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(Joseph. Ant. xiii. 13. § 3), and after its restoration was one of the five cities in which the Sanhedrim sat: the others were Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara and Sepphoris (lb. xiv. 10). Barkhardt passed "the ruins of an ancient city standing on the declivity of the mountain" called Amata, near the Jordan, and a little to the north of the Ztrka (Jabbok). He was told " that several columns remain standing, and also some large buildings." (Travels, p. 346.) [G. W.]

AMA'ZONES ('ApafoVfj), a mythical race of warlike females, of whom an account is given in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology.

AMBARRI, a Gallic people, whom Caesar (B. G. i. 11) calls close allies and kinsmen of the Acini. If the reading " Aedui Ambarri" in the passage referred to is correct, the Ambarri were Aedui. They are not mentioned among the " clientes 8 of the Aedui. (£. G. vii. 75.) They occupied a tract in the valley of the Rhone, probably in the angle between the Saone and the Rhone; and their neighbours on the E. were the Allobroges. They are mentioned by Livy (v. 34) with the Aedui among those Galli who were said to have crossed the Alps into Italy in the time of Tarquinius Prisons. [G.L.]

AMBIA'NI, a Jielgic people, who were said to be able to muster 10,000 armed men in B. c. 57, the year of Caesar's Belgic campaign. They submitted to Caesar. (2?. G. ii. 4, 15.) Their country lay in the valley of the Samara (Somrae); and their chief town Samarobriva, afterwards called Ambiani and Civitas Ambianensinm, is supposed to be represented by A miem. They were among the people who took part in the great insurrection against the Romans, which is described in the seventh book of the Gallic war. (B. G. vii. 75.) [G. L.]

AMBIATI'JSTIS VICUS, or AMBITARINUS, as the true reading is said to be (Sueton. Calig. 8), a place in the country of the Treviri above Confluentcs (CoMenfc), where the emperor Caligula was born. Its precise position cannot be ascertained. [G. I.. ]

AMBIBARI, one of the people or states of Armorica. (Caes. B. G. vii. 75.) Their position does not appear to be determined. [G. L.]

AMBILIA'TI, a people mentioned by Caesar (/?. G. iii. 9) with the Nannetea, Morini, and others; but nothing can bo inferred from this passage as to their precise position. Some of the best MSS. have in this passage the reading u Ambiauos " instead of "Ambiliatos." [G. L.]

AMBISON'TES or BISONTES, one of the many otherwise unknown tribes in the interior of Noricnm, about the sources of the rivers I varus and Anisns, in the neighbourhood of the modern city of Salzburg. (Plin. iii. 24; Ptol. ii. 13. § 3.) [L. S.]

AMBIVAHETI, are mentioned by Caesar (B. G. vii. 75) as "clientes" of the Aedui; and they are mentioned again (vii. 90). As dependents of the Aedui, they must have lived somewhere near them, but there is no evidence for their exact position. The Ambivareti mentioned by Caesar (B. G. iv. 9) were a people near the Mosa (Maas). As the two names are evidently the same, it is probable that there is some error in one of the names; for these people on the Hosa could hardly be clientes of the Aedui. As to the various readings in the passage (B.G.iv. 9), see Schneider's edition of Caesar. [G.L.]

AUBLADA CA^AoJo: Eth. 'AnSAoSeiit), a city of Pisidia, which Strabo (p. 570) places near the boundaries of Phrygia and Caria. It produced wine that was used for medicinal purposes. There

are copper coins of Amblada of the period of the Antonini and their successors, with the epigraph A.uSAaSfMK. The site is unknown. [G. L.]

