it was held by ancient 18. Midnight. By C. W. Everest.
486 writers. By W-n. Washington.....
499 S. Recent Visit to Lady Hester Stanhope. Copied from 20. Heaven. Taken from a Lady's Album.......
499 the May No. of the Democratic Review, to which 21. To the James.....
506 work it was forwarded by Hon. Lewis Cass, our Mi 22. There's a Flower. Taken from a Lady's Port-Folio.. 506 nister to France
23. Expostulation. By B. W.H. Camden, S. C.......... 519 9. Remarks on a late review of Bacon. By a native, not 24. Lament of an Old Bachelor. By Lyricus...... 523 a resident of Virginia....
25. Sonnet, to the Magnolia Grandiflora. By C. P. C. 10. Lucile. A Novelette. Chapters IV, V, VI. By the
542 authoress of "The Curse," &c. (To be continued.) 506 26. On dreaming that I heard a Lady engaged in Prayer. 11, Journal of a Trip to the Mountains, Caves and Springs
By L. L.......
542 of Virginia. Chapters VII and VIII. By a New. 27. To a Beautiful Creek Boy, the evening before his Englander. (Concluded.).
543 12 Biographical Sketch of Captain Samuel Cooper, of 28. She Was Not There. By E. A. S....
544 Georgetown, D. C., a patriot of the revolution. By 29. Sonnet, to the Honeysuckle. By C. P. C. Washinga citizen of Frederick County, Maryland....
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SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER,
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RICHMOND, AUGUST, 1838.
T. W. WHITE, Editor and Proprietor.
FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.
BY A BACHELOR.
as the first emotion of pity felt by Angel breasts, for PROSE FRAGMENT.
the doom pronounced upon their fallen peers, are the aspirations of thy noble Soul! That Brow! (Who
doubts, that once has seen, the character and feelings The mind, says a modern writer, must have its appui. indexed by that Brow? Strange sympathy between Sterne had said before him that the good and feeling the mind and outward form!) The wisdom of Diviheart must have some object whereupon to base its nity hath written there the just and gentle Heart! That deep affections. Sterne was perhaps the more heartless queenlike step and air! I may not all portray their of the two; but his observation accords best with the Dignity and Grace. Do not the tones of thy soft and gentler feelings of our nature.
Autelike Voice still linger round my memory, and haunt The mind must have its appui-a stay on which to it with a strange, unearthly melody? When shall its rest its thoughts, its hopes, its cares. Ambition that breathings fall upon the ear again! would sacrifice the liberty of nations—would chain up thought and action, and cement inglorious powers by the blood of those over whom they were acquired-has been the guiding passion of some. Thank God! the serpent's head hath been crushed in these our latter
MECKLENBURG days, and the world will henceforth suffer comparatively little from irresponsible power. Wealth has been reared DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.* into an idol. Sensual license hath had no small influence in impressing and controlling the characters of men.
The April number of the “Southern Literary Mes. Learning--the hidden secrets of nature the wide vo- senger” contains a spirited article, entitled “The New lume opened by the incomprehensible incidents from an York Review of Mr. Jefferson Reviewed.” In the unseen cause daily exhibiting its influence before us in course of the reviewer's remarks, allusion is made to our very dwelling places-the air—the stars-the per the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, adopted fume of a flower—the innumerable mysteries of space, on the 20th of May, 1775. As the issue there preof time, and of existence-have called forth researches sented is clothed in rather a mystical garb, and as the and created speculations
, that have occupied the minds subject is still new, and imperfectly understood by of thousands. Why mention other subjects which many in our common country, we have been induced bave furnished the mental food of some, to the exclusion to believe that a condensed view of this novel and inteof all the purer and lovelier feelings of our kind ?
* As this is the second notice taken in the Messenger of the And thou, calm, meek, sublime Religion ! how hast Mecklenburg Declaration, and as it is, in itself, a very curious thou been the hope, the sustaining power, the appui of Revolutionary and Literary relic, we have thought it might many a rare and spotless spirit !
gratify the curiosity of our readers, lo lay it before them. The Let me not elevate the selfish pleasures of sense and following is a copy of it, taken from Mr. G. Tucker's "Life of
Thomas Jefferson,” &c. the anomalous pleasures derived from scientific and speculative investigations-let me not depress the pure
“The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.
