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(ii. 65) appears to estimate the perpendicular height of some of the loftiest summits at not less than fifty miles! The length of the whole range is estimated fcy Polybius at only 2200 stadia, while Cadi us Antipater (quoted by Pliny iii. 18. s. 22) stated it as not less than 1000 miles, reckoning along the foot of the mountains from sea to sea. Pliny himself estimates the same distance calculated from the river Varus to the Arsia at 745 miles, a fair approximation to the truth. He also justly remarks that the very different estimates of the breadth of the Alps given by different authors were founded on the fact of its great inequality: the eastern portion of the range between Germany and Italy being not less than 100 miles across, while the other portions did not exceed 70. (Plin.iii. 19. s. 23.) Strabo tells us that while the more lofty summits of the Alps were either covered with perpetual snow, or so bare and rugged as to be altogether uninhabitable, the sides were clothed with extensive forests, and the lower slopes and vallies were cultivated and well peopled. There was however always a scarcity of corn, which the inhabitants procured from those of the plains in exchange for the productions of their mountains, the chief of which were resin, pitch, pine wood for torches, wax, honey, and cheese. Previous to the time of Augustus, the Alpine tribes had been given to predatory habits, and were continually plundering their more wealthy neighbours, but after they had been completely subdued and roads made through their territories they devoted themselves mbre to the arts of peace and husbandry. (Strab. pp. 206, 207.) Nor were the Alps wanting in mora valuable productions. Gold mines or rather washings were worked in them in various places, especially in the territory of the Salassi (the Vol dAosta), where the Romans derived a considerable revenue from them; and in the Noric Alps, near Aquileia, where gold was found in lumps as big as a bean after digging only a few feet below the surface (Strab. pp. 205, 208). The iron mines of the Noric Alps were also well known to the Romans, and highly esteemed for the excellent quality of the metal furnished by them, which was peculiarly well adapted for swords. (Plin. xxxiv. 14. s. 41; Hor. Carm. 1. 16. 9,-Eporf. xvii.71.) The rock crystal so abundant in the Alps was much valued by the Romans, and diligently sought for in consequence by the natives. (Plin. xxxvii.2.6.9,10.)

•Several kinds of animals are also noticed by ancient writers as peculiar to the Alps; among these are the Chamois (the rupicapra of Pliny), the Ibex, and the Marmot. Pliny also mentions white hares and white grouse or Ptarmigan. (Plin. viii. 79. s. 81, 3. 68. K. 85; Varr. de R.R. iii. 12.) Polybius described a large animal of the deer kind, but with a neck like a wild boar,evidently the Elk (Cervus Alces) now found onlyin the north of Europe. (Volvo, ap. Strab. p.208.)

It would be impossible here to enumerate in detail all the petty tribes which inhabited the vallies and slopes of the Alps. The inscription on the trophy of Augustus already mentioned, gives the names of not less than forty-four " Gentes Alpinae devictae," many of which are otherwise wholly unknown (Plin. iii. 20. s. 24). The inscription on the arch at Susa mentions fourteen tribes that were subject to Cottius, of which the greater part are equally obscure. (Orell. Inscr. 626; Millin, Voy. en Piemont, vol. i. p. 106.) Those tribes, whose locality can be determined with tolerable certainty, or whose names appear in history, will be found under their respective articles: for an cxainination of the whole list* the

reader may consult Walckenaer, Geographic de* (Joules vol. ii. pp. 43—66. ^

The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps are the sources from which flow several of the largest rivers of Europe: the Rhone, the Rhine, and the Po, as well as the great tributaries of the Danube, the Inn, the Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of the countless minor streams which derive their sources from the Alps, and which will be found under the countries to which they severally belong.

Passes of the Alps.