AMBRA'CIA {'Aftwpcutla, Thnc; 'Ataxia, Xen. and later writers: Eth, 'Anirjxoti<£r>|t, Herod.

viii. 45, Thnc. U. 80; Ionic 'A^irpaKi^njj, Herod.

ix. 28; 'AfigpaKiuTrit, Xen. Anab. i. 7. § 18, et alii; 'A/ie>««ij, Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1228; 'A/igpi. Kioj, 'A/jtSpaxiroi, Steph. B. f. v.: Ambraciensis, Lit. xxxviii. 43; Ambraciota, Cic. Ttue. i. 34: Aria), an important city to the north of the Ambraciot gulf, which derived its name from this place. It was situated on the eastern bank of the river Arachthus or Arethon, at the distance of 80 stadia from the gulf, according to ancient authorities, or 7 English miles, according to a modern traveller. It stood on the western side of a rugged hill called Perranthes, and the acropolis occupied one of the summits of this hill towards the cast. It was rather more than three miles in circumference, and, in addition to its strong walls, it was well protected by the river and the heights which surrounded it It is generally described as a town of Epirus, of which it was the capital under Pyrrhus and the subsequent monarchs; but in earlier times it was an independent state, with a considerable territory, which extended along the coast for 120 stadia. How far the territory extended northward we are not informed; but that portion of it between the city itself and the coast was an extremely fertile plain, traversed by the Arachthus, and producing excellent com in abundance. Ambracia is called by Dicaearchus and Scylax the first town in Hellas proper. (Strab. p. 325; Dicaearch. 31, p. 460, ed. Fuhr; Scyl. p. 12; Polyb. xxii. 9; Liv. xxxviii. 4.)

According to tradition, Ambracia was originally a Thesprotian town, founded by Ambrax, son of Thesprotus, or by Ambracia, daughter of Angeas; but it was made a Greek city by a colony of Corinthians, who settled here in the time of Cypsclus, about B. c. 635. The colony is said to have been led by Gorgus (also called Torgus or Tolgus), the son or brother of Cypsclus. Gorgus was succeeded in the tyranny by his son Periander, who was deposed by the people, probably after the death of the Corinthian tyrant of the same name. (Strab. pp. 325, 452; Scymn. 454; Anton. Lib. 4; Aristot. Pol v. 3. § 6, v. 8. § 9; Ael. V. B. xii. 35; Diog. Laert. i. 98.) Ambracia soon became a flourishing city, and the most important of all the Corinthian colonies on tho Ambraciot gulf. It contributed seven ships to the Greek navy in the war against Xerxes, B. c. 480, and twenty-seven to the Corinthians in their war against Corcyra, B. c. 432. (Herod, viii. 45; Thnc. i. 46.) The Ambraciots, as colonists and allies of Corinth, espoused the Lacedaemonian cause in the Peloponnesian war. It was about this time that they reached the maximum of their power. They had extended their dominions over the whole of Amphilochia, and had taken possession of the important town of Argos in this district, from which they had driven out the original inhabitants. The expelled Amphilochians, supported by the Acamanians, applied for aid to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent a force under Phormion, who took Argos, sold the Ambraciots as slaves, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acamanians, B. c. 432. Anxious to recover the lost town, the Ambraciots, two years afterwards (430), marched against Argos, hut were unable to take it, and retired after laying waste its territory. Not disheartened by tliis repulse, they concerted a plan in the following year (429), with t lie Peloponncsians, for tho complete subjugation of A< amania. They had extensive relations with the Chaonians and other tribes in the interior of Epirus, and were thus enabled to collect a formidable army of Epirots, with which they joined the Lacedaemonian commander, Cnemus. The united forces advanced into Acamania as far as Stratus, but under the walls of this city the Epirots were defeated by the Acamanians, and the expedition came to an end. Notwithstanding this second misfortune, the Ambraciots marched against Argos again in B. c. 426. Tito history of this expedition, and of their two terrible defeats by Demosthenes and the Acamanians, is related elsewhere. [aroos Amfhilochicum.] It appears that nearly the whole adult military population of the city was destroyed, and Thucydides considers their calamity to "have been the greatest that befel any Grecian city during the earlier part of the war. Demosthenes was anxious to march straightway against Ambracia, which would have surrendered without a blow; but the Acamanians refused to undertake the enterprize, fearing that the Athenians at Ambracia would be more troublesome neighbours to them than the Ambraciots. The Acamanians and Ajnphilochians now concluded a peace and alliance with the Ambraciots for 100 years. Ambracia had become so helpless that the Corinthians shortly afterwards sent 300 hoplitcs to the city for its defence. (Thuc. ii. 68, 80, iii. 105 -114.)