(20th of May, 1775.) pleasures of religious feeling, properly directed, by com " That whosoever directly or indirectly abets, or in any way, paring each or any of them with the pleasure that my form, or manner, countenances the unchartered and
dangerous heart would select for its own unmixed delight. Lei invasion of our rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy
to this country, to America, and to the inherent and undeniable me not enter into metaphysical discriminations between rights of man. these different feelings more clearly to develope my dissolve the political bands, which have connected us with the
"That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg county, do hereby idea. That is not necessary. It is the sordid mind mother country, and hereby absolve ourselves from all alle. with a depraved moral sense—that cannot appreciate contract, or association with that nation, who have wantonly
giance to the British crown, and abjure all political connexion, the pure charms of reciprocated affection—the unmea. trampled on our rights and liberties, and inhumanly shed the
blood of American patriots at Lexington. sured wealth that lies in a virtuous woman's love ! “ That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent
people; are, and of right ought to be, a sovereign and self
governing association, under the control of no power, other than Yea-after all, my thoughts are all of Thee! that of our God, and the general government of Congress; to the
maintenance of which independence, we solemnly pledge to
each other, our mutual co-operation, our lives, our fortunes, How doth my spirit wander from the dull page of and our most sacred honor.
“ That as we acknowledge the existence and control of no Science, to summon forth thy bright and gentle glance ! law nor legal officer, civil or military, within this couniy, we Strangely commingled with the bold ideas of old philo- every of our former laws ; wherein, nevertheless, the crown of sophy-linked to the half framed thoughts on codes, Great Britain never can be considered as holding rights, pri. and laws, and rights, as they rise upon the inind, steal vileges, immunities, of authority therein.
“That it is further decreed, that all, each, and every military o'er the sense those soft emotions born of Love and officer in this county, is hereby reinstated in his foriner com Faith and Thee! Gentle, yet vivid as that light which And that every member present of this delegation shall hence
mand and authority, he acting conformably to the regulations. the great Creator spoke into being o'er the new-made forth be a civil officer, viz. a justice of the peace, in the characworld, is the radiant beauty of thy glorious Eye! Pure all matters of controversy, according to said adopted laws; and
resting transaction would be acceptable to the readers conveys salutary advice, and requires only time, in this of the Messenger, and impart summary information to instance, to receive additional confirmation. We are those who have not examined the testimony adduced fully disposed to render to Mr. Jefferson all that meed in its favor. Wherever an impartial investigation has of approbation to which his eminent services justly been instituted on this subject by the candid inquirer entitle him; but, at the same time, wish to guard after trulh, the universal conviction has been, that the against that overweening attachment or parasitical Mecklenburg Resolves are an original and bona fide admiration for a distinguished name which would make Declaration of Independence; and, as such, claim pri- us partial in our decisions. ority over all others. However sensitive the acknow In preparing this succinct account of a memorable ledged author of the National Declaration was, on the event, and the most prominent causes leading thereto, first announcement of this subject in 1819, and what we shall draw our materials from the few recent pub ever skepticism others may now exhibit, yet the vene- lications on the subject. If we differ in opinion from rable maxim, “Truth is powerful and will prevail,” | either the reviewer or the reviewed, it will be an honest
difference-not resulting from dark revenge or rancorto preserve peace, union, and harmony in said county, and to use every exertion to spread the love of country and fire or free. ous feeling—and our remarks, accordingly, will be dom throughout America, until a more general and organized more of a corrective and explanatory, than a controgovernment be established in this province. "ABRAHAM ALEXANDER, Chairman.
versial nature. On the greater portion of the article " JOHN M'KNITT ALEXANDER, Secretary."
above referred to, touching Mr. Jefferson's religion, It is our misfortune to differ with Mr. Tucker about the cha- moral defects, &c. we are not disposed to offer any racter of this document. He is anxious to justify Mr. Jefferson critique of our own, but feel perfectly willing to permit against the charge of plagiarism, and he contends that the charge is the other way; that the Mecklenburg Declaration has
the literary combatants, been altered, both in its scope and expressions, from its original
" With stomachs stout cast; that the two paragraphs in which the coincidence (be.