Many of the passes across the great central chain of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of the rivers which rise in them, and the vallies throngh which these flow, that they must probably have been known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early period. Long before the passage of the western Alps by Hannibal, we know that these mountains were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish invaders (Polyb. iii. 48; Liv. v. 33), and there is every reason to suppose that the more easily accessible passes of the Rhaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way for the migrations of nations in still earlier asies. The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a subject of controversy.* But it is clear from the whole narrative of Polybius, that it was one already previously known and frequented by the mountaineers that guided him: and a few years later his brother Hasdrubal appears to have crossed the Bame pass with comparatively little difficulty. Polybius, according to Strabo, was acquainted with only four passes, viz.: 1. that through Liguriaby the Maritime Alps; 2. that through the Taurini, which was the one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Salassi; and 4. that through the Ithaetians. (Polyb. ap. Strab. p. 209.) At a later period Pompey, on his march into Spain (b. C. 77), opened out a passage for his army, which he describes as " different from that of Hannibal, but more convenient for the Romans." (Pompeii Epist. ap. Sattust. Hist. iii. p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time Varro (in a passage in which there appears to be much confusion) speaks of five passes across the Alps (without including the more easterly ones), which he enumerates as follows: "Una, quae est juxta mare per Liguras; altera qua Hannibal transiit; tertia qua Pompeius ad Hispaniense bellum profectus est: quarta qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in Italiam venit: quinta, quae quondam a Graecis possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appellantur." (Varr. ap. Strv. ad Aen. x. 13.) From the time of the reduction of the Transalpine Gauls by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well known, and were traversed by high roads, several of which, however, on account of the natural difficulties of the mountains, were not practicable for carriages. These passes were the following: —

1. "Per Alves Marjtimas" along the coast of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the line of sea-coast must always have offered a natural means of communication, it could hardly have been frequented by the Romans until the wild tribes of the Ligurians had been effectually subdued; and it appears certain that no regular road was constructed

* See the article HANNlBAL,in the Diet, of Biogr. vol. ii. p. 333, and the works there referred to.

along it till the time of Augustus. The monument which thatemperorerectedover the highest part of the pass (just above the Portua Monoeci), to commemorate the reduction of the Alpine tribes, is still extant, and the Roman road may be distinctly traced fur several miles on each side of it [tropaea Auqustl] It did not follow the same line as the modern road, but, after ascending from near Mentone to the summit of the pass at Turbia, descended a side valley to Cemenelion (Cimiez), and proceeded from thence direct to the mouth of the Varus, leaving Nicaea on the left. The stations along this road from Vada Sabbata (Vado) to Antipolis are thus given in the Itin. Ant. p. 296: —

M.P. M.P. Pullopice - xii. Lumone - - x.

Albingauno AlpeSumma (7'uroia) vi.

(Albenga) - viii. Cemenelo (Cimiez) - viii. Luco Bormani - xv. Varum flumen - vL Costa Balcnac - xvi. Antipolis (Anlibet) - i. Albintitnilio (I'm

timitjlia) - xvi.

This line of road is given in the Itinerary as a part of the Via Aurelia, of which it was undoubtedly a continuation; but we learn from the inscriptions of tho mile-stones discovered near Turbia that it was properly called the Via Julia.

2. "Per Alpes Cottias," by the pass now called the Mont Genevre, from Augusta Taurinorum to Iirigantio (Briancon) and Ebrodunum (Embnui) in Gaul. This was the most direct line of communication from the north of Italy to Transalpine Gaul: it is evidently that followed by Caesar when he hastened to oppose the Helvctii, "qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat" (B. G. i. 10), and is probably the same already mentioned as having been first explored by Pompey. It was afterwards one of the passes most frequented by the Romans, and is termed by Ammianus (xv. 10) " via media et compendiaria." That writer has given a detailed account of the pass, the highest ridge of which was known by the name of Matronae Mons, a name retained in the middle ages, and found in the Itin. Hierosol. p. 556. Just at its foot, on tho Italian side, was the station Ad Martis, probably near the modern village of Oulx. The distances given in the Itin. Ant. (p. 341) are, from Tanrini (Augusta Taurinorum) to Scgusio (Su»a) 51 M. P. (a great overstatement: the correct distance would be 36); thence —

Ad Martis - xvi. Ramae - xviii.

Iirigantio - xviii. Eburodono xviii. Though now little frequented, tliis pass is one of the lowest and easiest of those over the main chain.