The severe blow which Ambracia had received prevented it from taking any active part in the remainder of the war. It sent, however, some troops to the assistance of Syracuse, when besieged by the Athenians. (Thuc. vii. 58.) Ambracia was subsequently conquered by Philip II., king of Macedonia. On the accession of Alexander the Great (b. C. 336) it expelled the Macedonian garrison, bnt soon afterwards submitted to Alexander. (Diod. xvii. 3, 4.) At a later time it became subject to Pyrrhus, who made it the capital of his dominions, and his usual place of residence, and who also adorned it with numerous works of art. (Pol. xxii. 13; Liv. xxxviii. 9; Strab. p. 325.) Pyrrhus built here a strongly fortified palace, which was called after him Pyrrheum (Uvpieiof). (Pol. xxii. 10; Liv. xxxviii. 5.) Ambracia afterwards fell into the hands of the Aetclians, and the possession of this powerful city was one of the chief sources of the Aetolian power in this port of Greece. When the Romans declared war against the Actolians, Ambracia was besieged by the Roman consul M. Eulvius Nobilior, B.C. 189. This siege is one of the most memorable in ancient warfare for the bravery displayed in the defence of the town. In the course of the siege the Aetolians concluded a peace with Fulvius, whereupon Ambracia opened its gates to tie besiegers. The consul, however, stripped it of its valuable works of art, and removed them to Rome. (Pol. xxii. 9—13; Liv. xxxviii. 3—9.) From this time Ambracia rapidly declined, and its ruin was completed by Augustus, who removed its inhabitants to Nicopolis, which he founded in commemoration of his victory at Actium. (Strab. p. 325; Paus. v. 23. § 3.)

There is no longer any doubt that Arta is the site of Ambracia, the position of which was for a long time a subject of dispute. Tho remains of the walls of Ambracia confirm the statements of the ancient writers respecting the strength of its fortifications. The walls were built of immense quadran

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1. The Acropolis.

2. Mt Perranthes.

3. Bridge over the Arschthns.

[Tho dotted line shows tho ancient walls, where the foundations only remain. The entire line, where the remains are more considerable.]

How long Ambracia continued deserted after the removal of its inhabitants toNicopohs, we do not know; but it was re-occupied under the Byzantine Empire, and became again a place of importance. Its modem name of Arta is evidently a corruption of the river Arachthus, upon which it stood; and wc find this name in the Byzantine writers as early as the eleventh century. In the fourteenth century Arta was reckoned the chief town in Acamania, whence it was frequently called by the name of Acamania simply. Cyriacus calls it sometimes Arechthea Acarnana. (Bockh, Corput Inter. No. 1797.) It is still the principal town in this part of Greece, and, like the ancient city, has given its name to the neighbouring gulf. The population of Arta was reckoned to be about 7000 in the year 1830. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 206, seq.; Wolfe, Journalof Geographical Society, vol. iii. p.82, seq.)

There were three other places in the territory of Ambracia mentioned by ancient writers: 1. Ambracus. 2. The port of Ambracia. 3. Craneia

