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(b. C. 200) Acanthus was taken and plundered by the fleet of the republic. Strabo and Ptolemy erroneously place Acanthus on the Singitic gulf, but there can be no doubt that the town was on the Strymonic gulf, as is stated by Herodotus and other authorities: the error may have perhaps arisen from the territory of Acanthus having stretched as far as the Singitic gulf. At Eristo, the site of Acanthus, there are the ruins of a large ancient mole, advancing in a curve into the sea, and also, on the N. side of the hill upon which the village stands, some remains of an ancient wall, constructed of square blocks of grey granite. On the coin of Acanthus figured below is a lion killing a bull, which confirms the account of Herodotus (vii. 125), that on the march of Xerxes from Acanthus to Therme, lions seized the camels which carried the provisions. (Herod, vii. 115, seq. 121, seq.; Thuc. iv. 84, seq. v. 18; Xcn. Uell. v. 2; Liv. xxxi. 45; Plut. Quaett. Grace. 30; Strab. p. 330; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 147.)

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2. (Dathour), a city of Egypt, on the western bank of the Nile, 120 stadia S. of Memphis. It was in the Mcmphite Nome, and, therefore, in the Heptanomis. It was celebrated for a temple of Osiris, and received its name from a sacred enclosure composed of the Acanthus. (Strab. p. 809; Diod. i. 97; Steph. B. i.e.; Ptol. iv. 5. § 55, who calls the town 'Atcavdwv rifJAu.)

ACARNA'NIA ('Aicaprcida : 'Axapi/dy, -ams, Acarnan, -iinis), the most westerly province of Greece, was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian gulf, on the NE. by Amphilochia, on the W. and SW. by the Ionian sea, and on the E. by Aetolia. It contained about 1571 square miles. Under the Romans, or probably a little earlier, the river Achelous formed the boundary between Acamania and Aetolia; but in the time of the Peloponnesian war, the territory of Oeniadae, which was one of the Acamanian towns, extended E. of this river. The interior of Acamania is covered with forests and'mountains of no great elevation, to which some modem writers erroneously give the name of ^Crania. [crania.] Between these mountains there are several lakes, and many fertile vallies. The chief river of the country is the Achelous, which in the lower part of its course flows through a vast plain of great natural fertility, called after itself the Paracheloitis. This plain is at present covered with marshes, and the greater part of it appears to have been formed by the alluvial depositions of the Achelous. Owing to this circumstance, and to the river having frequently altered its channel, the southern part of the coast of Acamania has undergone numerous changes. The chief affluent of the Achelous in Acamania is the Anapus ("ammtos), which flowed into the main stream 80 stadia S. of Stratus. There are several promontories on the coast, but of these only two are especially named, the promontory of Actium, and

that of Crithote (Kpiftur^), on the W. coast, forming one side of the small bay, on which the town of Astacus stood. Of the inland lakes, the only one mentioned by name is that of Melite (MfA(T?j: Trikardho), 30 stadia long and 20 broad, N. of the mouth of the Achelous, in the territory of the Oeniadae. There was a lagoon, or salt lake, between Leucas and the Ambracian gulf, to which Strabo (p. 459) gives the name of Myrtuntium (MwpTovvrtov). Although the soil of Acamania was fertile, it was not much cultivated by the inhabitants. The products of the country are rarely mentioned by the ancient writers. Pliny speaks of iron mines (xxxvi. 19. s. 30), and also of a pearlfishery off Actium (ix. 56). A modem traveller states that the rocks in Acamania indicate, in many places, tho presence of copper, and he was also informed, on good authority, that the mountains produce coal and sulphur in abundance. (Journal of the Geographical Society, vol. iii. p. 79.) The chief wealth of the inhabitants consisted in their herds and flocks, which pastured in the rich meadows in tho lower part of the Achelous. There were numerous islands off the western coast of Acarnania. Of these the most important were the Echinades, extending from the mouth of the Achelous along the shore to the N.; the TArmAK Lxsulae, lying between Leucas and Acamania, and Leucas itself, which originally formed part of the mainland of Acamania, but was afterwards separated from the latter by a canal. (Respecting Acarnania in general see Strab. p. 459, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 488, seq.; Fiedler, Reise (lurch Griechcnland, vol. i. p. 158, seq.)