To fight it out.” tween the Mecklenburg Declaration and Mr. J.'s Declaration) is found, have been subsequently interpolated, with a view of Without, therefore, pretending to award the palm of enhancing the merit of the act, and of making it a more unequivocal Declaration of Independence! One of Mr. Tucker's victory to either, we leave the matter where we find it, arguments in favor “ of the probability of this supposition,” is, before the public tribunal-sub judice lis est, and shall that "it seems impossible, that if they had all been drawn at acquiesce in their decision. once, the second and third had not preceded that which now At an early period in the history of North Carolina, stands first. We can (says he) more easily believe that so sin. gular an inversion of natural order was caused by the wish to may be traced manifest signs of that spirit of freedom conceal and counterfeit interpolation, than that it ever could and secret aspirations after liberty, which afterwards have suggested itself to any mind that had written all the five shone out in all their meridian splendor. The great resolutions."
distance of the mother country—the absence of royal We think, on the other hand, that all the propositions stand magnificence—the free exercise of religious opinionsin their natural order ; that the one grows
necessarily out of the general mediocrity of society—the numerous obsta. the other, as conclusions following their premises. Mark the necessary connexion !
cles surmounted in settling á wilderness and securing a The 1st proposition declares in substance that Great Britain home, all tended to produce among the colonies a sense has violated the charter of our rights,--so plainly and directly of self-dependence, and render them averse to every spethat no man can countenance the invasion, without being an cies of superiority or domination. They were so many enemy to America, and to the inherent rights of man.
And because she has so directly invaded our charter and our excitants in awakening successful enterprize, and grarights
, therefore the 2nd resolution declares the political bonds, dually unfolding to view a progressive development of that have connected us with the mother country are hereby dis- national pride. From these causes and others of col. solved. Because these are dissolved, the 3rd proposition therefore all men were “ created equal,” endowed with certain
lateral tendency, originated an early conviction that declares us to be a free and independent people, a sovereign and self-governing association, subject to no other control than the "inalienable" or "inherent rights,” and enuitled to power of God, and the authority of the general government of certain “exclusive privileges.” When it was resolved Congress--and they pledge themselves to maintain that inde. by Parliament on the 10th of March, 1764, to raise a pendence at every hazard. And because, as a consequence of this dissolution, they ac: delicate cord of" national rights" was sensibly touched,
revenue in the colonies by a system of taxation, the knowledge the existence of no law or officer (of the British government—as some temporary government is wanting within and ceased not to vibrate until the disturbing cause was that county,) they, therefore, in the 4th proposition adopt, (or removed. On the 31st of October following, we find their own accord,) and as their rule of action, their former laws; the popular house of the assembly of North Carolina, disclaiming at the same time any authority in the British crown in their address to the Governor, openly avowing its to claim any rights, privileges, &e. under those laws.
And because they have voluntarily re-adopted the laws (and injustice and unconstitutionality. On the passage of must have officers to carry them into execution), the 5th propo- the Stamp Act in 1765, the citizens of North Carolina sition therefore reinstates every military officer in the county in exhibited, in common with the other colonies, an unhis former authority, and they also constitute civil officers, to qualified disapprobation of the “odious measure," and issue processes, and determine all matters of controversy, according to said adopted laws, &c.
a stern and unyielding opposition to its execution In all this it appears to us, that there is nothing forced, and no within her borders. This exasperated state of feeling inversion of the natural order--but that the several links form a and complete failure on the part of the British ministry connected chain of propositions--the 2nd naturally growing out to distribute stamps, we cannot pursue in detail. Sur. of the 1st
, the 3rd out of the 2nd, until the whole are ex. fice it to say, it justly constitutes one of the proudest hausted.