Ambracus ('AjtiSpoitos) is described by Polybins as a place well fortified by ramparts and outworks, and as surrounded by marshes, through which there was only one narrow causeway leading to the place. It was taken by Philip V., king of Macedonia, in B. c. 219, as a preliminary to an attack upon Ambracia. (Pol. iv. 61, 63.) 'Scylax probably alludes to this place, when he says (p. 12) that Ambracia had a fortress near its harbour; for near the western shore of the old mouth of the river,Arachthus (Arta) some rains have been discovered, whose topographical situation accords with the description of Polybins. They are situated on a swampy island, in a marshy lako near the sea. They inclosed an area of about a quarter of a mile in extent, and appeared to be merely a military post, which was all that the swampy nature of the ground would admit of. (Wolfe, Ibid. p, 84.) This fortress commanded the harbour, which is described by Scylax and Dicacarchus (IL cc) as a KkcioTbs M^v, or a port with a narrow entrance, which might be shut with a chain. The harbour must have been an artificial one; for the present mouth of the Arta is so obstructed by swamps and shoals as scarcely to be accessible even to boats. In ancient times its navigation was also esteemed dangerous, whence Lucan (v. 651) speaks of " orae inalignos Ambraciae portus."

Craneia (Kpdvtia) was a small village situated on a mountain of the same name, which Leake supposes to have been the high mountain now called Kelberini, which rises from the right bank of the river Arta, immediately opposite to the town.

Between the territory of Ambracia and Amphihfchia, Dicacarchus (45) mentions a people called Oreitae ('o/mitoi), who appear to have been inhabitants of the mountains named Makrinoro, beginning at the NW. corner of the Ambraciot gulf.

[graphic][merged small]

AMBRA'CIUS SINUS (<S 'AfxwpcucuAs K6\itos, Tbuc. L 55; 6 'Afi€paKiicbs K6\vo$, Pol. iv. 63, Strab. p. 325, et &L; i} ddXtwtra rj 'A/wrptuc/^i), Dion Cass. I. 12: Sinus Ambracius, Lir. xxxviii. 4; Mel. ii. 3: Gulf of A rta), an arm of the Ionian sea, lying between Epirns and Acarnania, so called from the town of Ambracia. Polybius (/. c.) describes the bay as 300 stadia in length, and 100 stadia in breadth: Strabo (/. c.) gives 300 stadia as its circumference, which is absurdly too small. Its real length is 25 miles, and its breadth 10. The entrance of the gulf, one side of which was formed by the promontory of Actium, is described under Actium. In consequence of the victory which Augustus gained over Antony at the entrance to this gulf, Statius (Silv. ii. 2. 8) gives the name of Ambraciae frondts to the crowns of laurel bestowed upon the victors in the Actian games. The Ambracius Sinus is also frequently mentioned in Greek history. On it were the towns of Argos Amphilochicum, and Anactorium, and the sea-port of Ambracia. The rivers Charadra and Arachthus flowed into it from the N. It was celebrated in antiquity for its excellent fish, and particularly for a species called K&rpos. (Atb. in. p. 92, d., vii. pp. 305, e., 311, a., 326, d.) The modern gulf still maintains its character in this respect. The red and grey mullet are most abundant, and there are also plenty of soles and eels. (Wolfe, Observation* on the Gulf of Arta, ill Journal of Geographical Society, vol. iii.)

AMBRY'SUS or AMPHRY'SUS ('Astros, Strab.; *Aft€pwo~aos, Paus.; "Apuppvoos, Steph. B. *. P.: Eth. 'ApSpvtrios, 'AfxSpvrrfvs, and in Inscr. 1'Ajk$pme<Tivs: Dhiatomd), a town of Phocis, was situated 60 stadia from Stiris, NE. of Anticyra, at the southern foot of Mt. Cirphis (not at the foot of Parnassus, as Pausanias states), and in a fertile valley, producing abundance of wine and the coccus, or kermes -berry, used to dye scarlet. It was destroyed by order of the Ainphictyous, but was'rebuilt

and fortified by the Thcbans with a double wall, in their war against Philip. Its fortifications were considered by Pausanias the strongest in Greece, next to those of Messene, (Paus. x. 3. § 2, x. 36. § 1, seq., iv. 31. § 5; Strab. p. 423.) It was taken by the Romans in the Macedonian war, B. C 198. (Liv. xxxii. 18.) The site of Ambrysus is fixed at the modern village of Dhistomo, by an inscription which Chandler found at the latter place. The remains of the ancient city are few and inconsiderable. (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. p. 196, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 535, seq.)