Amphilochia, which is sometimes reckoned a part of Acamania, is spoken of in a separate article. [amphilochia.]

The name of Acamania appears to have been unknown in the earliest times. Homer only calls the country opposite Ithaca and Cephallenia, under the general name of Epeirus (fprtipoi), or the mainland (Strab. p. 451, sub fin.), although he frequently mentions the Aetolians.*

The country is said to have been originally inhabited by the Taphii, or Teleboae, the Leleges. and the Curctcs. The Taphii, or Teleboae were chiefly found in the islands off the western coa*t of Acariiania. where they maintained themselves by piracy. [teleboae.] The Leleges were more wi lely disseminated, and were also in possession at one period of Aetolia, Locris, and other parts of Greece. [lki.eges.] The Cnretes are said to have come from Aetolia, and to have settled in Acamania, after they had been expelled from the former country by Aetolus and his followers (Strab. p. 465). Tho name of Acamania is derived from Acarnan, the son of Alcmaeon, who is said to have settled at the month of the Achelous. (Thuc. ii. 102.) If this tradition is of any value, it would intimate that an Argive colony settled on the coast of Acamania at an early period. In the middle of the 7th centnry

* In the year B. c. 239, the Acamanians, in the embassy which they sent to Rome to solicit assistance, pleaded that they had taken no part in the expedition against Troy, the ancestor of Rome, being the first time probably, As Thirlwall remark), that they had ever boasted of the omission of their name from the Homeric catalogue. (Justin, xxviii. 1; Strab. p. 462; Thirlwall, Hut. of Greece, vol. viii. pp. 119,120.)

B. c, the Corinthians founded Leucas, Anactorium, Sollium, and other towns on the coast. (Strab. p. 452.) The original inhabitants of the country were driven more into the interior; they never made mnch progress in the arts of civilised life; and even at the time of the Peloponnesian war, they were a radc and barbarous people, engaged in continual wars with their neighbours, and living by robbery and piracy. (Thuc. i. 5.) The Acarnanians, however, were Greeks, and as such were allowed to contend in the great Pan-Hellenic games, although they wero closely connected with their neighbours, the Agraeans and Amphilochians on the gulf of Ambracia, who were barbarian or nonHcllcnic nations. Like other rude mountaineers, the Acaraanians are praised for their fidelity and courage^ They formed good light-armed troops, and were excellent slingers. They lived, for the most part dispersed in villages, retiring, when attacked, to the mountains. They were united, however, in a political League, of which Aristotle wrote an account in a work now lost. QAKapvdwa* llo\tT<ia, Strab. p. 321.) Thucydides mentions a hill, named Olpae, near the Amphilochian Argos, which tho Acaraanians had fortified as a place of judicial meeting for the settlement of disputes. (Thuc. iii. 105.) The meetings of the League were usually held at Stratus, which was the chief town in Acarnania (Xen. Hell. iv. G. § 4; comp. Thuc. ii. 80); but, in tho time of the Romans, the meetings took place either at Thyrium, or at Leucas, the latter of which places became, at that time, the chief city in Acamania (Liv. xxxiii. 16, 17; Polyb. xxviii. 5.) At an early period, when part of Amphilochia belonged to the Acarnanians, they used to hold a public judicial congress at Olpae, a fortified hill about 3 miles from Argos Amphilochicum. Of the constitution of their League we have scarcely any particulars. We learn from an inscription found at Funta, the site of ancient Actiom, that there was a Council and a general assembly of tho people, by which decrees were passed. (*EJo{( T$ PovKa xal fcotrcp ruv 'AKapvdvwv'). At the head of the Leaguo there was a Strategus (ZrpaTTjyds') or General; and the Council had a Secretary (ypafifutreus), who appears to have been a person of importance, as in the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues. The chief priest (tfpcwroAos) of the temple of Apollo at Actium seems to have been a person of high rank; and either his name or that of the Strategus was employed for official dates, like that of the first Archon at Athens. (Bockh, Corpus Imcript. No. 1793.)