3. "Per Alpes Graias," by the Little St. Bernard. This route, which led from Milan and the plains of the Po by the valley of the Sulassi to Augusta rraetoria (Aosta), and from thence across the mountain pass into the valley of the Isara (Isere), and through tho Tarentaise to Vienna and Lugdunum, is supposed by many writers to have been that followed by Hannibal. It was certainly crossed by D. Brutus with his army after the battle of Mutiua, n. c. 43. But though it presents much less natural difficulties than its neighbour the Great St. licrmird, it appears to have been little frequented, on account of tho predatory habits of the Salassians, until Augustus, after having completely subdued that people, constructed a carriage road over the Graian Alps, which thenceforward became one of the most important and frequented lines of communi

cation between Italy and Gaul (Strab p. 208; Tac. Hilt. ii. 66, iv. 68.)

The stations on this route are thus given in the Itinerary, beginning from Eporedia, at the entrance of the Vala"Aotta:


Vitricium (Verrez) - xxu

Augusta Praetoria (.4o*fa) - xxv.

Arebrigium (S. Didier) - - xxv.

Rergintrum (Bourg. S. Maurice) xxiv.

Darantasia {Mouatitrg) - - xviii.

Obilinum .... xiii.

Ad Publicanos (Conflani) - iii. From thence there branched off two line3 of road, the one by Lemincum (Chambery) and August* AUobrogum to Vienna, the other northwards to Geneva and the Lacus Lemannus.

4. "Per Alpes Pennihas," by the Great St. Bernard. This route, which branched off from the former at Augusta Praetoria, and led direct across the mountain, from thence to Octodurus (Martiguti) in the valley of the Rhone, and the head of the Lake Lemannus, appears to have been known and frequented from very early times, though it was never rendered practicable for carriages. Caesar speaks of it as being used to a considerable extent by merchants and traders, notwithstanding the exactions to which they were subjected by the wild tribes that then occupied this part of the Alps. (B. G. iii. 1.) The numerous inscriptions and votive tablets that have been discovered sufficiently attest how much tliis pass was frequented in later times: and it was repeatedly traversed by Roman armies. (OrelL Inter, vol. i. p. 104; Tac. Hut. i. 61, iv. 68.) The distances by this road are thus given in the Itinerary. From Augusta Praetoria to the summit of the pass, Summo Pennino, where stood a temple of Jupiter — M. P. xxv.; thence to Octodorus (Marttgny) xxv.; and from thence to Viviscum (Kefay) 34 miles, passing two obscure stations, the names of which an probably corrupt.

5. The next pass, for which we find no appropriate name, led from the head of the Lacus Larius to Brigantia (Bregenz), on the Lake of Conttanet. We find no mention of this route in early times; but it must have been that taken by Stilicho, in the depth of winter, when he proceeded from Mediulanum through the Rhaetian Alps to summon tie Viudelicians and Noricans to the relief of Honqrius. (Claudian. B. Get. v. 320—360.) The Itineraries give two routes across this part of the Alps; the one apparently following the line of the modem pass of the Splugen, by Clavenna (Chiavenna) and Tarvessedo (?) to Curia(Coire): tho other crossing the pass of the Septimer, by Mums and Tinnetio (Ttszen) to Curia, where it rejoined the preceding route.

6. "Per Alpes Ruaeticas or Tridektinas,'' through the modem Tyrol, which, from the natural faculties it presents, must always have been one of the most obvious means of communication between Italy and the countries on the S. of the Danube. The high road led from Verona to Tridentum (where it was joined by a cross road from Opitergiuni through the Val Sugana), and thence up the valley of the Athesis as far as Botzen, from which point it followed the Atagis or Eiaach to its source, and crossed the pass of the Brenner to Veldidana (Wilden, near Insbruck), and from thence across another mountain pass to Augusta Vindehcorum. [rhaetia.]

7. A road led from Aquileia to Julium Caraicum (Zuglio), and from thence across the Julian Alps to I.or.citun in the valley of the Gail, and by that valley and the Putter Thai to join the preceding road at Vipitenum, near the foot of the Brenner. The stations (few of which can be determined with any certainty) are thus given (Itin. Ant. p. 279): —


From Aquileia Ad Tricesimnm - xxx.

Jnlium Camicum xxx.

Loncio - - xxii.

Agunto - - xviii.

Littamo - - xxiii.

Sebato - - xxiii.