AMENA'NUS ('A^ieVwor, Strab.: *Api*vav6st Steph. Byz. where the MSS. have 'AticAiavds; 'Ap4vas, Pind.: Amenana flumina, Ovid. Fast. iv. 467), a small river of Sicily which flows through the city of Catania, now called the Giudicelh. It is noticed by Strabo (p. 240) as remarkable for the vicissitudes to which it was subject, its waters sometimes failing altogether for years, and then flowing again in abundance. The same peculiarity is remarked by Ovid (J/ef. xv. 279), and is still observed with regard to the Giudicelh. It is probably connected with internal changes of Etna, at the foot of which it rises. (Fazell. iii. 1. p. 138; Cluver. Sicil p. 120; D'Orville, Sicula, p. 218.) Pindar speaks of the newly founded city of Aetna (the name given by Hieron to Catana) as situated by the waters of the Amenas, but the correctness of the form Amenanos, preserved by Strabo, is attested by coins of Catana, which bear on the obverse the head of the river deity, under the usual form of a youthful male head with horns on the forehead, and the name at full length AMENANOS. (Castcll. Sicil. Numism. pi. 20, fig. 8.) [E. H. B.]

AMELIA. [cabira.]

AME'RIA ('Afttpta, Strab. Ptol. Plut. Mar. 17; 'Apiipiov, Steph. B.: Eth. Amerinus: Amelia), one of the most ancient and important cities of Umbria, situated about 15 m. S. of Tuder, and 7 W. of Narnia, on a hill between the valley of the Tiber and that of the Nar, a few miles above their junction. (Strab. p. 227; Pliu. iii. 14. s. 19; PtoL iii. 1. § 54; Festus, *. r.) According to Cato (jap. Plin. /. c.) it was founded 964 years before the war with Perseus, or 1135 B.C.: and although this datecannot be regarded as historical, it may be received as evidence of a belief in its remote antiquity. The still extant remains of its ancient walls, constructed in the polygonal style, prove it to have been a place of strength in early times: but it is remarkable that its name is not once mentioned during the wars of Rome with t he Umbrians, nor does it occur in history previous to the time of Cicero. But the great orator, in his defence of Sex. Rosciui,whowasanative of Ameria, repeatedly mentions it in a manner which proves that it must then have been a flourishing municipal town: its territory extended to the Tiber, and was fertile in osiers and fruit trees. (Cic. pro Sex.Rosc. 7, 9,&c; Virg. Georg. i. 265; Colum. iv. 30, v. 10 ) Its lands were portioned out by Augustus among his veterans; but it did not obtain tbe rank of a colony, as we find it both in Pliny and inscriptions of later date styled only a municipium. (Lib. Colon, p. 224; Zumpt. de Colon, p. 356; Inscr. ap. Grut.p.485.5, 1101. 2,1104.) The modern town of A melia retains the ancient site as well as considerable portions of the ancient walls: it is now a small place with only about 2000 inhabitants, though still the see of a bishop.

The Tabula Pcutingeriana gives a line of road which branches off from the Via Clodia at Baccanas {Baecano) and leads through Ncpe and Falerii to Ameria and thence to Tader: this can be no other than the Via Amerina mentioned in an inscription of the time of Hadrian (Orell. 3306). The distances, as given in the Table, make Ameria distant 57 M. P. from Rome by this route, which agrees very closely with a casual statement of Cicero (pro Sex. Rote. 7. § 18) that it was 56 miles from the one to the other. The Castellum Amerinum placed by the Table at 9 M. P. from Ameria on the road to Falerii is otherwise unknown. [E. H. B.]