Tho history of the Acarnanians begins in the time of the Peloponnesian war. Their hatred against the Corinthian settlers, who had deprived them of all their best ports, naturally led them to side with the Athenians; but the immediate cause of their alliance with the latter arose from the expulsion of tho Amphilochians from the town of Argos Amphilochicum by the Corinthian settlers from Ambracia, about B. O. 432. Tho Acarnanians espoused the cause of tho expelled Amphilochians, and in order to obtain the restoration of the latter, they applied for assistance to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent an expedition under Phormio, who took Argos, expelled the Ambraciots, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. An alliance was now formally concluded between the Acaraanians and Athenians. The only towns of Acamania which did not join it were Oeniadae and Astacus.

The Acarnanians wore of great service in maintaining the supremacy of Athens in the western part of Greece, and they distinguished themselves particularly in B. c. 426, when they gained a signal victory under the command of Demosthenes over the Pcloponnesians and Ambraciots at Olpae. (Thuc. iii. 105, seq.) At the conclusion of this campaign they concluded a peace with the Ambraciots, although they still continued allies of Athens (Thuc. iii. 114.) In B.C. 391 we find the Acarnanians engaged in war with the Achacans, who had taken possession of Calydon in Aetolia; and as the latter were hard pressed by the Acaraanians, they applied for aid to the Lacedaemonians, who sent an army into Acarnania, commanded by Agesilaus. The latter ravaged the country, but his expedition was not attended with any lasting consequences (Xen. HdL iv. 6). After the time of Alexander the Great the Aetoliana conquered most of the towns in the west of Acarnania; and the Acarnanians in consequence united themselves closely to the Macedonian kings, to whom they remained faithful in their various vicissitudes of fortune. They refused to desert the cause of Philip in his war with the Romans, and it was not till after the capture of Leucas, their principal town, and the defeat of Philip at Cynoscephalae that they submitted to the Romans. (Liv. xxxiii. 16—17.) When Antiochus III. king of Syria, invaded Greece, B. c. 191, the Acarnanians were persuaded by their countryman Mnasilochus to espouse his cause; but on the expulsion of Antiochus from Greece, they came again under the supremacy of Rome. (Liv. xxxvi. 11—12.) In tho settlement of the affairs of Greece by Acmiiius Paulus and the Roman commissioners after the defeat of Perseus (n. c. 168), Leucas was separated from Acamania, but no other change was made in the country. (Liv. xlv. 31.) When Greece was reduced to the form of a Roman province, it is doubtful whether Acamania was annexed to the province of Achaia or of Epeirus, but it is mentioned at a later time as part of Epeirus. [achaia, No. 3.] The inhabitants of several of its towns were removed by Augustas to Nicopolis, which he founded after the battle of Actium [niCopolis]; and in the time of this emperor tho country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab. p. 460.)

The following is a list of the towns of Acamania. On the Ambracian gulf, from E. to W.: Limnaea, Echinus ('Ex'"OS, Steph. B. t. v.; Plin. iv. 2; Ai Vasili), Heracleia (Plin. iv.2; VoniUa), AnactoRium, Actium. On or near the west of tho Ionian sea, from N. to S.: Thyrium, Palaerus, Alyzia, Sollium, Astacus, Oeniadae. In tho interior from S. to N.: Old Ocnia [oeniaDae], Coronta, Metropolis, Stratus, Rhynchus ('P">yxos)! "ear Stratus, of uncertain site (Pol. ap. Ath. iii. p. 95, d.); Phytia or PhoeTeiae, Medeon. Tho Roman Itineraries mention

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only one road in Acarnania, which led from Actium along the coast to Calydon in Aetolia.