Vipiteno - - xxxiii. 8. Another high road led from Aqnileia eastward np the valley of the Wippach, and from thence across the barren mountainous tract of comparatively small elevation (the Mons Ocra), which separates it from the valley of the Savus, to Aemona in Pannonia. There can be no doubt that this pass, which presents no considerable natural difficulties, was from the earliest ages the highway of nations from the banks of the Danube into Italy, as it again became after the fall of the Roman empire. (P. Diac. ii. 10.) The distance from Aquileia to Aemona is given by the Itin. Ant. at 76 Roman miles, which cannot be far from the truth; but the intermediate stations are very uncertain. [E. H. B.]

ALPHE1US ('AA<Ms: Rufea, Rufid or Rofia, and River of Karitena), the chief river of Peloponnesus, rises in the SE. of Arcadia on the frontiers of Laconia, flows in a westerly direction through Arcadia and Elis, and after passing Olympia falls into the Ionian Sea. The Alpheius, like several other rivers and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more than once in the limestone mountains of the country, and then emerges again, after flowing some distance underground. Pausanias (viii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. § 4) relates that the source of the Alpheius is at 1'hylace, on the frontiers of Arcadia and Laconia; and that, after receiving a stream rising from many small fountains, at a place called Symbola, it flows into the territory of Tegea, where it sinks underground. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia from Asca, close to the fountain of the Eurotas. The two rivers then mix their waters, and after flowing in a common channel for the distance of nearly 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and reappear, — the Eurotas in Laconia, the Alpheius at Pegae, the! Fountains, in the territory of Megalopolis in Arcadia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that the Alpheius and Eurotas rise from two fountains near Asea, and that, after flowing several stadia underground, the Eurotas reappears in the Bleminatis in Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In another passage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was a common belief that if two chaplets dedicated to the Alpheius and the Eurotas were thrown into the stream near Asea, each would reappear at the sources of the river to which it was destined. This story accords with the statement of Pausanias as to the union of the waters from the two fountains, and their course in a common channel. The account of Pausanias is confirmed in many particulars by the observations of Colonel Leake and others. The river, in the first part of its course, is now called the Sardnda, which rises at Krya Vrysi, the ancient Phylacc, and which receives, a little below Krya Vrysi, a stream formed of several small mountain torrents, by which the ancient Symbola is recognised. On entering the Tegeatic plain, the Sardnda now flows to the NE.; but there aro strong reasons

for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., and disappeared in the Katavothra of the marsh of Taki* (Leake, Ptloponnesiaca, p. 112, seq.) The two reputed sources of the Alpheius and Eurotas are found near the remains of Asea, at the copious source of water called Frangdvrysi; but whether the source of the Alpheius be really the vent of the lake of Taki, cannot be decided with certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, as Pausanias describes, and again sink into the earth. After passing under a mountain called Tzimbanu, the Alpheius reappears at Marmara, probably Pegae. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 37, seq.)

Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the Helisson ('E\t<roiiv: River of David"), on which Megalopolis was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below this, and near the town of Brenthe (Karitena), the Alpheius flows through a defile in the mountains, called the pass of Lavdha. This pass is the only opening in the mountains, by which the waters of central Arcadia find their way to the western tea. It divides the upper plain of the Alpheius, of which Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower plain, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the Alpheius receives the Ladon (fidivv), which rises near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the father of Daphne. The Ladon is now called Rvfin, Rufia or Rofid, by which name the Alpheius is called below its junction with the Ladon. In tho upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually called the River of Karitena. Below the Ladon, at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives the Erymanthus ('EpvuavBos), rising in the mountain of the same name, and forming the boundary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in Arcadia. After entering Elis, it flows past Olympia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and Triphylia, and falls into the Cyparissian gulf in the Ionian sea. At the mouth of the river was a temple and grove of Artemis Alpheionia, From the pass of Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheius is wide and shallow: in summer it is divided into several torrents, flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and turbid. Its banks produce a great number of largo plane-trees. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 67, Peloponnetiaca, p. 8.)

Alpheius appears as a celebrated river-god in mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean passage of the river in the upper part of its course which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia in Syracuse. (Diet, of Biogr. art. Alpheiui.) Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, Alphelas. (Met. v. 487.) Virgil (Aen. x. 179) gives the epithet of A Ipheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae, because the latter was said to have been founded by colonists from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed.

ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii. 18. s.22) still called the A usa, which flows into the lagunes of Marano, a few miles W. of Aquileia. A battle was fought on its banks in A. D. 340, between tho younger Constantine and the generals of his brother Constans, in which Constantine himself was slain, and his body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, Epit. 41. § 21; Hieron. Chron. ad ann. 2356.)

* The preceding account will be made clearer by referring to the map under Mantis Eia.

ALSIETl'NUS LACUS, a small lake in Etruria, about 2 miles distant from the Locus Sabatinus, between it and the basin or crater of Baccano, now called the Lago di Martignano. Its ancient name is preserved to us only by Frontinus, from whom we learn that Augustus conveyed the water from thence to Home by an aqueduct, named the Aqua Alsietina, more than 22 miles in length. Tho water was, however, of inferior quality, and served only to supply a Naumachia, and for purposes of irrigation. It was joined at Carkiae, a station on the Via Claudia, 15 miles from Koine, by another branch bringing water from the Lacus Sabatinus. (Frontin. de Aquatd. §§ 11, 71.) The channel of the aqueduct is still in good preservation, where it issues from the lake, and may be traced for many miles of its course. (Nibby, lUntorni, voL i. pp. 133 —137.) ' [E.H.B.]

AXSIUMCAAffiov: Eth. Alsiensis: Pah), a city on the coast of Etruria,betw een Pyrgi and Fregenae, at tho distance of 18 miles from the Portus Augusti (Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber. (Itin. Ant. p. 301.) Its name is mentioned by Dionysius (i. 20) among the cities which were founded by the Pelasgians in connection with the aborigines, and afterwards wrested from them by the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans). But no mention of it occurs in history as an Etruscan city, or during the wars of that jjcople with Rome. In B. c. 245 a Roman colony was established there, which was placed on the same footing with the other " coloniae maritimae;" and in common with these claimed exemption from all military service, a claim which was, however, overruled during tho exigencies of the Second Punic War. (Veil. Pat. i. 14; Liv. xxvii. 38.) No subsequent notice of it occurs in history, but its name is mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, and we learn from an inscription of the time of Caracalla that it still retained its colonial rank, and corresponding municipal organisation. (Strab. pp. 225, 226; Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 4; Gruter, Inscr. p. 271. 3.) It appears to have early become a favourite resort with the wealthy Romans as a place of retirement and pleasure (" maritimus ct voluptarius locus:" Fronto, Ep. p. 207, cd. Rom.); thus we find that Pompey the Great had a villa there, and Caesar also, where he landed on his return from Africa, and at which all the nobles of Rome hastened to greet him. (Cic. pro J/i'ton. 20, ad Earn, ix. 6, ad Alt. xiii. 50.) Another is mentioned as belongin? to Vcrginius Rufus, the guardian of Pliny, and we learn from Fronto that the emperor M. Aurelius had a villa there, to which several of his epistles are addressed. (Plin.£/>. vi. 10; F'ronto, Ep. p. 205— 215.) At a biter period the town itself had fallen into utter decay, but the site was still occupied by villas, as well as that of the neighbouring Pvrgi. (RntiL Itin. i. 223.)

The site of Alsium is clearly fixed by the distance from Porto, at the modern village of Palo, a poor place with a fort and mole of the 17th century, in the construction of which many ancient materials have been used. Besides these, the whole shore to the E. of the village, for the space of more than a mil.', is occupied by the remains of buildings which appear to have belonged to a Roman villa of imperial date, and of the most laignificent scale and Btyle of construction. These ruins are described in detail by Nibby (Dintorni di Roma, vol. iii. pp. 527, 528). [E. H. B.]

ALTHAEA ('AAfloia: Eli. AAOaioi), the chief

city of the Olcades in Spain, not far from Cartha?o Nova. Its capture was Hannibal's first exploit in Spain. (Polyb. iii. 13; Steph. Byz. s. v.) Its position is unknown. Livy calls it Carteia (xxi. 5). [P. S.]