AMERl'OLA, a city of ancient Latium, mentioned by Livy among those reduced by force of arms by the elder Tarquin (i. 38). It is here enumerated among the " Prisci Latini," and doubtless at this period was one of the thirty cities of the league: but its name is not found in the later list given by Dionysius(v. 61), nor does it again occur in history; and it is only noticed by Pliny (iii. 5. s. 9) among the extinct cities of Latium. From the names with which it is associated in Livy we may probably infer that it was situated in the neighbourhood of the Corniculan Hills: and it has been conjectured by Gcll and Nibby that some ruins still visible on the northernmost of the three hills, about a mile north of Mte S. Angela, may be those of Ameriola. They consist of some remnants of walls, of irregular polygonal construction, running round a defensible eminence, and indicating the site of a small town. But the distance from Mte S. Angela (on the summit of which there was certainly an ancient city, whether Cornicnlum or Medullia) is however so small as to render it improbable that another independent town should have existed so close to it. (Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 52; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma,vol. i. p. 138; Abcken, MitteUItalien, p. 78.) [E. H. B.]

AME'SELUM (to 'AfifatKov) a town of Sicily, mentioned onlybyDiodoms(xxii.Exc.Hocsch.p.499), from whom we learn that it was situated between Centuripi and Agyrium, in a position of great natural strength. It was taken, in B. c. 269, by Hieron king of Syracuse, who destroyed the city and fortress, and divided its territory between its two neighbours the Centuripini and Agyrians. Its exact site is unknown. [E. H. B.]

AME'STRATUS ('A^c-rpaTos, Steph. B.: Etk Amestratinus: Mistretta), a city of Sicily, noticed only by Cicero and Steph. B. From the circumstance mentioned by the former, that Verres compelled the inhabitants of Calacte to deliver their tithes of corn at Amestratus instead of at Calacte itself, it is clear that it was not very far from that city: and this fact, coupled with the resemblance of the name, enables us to fix its site at Mistretta, now a considerable town, situated on a hill about 5 miles from the N. coast of Sicily near Sto. Stefano, and 10 from Caronia (Calacte). According to Fazello, considerable remains of antiquity were still visible there in his time; but the place is not described by any recent traveller. We learn from Cicero that it was a small and poor town, though enjoying municipal privileges. (Cic. in Verr. iii. 39,43, 74; Steph. B. *. v.; Fazell. de Reb. Stall, x. p. 415; Cluver. Sicil p. 383.)

It is probably the same place as the Amastra of Silius Italicus (xiv. 267), but there is no foundation for identifying it (as has been done by Cluverius and most subsequent geographers) with the Mytistratns of Polybius and Pliny: both names being perfectly well authenticated. [mytistratub.]

That of Amestratus, in addition to the testimony of Cicero and Stephanus, is fully supported by the evidence of its coins, which have the name at full, AMH2TPATlNflN. (Castell. Sicil. Vet. jVwn. pi. 15; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 197.) [E. H. B.]

A'MIDA ("A/iiJo: Etk. 'AuiSnv6s, Amidensis: Diyar-Bekr). The modern town is on the right bank of the Tigris. The walls are lofty and substantial, and constructed of the ruins of ancient edifices. As the place is well adapted for a commercial city, it is probable that Amida, which occupied the site of Diyar-Bekr, was a torn of considerable antiquity. It was enlarged and strengthened by Constantius, in whose reign it was besieged and taken by the Persian long Sapor, A. D. 359. The historian Ammianus Marcelliiius, who took put in the defence of the town, has given us a minote account of the siege. (Amm. Marc xix. 1, seq.) It was taken by the Persian king Cabades in the reign of Anastasius, A. D. 502 (Procop. B. Pen. i. 7, seq.); but it soon passed again into the hands of the Romans, since we read that Justinian repaired its walls and fortifications. (Procop. de Aedif. iii. I.) Ammianus and Procopius consider it a city of Mesopotamia, but it may be more properly viewed as belonging to Armenia Major. [G. L.]

AMILUS ("AfuAos: Eth. 'A/uAtot), a village of Arcadia in the territory of Orchomenus, and on the road from the latter to Stymphalus. (Paus. riil 14. §5; Steph. B. s. v.)