ACCI ('ajciw: Guadix el viejo, between Granada and Baza), a considerable inland city of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the borders of Baetica; under the Romans a colony, with the Jos Latinnm, under the full name of Colonia Julia Getnella Acdtana. Its coins are numerous, bearing the heads of Augustus, Tiberius, Germanicus, Drusus, and Caliguja, and the ensigns of the legions iii. and vi., from which it was colonised by Julius or Augustus, and from which it derived the name of Gemella (Itin. Ant. pp. 402, 404; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; laser, ap. Grater, p. 271; Eckhel, vol. i. pp. 34—35; Kasche, «. c.) According to Macrobius («Saf. i. 19), Mars was worshipped here with his head surrounded with the sun's rays, under the name of Netos. Such an emblem is seen on the coins. [P. S.]

A'CCUA, a small town of Apulia, mentioned only by Livy (xxiv. 20) as one of the places recovered by Q. Fabins from the CartJiaguuans in the fifth year of the Second Punic War, B. c. 214. It appears from this passage to have been somewhere in the neighbourhood of Luceria, but its exact site is unknown. [E. H. B.]

ACE ("A>o|: Elh. 'Alcalos), the Accho ("akx«) of the Old Testament (Judg. i. 31), the Alcka of the Arabs, a celebrated town and harbour on the shores of Phoenicia, in lat, 32° 54', long. 35° 6' E. It is situated on the point of a small promontory, the northern extremity of a circular bay, of which the opposite or southern horn fa formed by one of the ridges of Mount Carmel. During the period that Ptolemy Soter was in possession of Coele-Syria, it received the name of Ptolemais (IlTaA«uafs: Eth. HToKefiatTi]*, TiToXtfiouevs), by which it was long distinguished. In the reign of the emperor Claudius it became a Roman colony, and was styled Colonia Claudii Caesaris Ptolemais, or simply Colonia Ptolemais; but from the time when it was occupied by the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, it has been generally known all over Christendom as St Jean d'A ere, or simply Acre.

The advantages offered by the position of Acre were recognised from an early period by those who desired to keep the command of the Syrian coast, but it did not rise to eminence until after the decay of Tyre and Sidon. When Strabo wrote (p. 758), it was already a great city; and although it has undergone many vicissitudes, it has always maintained a certain degree of importance. It originally belonged to the Phoenicians, and, though nominally included within the territory of the tribe of Asher, was never conquered by the Israelites. It afterwards passed into the hands of the Babylonians, and from them to the Persians. According to the first distribution of the dominions of Alexander it was assigned to Ptolemy Soter, but subsequently fell under the Seleucidae, and after changing hands repeatedly eventually fell under the dominion of Rome. It is said at present to contain from 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. [W. R.]

A'CELUM (AsoUi), a town of the interior of Yenetia, situated near the foot of the Alps, about 18 miles NW. of Treviso. (Plin. iii. 19. s. 23; Ptol. iii. 1. § 30.) Tho name is written "A/ccoo? in our editions of Ptolemy, but tho correctness of tho form AcMum given by Pliny is confirmed by that of tho modern town. We learn from Paulus Diaconus(iii. 25, where it is corruptly written Aciliuni), that it was a bishop's sec in the 6th century. [E. H. B.]

ACERRAE(\Ax4>fai: Acerranus). 1. Acityin the interior of Campania, about 8 miles NE. of Naples, still called Acerra. It first appears in history as an independent city during the great war of the Campanians and Latins against Rome; shortly after the conclusion of which, in B.C. 332, the Acerrani, in common with several other Campanian cities, obtained the Roman "civitas," but without the right of suffrage. The period at which this latter privilege was granted them is not mentioned, but it fa certain that they ultimately obtained the full rights of Roman citizens. (Liv. viii. 17; Festus, g. v. Municipium, Municeps, and Praefectitra, pp. 127, 142, 233, ed. Mtiller.) In the second Punic war it was faithful to the Roman alliance, on which account it was besieged by Hannibal in B. c. 216, and being abandoned by the inhabitants in despair, was plundered and burnt. But after the expulsion of Hannibal from Campania, the Acerrani, with the consent of the Roman senate, returned to and rebuilt their city, B.C. 210. (Liv. xxiii. 17, xxvii. 3.)