ALTI'NUM ("aatiiw: Altino), a city of Venetia situated on the border of the lagunes, and on the right bank of the little river Silis (Sele) m-ar its mouth. We learn from the Itineraries that it was distant 32 Roman miles from Patavinm, and 31 from Concordia. (Itin. Ant. pp. 128, 281.) Strabo describes it as situated in a marsh or lagunc, like Ravenna, and we learn that travellers were in the habit of proceeding by water along the lagunes from Ravenna to Altinum. Tacitus also speaks of it as open to attack by sea; but at the present day it is distant about 2 miles from the lagunei. (Strab. p. 214; Vitruv. i. 4. § 11 ; Itin. Ant. p. 126; Tac. Hut. iii. 6.) The first historical mention of Altinum is found in Vclleius Patcrculos (ii. 76) during the wars of the Second Triumvirate, and it appears to have been then, as it continued under the Roman Empire, one of the most considerable places in this part of Italy. Pliny assigns it only the rank of a municipium ; but we leam from inscriptions that it subsequently became a colony, probably in the time of Trajan. (Pun. iii. 18. s. 22 ; Orell. Inscr. 4082; Znmpt de Colon. p. 402.) Besides its municipal importance, the shores of the adjoining lagunes became a favourite residence of the wealthy Romans, and were gradually lined with villas which are described by Martial (iv. 25) as rivalling those of Baiae. The adjoining plains were celebrated for the excellence of their woo], while the lagunes abounded in fish of all kinds, especially shell-fish. (Mart. xiv. 155; Pan. xxxii. II. s. 53; Cassiod. Ep. Varr. xii. 22.) It was here that the emperor L. Verus died of apoplexy in A. D. 169. (Eutrop. viii. 10; Jul. Capit Ver. 9; Vict, de Caes. 15.) The modern village of Altino is a very poor place; the period of the decay or destruction of the ancient city is unknown, but its inhabitants are supposed to liave fled fur refuge from the invasions of the barbarians to 7orcello, an island in the lagunes about 4 miles distant, to which the episcopal see was transferred in A. D. 635. [E.H.B.]

ALTIS. [olympia.]

ALU'NTIUM or HALU'NTIUM ('AXiinw, Ptol.; 'AAoufnoF, Dion. Hal.: Eth. 'aaoitivos, Haluntinus), a city on the N. coast of Sicily, between Tyndaris and Calacta. Its foundation was ascribed by some authors to a portion of the companions of Aeneas, who remained behind in Sicily under a leader named Patron (Dionys. i. 51); but it probably was, in reality, a Sicelian town. No mention of it is found in Diodorus, nor is it noticed in Listory prior to the Roman conquest of Sicily. But in the time of Cicero it appears to have been a place of some importance. He mentions it as having suffered severely from the exactions of Verrca, who, not content with ruinous extortions of com, compelled the inhabitants to give up all their ornamental plate. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43, iv. 23.) We learn from inscriptions that it retained the rank of a municipium, and was a flourishing town at least as late as tho reign of Augustus.

Its site has been a matter of much dispute, bat there are very strong arguments to prove that it occupied the same situation as the modem town of San Marco, wluch rises on a lofty lull of steep and difficult ascent, about 3 miles from the Tyrrbema? sea. (Smyth's Sicily, p. 97.) This position exactly accords with that described by Cicero, who tells us that Verres would not take the trouble to visit the town himself "quod erat difficili ascensu atque ardao," but remained on the beach below while he sent Archagathus to execute his behests (iv. 23). Various inscriptions also are preserved at S. Marco, or have been discovered there, one of which begins with the words To Viowixliriov ruv 'AXorrlvuy. (Castell. Inter. SicX. p. 55; Biickh, C. I. No. 5608.) Notwithstanding these arguments, Cluverius, following Fazelki, placed Aluntium at a spot near S-Filadelfo, where the ruins oi an ancient city were then visile, and regarded S. Marco as the site of Agiihyrna. It must be admitted that this arrangement avoids some difficulties [aoathybha]; hot the above proofs in favour of the contrary hypothesis seem almost conclusive. (Cluver. Sici'i. p.294; Fazell. de Reb. Sic. ix. 4. p. 384.) [E.H.B.]

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ALTDDA ("AAuMo), a town of Phrygia menBoned in the Pentinger Table. Arundell (Discoveries in Asia Minor, L p. 105) gives his reasons for supposing that it may have been at or near Ushak, on the road between Sort and Afium Karahissar, and that it was afterwards called Flaviopolis. He found several Greek inscriptions there, but none that contained the name of the place. [G. L.]