AlII'SIA, a place on the left bank of the river Amisia (Ems), in Germany. (Tacit. Ann. ii. S.) This place, which is not mentioned by any other ancient author, is perhaps the same as the town of 'A/wrcia noticed by Ptolemy (ii. 11), and t he 'A/uffao mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus as a town ot Germany. (Comp. Ledebur, Land u. Volt der Bructerer, p. 180, foil.) [L. S.]

AMl'SIA or AMI'SIUS {'AfUaios or'A^oo-fa, the Ems), a river in northern Germany, rising in the hills of the Weser, and emptying itself into the German Ocean near the town of Emden. The river was well known to, and navigated by the Romans. In B. c. 12, Drusus fought on it a naval battle against the Brocteri. (Mela, iii. 3; Plin. H.N. iv. 14, who calls the river Amitius; Tacit. Ann. i. 60, 63, 70, ii. 23, who calls it Amisia; Strab. p. 290; Ptolem. ii. 11; comp. Ledebur, Land u. Volk der Bructerer, p. 180.) [L.S.]

A'MISUS ('Apuroi: Eth. 'Aixurm>6s, 'Ajiiffioj, Amisenns: Eshi Samsuri), a city of Pontus in Asia Minor, situated on the west side of the bay called Amisenus, about 900 stadia from Sinope according to Strabo (p. 547). The ruins of Amisus are on a promontory about a mile and a half NNW. of the modern town. On the east side of the promontory was the old port, part of which is now rilled up. The pier which defended the ancient harbour may still be traced for about 300 yards, but it is chiefly under water: it consists of very large blocks of stone. On the summit of the hill where the acropolis stood there are many remains of walls of rubble and mortar, and the ground is strewed with fragments of Roman tiles and pottery. On the south end of the brow of the lull which overlooks the harbour there are traces of the real Hellenic walls. (Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, voLi. p.290.)

The origin of Amisus appears to be uncertain. Hecataeus (Strab. p. 553) supposed it to be the Enete of Homer {II. ii. 852). Thcopompus, quoted by Strabo, says that it was first founded by the Milesians; then settled by a Cappadocian king; and thirdly, by Athenoclcs and sume Athenians, who changed its name to Peiraeeus. But Scymnus of Chios (Fr. v. 101) calls it a colony of Phocaea, and of prior date to Heracleia, which was probably founded about B. c. 559. Raoul-Rochette concludes, but there seems no reason for his conclusion, that this settlement by Phocaea was posterior to the Milesian settlement. (Histoire des Colonies Grecques, vol. iii. p. 334.) However this may be, Amisus became the most flourishing Greek settlement on the north coast of the Euxine after Sinope. The time when the Athenian settlement was made is uncertain. Cramer concludes that, because Amisus is not mentioned by Herodotus or Xenophon, the date of the Athenian settlement is posterior to the timo of the Anabasis; a conclnsion which is by no means necessary. Plutarch (Lucull. 19) says that it was settled by the Athenians at the time of their greatest power, and when they were masters of the sea. The place lost the name of Peiraeeus, and became a rich trading town under the kings of Pontus. Mithridates Eupator made Amisus his residence alternately with Sinope, and he added a part to the town, which was called Eupatoria (Appian. Mithrid. 78), but it was separated from the rest by a wall, and probably contained a different population from that of old Amisus. This new quarter contained the residence of the king. The strength of the place was proved by the resistance which it made to the Roman commander L. Lucullus (b. C. 71) in the Mithridatic war. (Plut. Lucutt. 15, &c.) The grammarian Tyrannio was one of those who fell into the hands of Lucullus when the place was captured.