During the Social War it was besiegeu "uy the Samnite general, C. Papius, but offered so vigorous a resistance that he was unable to reduce it. (Appian. B. C. i. 42,45.) Virgil praises the fertility of its territory, but the town itself had suffered so much from the frequent inundations of the river Clanius, on which it was situated, that it was in his time almost deserted. (Virg. Georg. ii. 225; and Servius adloc.; SiL Ital. viii. 537; Vib. Seq. p. 21.) It subsequently received a colony under Augustus (Lib. Colon, p. 229), and Strabo speaks of it in conjunction with Nola and Xuceria, apparently as a place of some consequence. It does not seem, however, to have retained its colonial rank, but fa mentioned by Pliny as an ordinary municipal town. (Strab. v. pp. 247, 249; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Orell. Inter, no. 3716.) The modern town of Acerra retains the site as well as the name of the ancient one, but it does not appear that any vestiges of antiquity, except a few inscriptions, remain there. (Lupuli, Iter Venasin, p. 10—12.) The coins with an Oscan legend which were referred by Eckhel and earlier numismatists to Acerrae, belong properly to Atella. (Millingen, Numumatique die lAncicrme Italie, p. 190; Friedlander, Oskiscken Munzen, p. 15.)

2. A city of Cisalpine Gaul, in the territory of the Insubres. Polybius describes it merely as situated between the Alps and the Po; and his words are copied by Stephanus of Byzantium: but Strabo tells us that it was near Cremona: and the Tabula places it on the road from that city to Laus Pompeia {Lodi Vecchio), at a distance of 22 Roman miles from the latter place, and 13 from Cremona. These distances coincide with the position of Gherra or Gera, a village, or rather suburb of Pizaghettone, on the right bank of the river Adda. It ap[«ars to have been a place of considerable strength and importance (probably as commanding the passage of the Adda) even before the Roman conquest: and in B.C. 222, held out for a considerable time against the consuls Marcellus and Seipio, but was compelled to surrender after the battle of Clastidium. (Pol. ii. 34; Plut, Marc. 6; Zonar. viii. 20; Strab. v. p. 247; Steph.B.*.*.; Tab. Pent.; Cluver. Ital. p. 244.)

3. A third town of the name, distinguished by the epithet of Vatbiae, is mentioned by Pliny (iii. 14. s. 19) as having been situated in Umbria, but it was already destroyed in his time, and all clue to its position is lost. [E. H. B.]

ACES ("Am)!), a river of Asia, flowing through a plain surrounded by mountains, respecting which a .story is told by Herodotus (iii. H7). Geographers are not agreed as to the locality. It seems to be somewhere in Central Asia, E. of the Caspian. It is pretty clear, at all events, that the Aces of Herodotus is not the Indian river Acesinea. [P. S.]

ACESIXES (AitfffbTjj), a river of Sicily, which flows, into the sea to the south of Tauromenium. Its name occurs only in Thucydides (iv. 25) on occasion of the attack made on Naxos by the Messcnians in B. c. 425: but it is evidently the same river which is called by Pliny (iii. 8) Asines, and by Vibius Sequester (p. 4) Asraius. Both these writers place it in the immediate neighbourhood of Tauromenium, and it can be no other than the river now called by the Arabic name of Cantara, a considerable stream, which, after following throughout its course the northern boundary of Aetna, discharges itself into tho sea immediately to the S. of CajH) Schizo, the site of the ancient Naxos. The Onobalas of Appian (B. C. v. 109) is probably only another name for the same river. Cluverius appears to be mistaken in regarding the Fiume Freddo as the Acesines : it is a very small stream, wliile the Cantara is one of the largest rivers in Sicily, and could hardly have been omitted by Pliny. (Clnver. SiciL p. 93; Mannert, vol ix. pt ii. p. 284.) [E. H. B.]