ALT'ZIA ('AAuflo, Thuc.vii.31, et alii; 'AAii^io, Steph. B. j.r.: Elh. 'AXti&it, AAoftuor, 'AJuSfuos, ap. Bockh. Corpus Itucript. No. 1793: Kandili), a town on the west coast of Acarnania. According to Str&bo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Heracles, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of Kandtli. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Lcucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the ^stance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. ±50,459; Cic. adfam. xvi. 2; Plin.iv. 2; Ptolem. H*- 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name *n»n Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452;

Byi. ». t.) It is first mentioned by Thucy■fides.. In B. C. 374, a naval battle was fought in neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians voder Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under

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Nicolochtis. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and_the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that tlio island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Camus, the modem Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xcn. Hell. v. 4. §§65,66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.)

AMA'DOCI ('A^ioVwoi), a people of Sarmatia Europaea, mentioned by Hellanicns (Steph. B. s. v.) Their country was called Amadocium. Ptolemy (iii. 5) mentions the Amadoci Montes, E. of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), as an E. prolongation of M. Pence, and in these mountains the Amadoci, with a city Amodoca and a lake of the same name, the source of a river falling into the Borysthenes. The positions are probably in the S. Russian province of Jekaterinoslav, or in Kherson. [P. S.]

AMALEKI'TAE ('AfiaAnKirai, Joseph. Ant. iii. 2; in LXX. A/iaA^ic), the descendants of Amalek the grandson of Esau. (Gen. xxxvi. 9—12.) This tribe of Edomite Arabs extended as far south as tlio peninsula of Monnt Sinai, where " they fought with Israel in Rephidim" (Kxod. xvii. 8, &c.) They occupied the southern borders of the Promised Land, between the Canaanites (Philistines) of the west coast, and the Amorites, whose country lay to the SW. of the Dead Sea. (Compare Gen. xiv. 7 with Numbers xiii. 29, xiv. 25, 43—45.) They dispossessed the Ishmaelite Bedouins, and occupied their country "from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt." (Compare Gen. xxv. 18 and 1 Sam. xv. 7.) They were nearly exterminated by Saul and David (1 Sam. xv., xxvii. 8, 9, xxx.); and the remnant were destroyed by the Simeonites in the days of Hezekiah. (1 Chron. iv. 42, 43.) They are the Edomites whom David smote in the Valley of Salt (2 Sam. viii. 12, 13; title to Psalm lx.), doubtless identical with Wady Malekh, about seven hours south of Hebron (Reland's Palestine, pp. 78—82: Winer's Bib. Real. s. r.; Williams's Holy City, vol. i. appendix i. pp. 463, 464.) [G. W.]

AMA'NIDES PYLAE CA/mWJf j or 'A^aK«ol riuAai), or Amanicae Pylae (Curtius, iii. 18), orPortae Amani Montis (Plin. v. 27. s.22). "There are," says Cicero (ad Fam. xv. 4), "two passes from Syria into Cilicia, each of which can be held with a small force owing to their narrowness." These are the passes in the Amanus or mountain range which runs northward from Rds el Khdnzir, which promontory is at the southern entrance of the gulf of lskerderun (gulf of Issus). This range of Amanus runs along the bay of Iskenderun, and joins the great mass of Taurus, forming a wall between Syria and Cilicia. "There is nothing," says Cicero, speaking of this range of Amanus, " which is better protected against Syria than Cilicia." Of the two passes meant by Cicero, the southern seems to be the pass of Beilan, by which a man can go from Iskenderun to Antioch; this may be called the lower Amanian pass. Tho other pass, to which Cicero refers, appears to be NNE. of Issus, in the same range of mountains (Amanus), over which there is still a road from Bayas on tho east side of the bay of Issus, toMarash: this northern pass seems to be the Amanides Pylae of Arrian and Curtius. It was by the Amanides Pylae (Arrian. Anab. ii. 7) that Darius crossed the mountains into Cilicia and came upon Issus, which Alexander had left shortly before. Darius was thus in the rear of Alexander, who had advanced as far as Myriandrus, the site of which is near Iskenderun. Alexander turned back and met the Persian king at the river

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