Phamaces, the son of Mithridates, subsequently crossed over to Amisus from Bosporus, and Amisus was again taken and cruelly dealt with. (Dion Cass. ilii. 46.) The dictator Caesar defeated Pharnaccs in a battle near Zeleia (Appian. B. C. ii. 91), and restored the place to freedom. M. Antonius, says Strabo, " gave it to kings;" but it was again rescued from a tyrant Straton, and made free, after the battle of Actium, by Augustus Caesar; and now, adds Strabo, it is well ordered. Strabo does not state the name of the king to whom Antonius gave Amisus. It has been assumed that it was Polemon I., who had the kingdom of Pontus at least as early as B. c. 36. It does not appear who Straton was. The fact of Amisus being a free city under the empire appears from the epigraph on a coin of the city, and from a letter of the younger Pliny to Trajan (x. 93), in which he calls it "libera et fuedcrata," and speaks of it as having its own laws by the favour of Trajan.

Amisus, in Strabo's time, possessed a good territory, which included Thcmiscyra, the dwelling-place of the Amazons, and Sidcne. [G. L.J

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great antiquity. It was situated in the upper valley of the river Atemus, from which, according to Varro (L. L. v. 28), it derived its name, and at the foot of the loftiest group of the Apennines, now known as the Gran Sasso d Italia. Its ruins are still visible at Son Viitorino, a village aboat 5 miles N. of Aquila. According to Cato and Varro (ap. Dionys. i. 14, ii. 49), this elevated and rugged mountain district was the original dwelling-place of the Sabines, from whence they first began to rum their arms against the Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Rcate. Virgil also mentions Amitemum among the most powerful cities of the Sabines: and both Strabo and Pliny enumerate it among the cities still inhabited by that people. Ptolemy, on the contrary, assigns it to the Vestini, whose territory it must certainly have adjoined. (Virg. Aen. vii. 710; 60. Ital. viii. 416; Strab. v. p. 228; Plin. iii. 12. s. 17; Ptol. iii. 1, § 59.) Livy speaks of Amitemum as captured by the Romans in B. c. 293 from the Samnites (x. 39), but it seems impossible that the Sabine city can be the one meant; and either the name is corrupt, or there must have been some obscure place of the same name in Samnium. Strabo speaks of it as having suffered severely from the Social and Civil Wars, and being in his timo much decayed; but it was subsequently recolonised, probably in the time of Augustus (Lib. Colon, p. 228; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 356. not.), and became a place of considerable importance under tho Roman empire, as is proved by the existing ruins, among which those of the amphitheatre are the most conspicuous. These are situated in the broad and level valley of the Atemus, at the foot of the hill on which stands the village of & Vittorino; but some remains of polygonal walls are said to exist on that hill, which probably belong to an earlier period, and to the ancient Sabine city. It continued to be an episcopal see as late as the eleventh century, but its complete decline dates from the foundation of the neighbouring city of Aquila by the emperor Frederic II., who removed thither the inhabitants of Amitemum, as well as several other neighbouring towns. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 330; Giustiniani, Din. Geogr. vol. i. p. 230; Craven, Abruzzi, vol. i. pp 217 —219.) Numerous inscriptions have been discovered there, of which the most important is a fragment of an ancient calendar, which is one of the most valuable relics of the kind that have been preserved to us. It has been repeatedly published; among others, by Foggini (Fast. Rom. lieliquiae, Romae, 1779), and by Orelli (Inter, vol. ii. c. 22).

Amitemum was the birthplace of the historian Sallust. (Hieron. Chron.~) [E. H. B.]

AMMONI'TAE ('a^ovitoi.lxx and Joseph.), the descendants of Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his incestuous connection with his younger daughter (Gen. xix. 38). They exterminated the Zamzummims and occupied their country (Deut. ii. 20, 21), which lay to the north of Moab between the Arnon (MojeV) and the Jabbok (Zerlcd), the eastern part of the district now called Belka. [amobites]. Their country was not possessed by the Israelites (Deut. ii. 19), but was conterminous with the tribe of Gad. (Joshua, xiii. 25, properly explained by Reland, Palaest. p. 105.) Their capital was Rabbath or Rabbah, afterwards called Philadelphia, now Amman. They were constantly engaged in confederations with other Bedouin tribes against tho Israelites (Ps. lxxxiii. 6—8), and were subdued by Jephthah (Judges xi.), Saul (1 Sam. xi., xiv. 47),

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