ACESINES ('Aictalrnf. Chenab: Dionysius Periegetes, v. 1138, makes the i long, if any choose to consider this an authority), the chief of the five great tributaries of the Indus, which give the name of Punjab (i. e. Five Wateri) to the great plain of NW. India. These rivers are described, in their connection with each other, under Ixdia. The Acesines was tho second of them, reckoning from tho W., and, after receiving the waters of all the rest, retained its name to its junction with the Indus, in lat. 28° 55' N., long. 70° 28' E. Its Sanscrit name was Chandrabhaga, which would have been Hellcnized into Xavtipotpdyos, a word so like to 'KvSpo<j>dyos, or 'AKt^ai/Spotpdyot, that the fullowers of Alexander changed the name to avoid the evil omen, the more so perhaps on account of the disaster which befell the Macedonian fleet at the turbulent junction of the river with the Hydaspes (Hitter, Erdhunde von Asien, vol. iv. pt. i. p. 456: for other references sec India.) [P. S.j

ACESTA. [seoesta.]

ACHAEI ('Ax<uu/), one of the four races into which tho Hellenes are usually divided. In the heroic ago they are found in that part of Thessaly in which Phthia and Hellas were situated, and also in the eastern part of Peloponnesus, more especially in Argos and Sparta. Argos was frequently called the Achaean Argos (*Ap7ot 'axoukov, Horn. //. ix. 141) to distinguish it from the Pelasgian Argos in Thessaly; but Sparta is generally mentioned as the head-quarters of the Achaean race in Peloponnesus. Thessaly and Peloponnesus were thus the two chief abodes of this people; but there were various traditions respecting their origin, and a difference of opinion existed among the ancients, whether the Thessalian or the Pcloponnesian Achaeons were the more ancient. They were usually represented as descendants of Achaeus, the son of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently the brother of Ion and grandson of Hellen. Pausanias (vii. 1) related that Achaeus went back to Thessaly, and recovered the dominions of which his father, Xuthus, had been deprived; and then, in order to

explain the existence of the Achneans in Peloponnesus, he adds that Archander and Architeles, the sons of Achaeus, caino back from Phthiotis to Argos, married the two daughters of Danaus, and acquired such influence at Argos and Sparta, that they called the people Achaeans after their father Achaeus. On the other hand, Strabo in one passage says (p. 383), that Achaeus having fled from Attica, where his father Xuthus had settled, settled in Lacrdaemon and gave to the inhabitants the name of Achaeans. In another passage, however, he relates (p. 365), that Pelops brought with him into Peloponnesus the Phthiotan Achaeans, who settled in Laconia. It would be unprofitable to pursue further the variations in the legends; but we may safely believe that the Achaeans in Thessaly were more ancient than those in Peloponnesus, since all tradition points to Thessaly as the cradle of the Hellenic race. There is a totally different account, which represents the Achaeans as of Pelasgic origin. It is preserved by Dionysius of Haliearaassus (i. 17), who relates that Achaeus, Phthius, and Pelasgus were sons of Poseidon and Larissa; and that they migrated from Peloponnesus to Thessaly, where they divided the country into three parts, called after them Achaia, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotis. A modem writer is disposed to accept this tradition so far, as to assign a Pelasgic origin to the Achaeans, though he regards the Phthiotan Achaeans as more ancient than their brethren in the Peloponnesus. (Thirlwall, Iliit. of Greece, vol. i. p. 109, sex}.) The only fact known in the earliest history of the people, which we can admit with certainty, is their existence as the predominant race in the south of Thessaly, and on the eastern side of Peloponnesus. They are represented by Homer as a brave and warlike people, and so distinguished were they that he usually calls the Greeks in general Achaeans or Panachaeans (nayax<""(, ii. 404, vii. 73, &c). In the same manner Peloponnesus, and sonictimes the whole of Greece, is called by the poet tho Achaean land. ('Axai'J yata, Horn. IL i. 254, Od. xiii. 249.) On tho conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, 80 years after the Trojan war, tho Achaeans were driven out of Argos and Laconia, and those who remained behind were reduced to the condition of a conquered people. Most of the expelled Achaeans, led by Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, proceeded to the land on the northern coast of Peloponnesus, which was called simply Aeginlus (Ai7ioA(is) or tho "Coast," and was inhabited by Ionian*. The latter were defeated by the Achaeans and crossed over to Attica and Asia Minor, leaving their country to their conquerors, from whom it was henceforth called Achaia, (Strab. p. 383; Pans, vii. 1; Pol. ii. 41; comp. Herod, i. 145.) The further history of the Achaeans is given under Achaia. The Achaeans founded several colonies, of which the most celebrated were Croton and Sybaris. [croton; Sybaris.]