But, though we cannot subscribe to Mr. T.'s suppositions, still and most brilliant achievements in the history of the we agree with him in his main object. We clear Mr. Jefferson state. But another strong fomenting cause in North of the charge of plagiarisın, as we have shown in our April No. Carolina, of an early and continued repugnance against
British authority, and which ultimately exerted a more liquors, &c. Of these distracting questions the courtpowerful influence on the destinies of her people, than law controversy was the most prominent source of disgrievances of a common nature, is to be found in the satisfaction. number and frequency of her gubernatorial quarrels. In “For more than twenty years before the Revoluthe history of no one of the colonies, not excepting Mas- tionary war, the popular house and the Governors were sachusetts with her inexorable Hutchinson, can be traced divided on the details of a bill to establish Courts of such a continual conflict of opinion betwixt the Governors Law. We will now advert to a few important transand people. Every arbitrary exaction, or unjust invao actions in the administration of Josiah Martin, Tryon's sion of the people's rights on the part of the Governors, successor, and the last of the royal Governors. On who were mere instruments of power, clothed with a the 19th of November, 1771, Martin met his first assemlittle brief authority, strongly tended to aggravate bly. At each session of the assembly, from the year existing troubles, and weaken allegiance to the crown. 1771 to 1774, inclusive, there occurred a quarrel with Hence arose the belief that “moderation ceased to be the Governor, invariably terminating in a prorogation a virtue, when the liberty of the British subject was in of that body. These prorogations or dissolutions unidanger ;" and to submit, under such circumstances, formly grew out of the adoption of some high-toned became a crime. From the 3rd of April, 1765, to the tst resolution, or the passage of some bill on the several of July, 1771, North Carolina was governed by Wil- local questions which agitated the province. After the liam Tryon. During the whole term of his ad- dissolution of the assembly, in the spring of 1774, the ministration, the public mind was agitated by the situation of the province was little short of anarchy. passage of the Stamp Act. Tryon met his first assem- The total disregard to the wants of the people on the bly one month after entering upon the duties of his part of the Governor, could not fail to produce the most office. Rumors and reports from the North currently intense excitement. Owing to this incessant source of prevailed among the people, that the Stamp Act had vexation, and the universal discontent that prevailed, been passed by Parliament. “This intelligence reached we find the principal whig leaders of that day busily Wilmington shortly after the meeting of the assembly; engaged in maturing plans for the organization of a proand such was the violence exhibited by the members vincial Congress, “ directly from the people, and indeof the popular house, that Governor Tryon suddenly pendent of the authority of the Governor.” The prorogued the legislative body on the 18th of the same following extract from a letter of William Hooper to month in which it had assembled. The popular house James Iredell, dated April 26th, 1774, forcibly illushad but just replied to the opening speech of the Go-trates the tone of thinking among some of the public vernor, and adopted the usual preliminary steps of characters on prospective events, in which it is said, legislation.” Such was the excitement produced, that "With you I anticipate the important share which the the Governor “apprehended an overt act of treason; colonies must soon have in regulating the political ba and to arrest the disease in its incipient stage, pro- lance. They are striding fast to independence, and will rogued the assembly.” The patriotic enthusiasm that ere long build an empire on the ruins of Britain ; will manifested itself, was so strong, that "the speaker, adopt its constitution, purged of its impurities; and, John Ashe, pledged himself that he would resist the from an experience of its defects, will guard against iniquitous law, and informed the Governor that the those evils which have wasted its vigor, and brought it people would support him in the holy cause. Had the to an untimely end." This is strong language, and Governor permitted the house to have organized itself sufficiently indicative of the spirit of the times. It is on the 30th of November, the day to which it stood here particularly adverted to, that the reader may mark prorogued, its proceedings would not have proved less the period that gave it birth. When the project of a treasonable in the eyes of royalty.
provincial and continental Congress was published In this year, 1765, a proposition was adopted by the abroad, the people embraced it with enthusiasm and assembly of Massachusetts, and warmly responded to zeal. About the 1st of July handbills were circulated by the other colonies, to form a general Congress, con- throughout the province, inviting the people to elect sisting of delegates from the popular house of each. delegates to a convention, to be held at Newbern on In this Congress, which convened in New York, seve- the 25th of August. The objects of the said convenral of the colonies were not represented. North Caro- tion were stated to be to express the sentiments of the lina was deprived of the opportunity of sending dele people “on acts lately passed by the Parliament of gates, through the rash prorogation of the assembly Great Britain, and to appoint delegates to represent the above alluded to, just on the eve of entering into an elec- province in a continental Congress.” By the 1st of tion. The popular house was not permitted to convene August a large majority of the counties had held elecitself until November, 1766; being prorogued in Feb- tions, and returned their most faithful leaders. When ruary preceding, by royal proclamation. Thus, through information of these elections reached the Governor, the fears of the Governor, the province was deprived of who at first doubled the success of the plan, he issued, an assembly for more than eighteen months. At this on the 12th of August, the usual missile of authority, a session occurred a quarrel with the Governor on account proclamation, condemning such proceedings. But the of the long chasm in the legislation of the province. proclamation proved of no avail—voz, et præterea nihil The house likewise regretted its inability of acting in a vain and inoperative display of words. The deleconcert with the other colonies in the late Congress.gates punctually met in Newbern on the 25th of AuBut our limits will compel us to pass over many legis- gust, 1774. This was the first provincial Congress. The lative disputes growing out of acts of ministerial dicta- interesting proceedings on that occasion can receive in tion—the court-law controversy—the repeal of the acts this sketch nothing more than a passing notice. The of 1748 and 1754, laying a poll-tax, and a duty on several acts of Parliament, imposing duties on imports,