ACHA'IA ('Axeifa, Ion. 'Ax«i'y. Eth. Axa«it, Achaeus, AchlvuSj/em. and adj. 'Axa'ds, Achaias, Achiiis: Adj. 'AxaiVo's, Achaicus, Achaius). 1. A district in the S. of Thessaly, in which Phthia and Hellas were situated. It appears to hare been the original abode of tho Achaeans, who were hence called Phthiotan Achaeans ('Axaiol oi s>0iwra<^ to distinguish them from the Achaeans in the Peloponnesus. [For details seo Achaei.] It was from this part of Thessaly that Achilles came, and Homer says that the subjects of this hero were called Myrmidons, and Hellenes, and Achaeans. (//. ii. 684.) This district continued to retain the name of Achaia in the time of Herodotus (vii. 173, 197), and the inhabitants of Phthia were called Phthiotan Achaeans till a still later period. (Thuc viii. 3.) An account of this part of Thessaly is given under Thessalia.

2. Originally called Aegialus or Aegialeia (AfyioA^v, A»7«£a«io, Horn. //. ii. 575; Pans. vii. 1. § 1; Strab. p. 383), that is, "the Coast," a province in the N. of Peloponnesus, extended along the Corinthian gulf from the river Larissus, a little S. of the promontory Araxus, which separated it from Elis, to the river Sythas, which separated it from Sicyonia. On the S. it was bordered by Arcadia, and on the SW. by Elis. Its greatest length along the coast is about 65 English miles: its breadth from about 12 to 20 miles. Its area was probably about 650 square miles. Achaia is thus only a narrow slip of country, lying upon the slope of the northern range of Arcadia, through which are deep and narrow gorges, by which alone Achaia can be invaded from the south. From this mountain range descend numerous ridges running down into the eca, or separated from it by narrow levels. The plains on the coast at the foot of these mountains and the Tallies between them are generally very fertile. At the present day cultivation ends with the plain of Patra, and the whole of the western part of Achaia is forest or pasture. The plains arc drained by numerous streams; but in consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the sea the course of the6e torrents is necessarily short, and most of them are dry in summer. The coast is generally low, and deficient in good harbours. Colonel Leake remarks, that the level along the coast of Achaia " appears to have been formed in the course of ages by the soil deposited by the torrents which descend from the lofty mountains that rise immediately at the back of the plains. Wherever the rivers are largest, the plains are most extensive, and each river has its correspondent promontory proportioned in like manner to its volume. These promontories are in general nearly opposite to the openings at which the rivers emerge from the mountains." {Pelopoimetiaca, p. 390.)

The highest mountain in Achaia is situated behind Patrae; it is called Mons Pahachaicus by Polybius, and is, perhaps, the same as the Scioessa of Pliny (to havaxaiKbv 6pos, Pol. v. 30; Plin. iv. 6: Voidhia). It is 6322 English feet in height. (Leake, Travel* m Morea, vol. ii. p. 138, Peloponnetiaca, p. 204.) There are three conspicuous promontories on the coast. 1. Drepanum (Ap^rayo*: C. Dhrepano), the most northerly point in Peloponnesus, is confounded by Strabo with the neighbouring promontory of Khium, but it is the low sandy point 4 miles eastward of the latter. Its name is connected by Pausanias with the sickle of Cronus; but we know that this name was often applied by the ancients to low sandy promontories, which assume the form of a tpivavov, or sickle. (Strab. p. 336; Pans. vii. 23. §.4; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 415.) 2. Khium ( P(w: Cattle of the Morea), 4 miles westward of Drepanum, as mentioned above, is opposite the promontory of AntirRhium, sometimes also called Khium ('Avrljipiov: Cattle of HumUi), on the borders of Aetolia and Locris. In order to distinguish them from each other the former was called To 'axoikov, and the latter To MoAi/KpucdV, from its vicinity to the town

ot Molycreium. These two promontories formwl the entrance of the Corinthian gulf. The breadth of the strait is stated both by Dodwell and Leake to be about a mile and a half; bat the ancient writers make the distance less. Thncydidcs makes it 7 stadia, Strabo 5 stadia, and Pliny nearly a Iioman mile. On the promontory of Rhiuin there was a temple of Poseidon. (Thuc. ii. 86; Strab. pp. 335, 336; Plin. iv. 6; Steph. B. ». v.; Dodwell, Classical Tow, vol. i. p. 126; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 147.) 3. Araxus ("Apafoj: Kalogria), W. of Dyme, formerly the boundary between Achaia and Elis, but the confines were afterwards extended to the river Larissus. (Pol. iv. 65; Strab. pp. 335, 336; Paus. vi. 26. § 10.)

The following is a list of the rivers of Achaia from E. to W. Of these the only two of any importance are 'the Crathis (No. 3) and the Peirus (No. 14). 1. Sythas, or Sys (susoj, 25j), forming the boundary between Achaia and Sicyonia. We may infer that this river was at no great distance from Sicyon, from the statement of Pausanias, that at the festival of Apollo there was a procession of children from Sicyon to the Sythas, and back again to the city. (Paus. ii. 7. § 8, ii. 12. § 2, vii. 27. § 12; Ptol. iii. 16. § 4; comp. Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 383, Peloponnetiaca, p. 403.) 2. Crius (Kp«(y), rising in the mountains above Pellene, and flowing into the sea a little W. of Aegcira. (Paus. vii. 27. § 11.) 3. Crathis (KpaOts: Akrata), rising in a mountain of the same name in Arcadia, and falling into the sea near Aegae. It is described as atyvaos, to distinguish it from the other streams in Achaia, which were mostly dry in summer, as stated above. The Styx, which rises in the Arcadian mountain cf Aroania, is a tributary of the Crathis. (Herod, i. 145; Callim. in Jov. 26; Strab. p. 386; Paus. vii. 25. § 11, viii. 15. §§ 8, 9, viii. 18. § 4; Leake, Morea, vol. iii pp. 394, 407.) 4. BuBAICUS (»oTo>iis BovpatKos: river of Kalavryta, or river of Bura), rising in Arcadia, and falling into the sea E. of Bura. It appears from Strabo that its proper name was Erasmus. (Paus. vii. 25. § 10; Strab. p. 371; Leake, /. c.) 5. Cerynites (Kfpvvlrns: Bokhutia'), Honing from the mountain Ceryneia, in Arcadia, and falling into the sea probably E. of Heb'ce. (Paus. vii. 25. § 5; Leake, J. c.) 6. Selinus (JtAifoDs: river of Vottitza), flowing into the sea between Hclice and Aegium. Strabo erroneously describes it as flowing through Aegium. (Paus. vii 24. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Leake, I. c.) 7, 8. Meganttas (MrvoKfToj) and Phoenix (♦ou'if), both falling into the sea W. of Aegium. (Paus. vii. 23. § 5.) 9. Bounaeus (BoAiraTos), flowing into the sea a little E. of the promontory Drepanum, so called from an ancient town Bolina, which had disappeared in the time of Pausanias. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) 10. Selemnus (24\tfwos), flowing into the sea between the promontories Drepanum and Khium, a little E. of Argyra. (Paus. vii. 23. § 1.) 11, 12. Charadrus (X&paipos: river of Velvita) and Meilichus (MefAixos: river of Sykena), both falling into the sea between the promontory Khium and Patrae. (Paus. vii. 22. § 11, vii. 19. § 9, 20. § 1.) 13. Guiucua (Thames : Lefka, or Lafka), falling into the sea, a little S. of Patrae. (Paus. vii. 18. § 2; Leake, vol. ii. p. 123.) 14. Peirus (Utlpos: Kamenitsa), also called Achelous, falling into the sea near Olenus. This river was mentioned by Hesiod

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