صور الصفحة

David (2 Sam. viii. 12, x. zi. 1. xii. 26, &c), Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xx.), Uzziah (ib. xxvi. 8), and Jotham (xxvii. 5), and subsequently by Nebuchadnezzar. (Jerem. xxvii. l,&cj They renewed their opposition to the Jews after the captivity (Nehem.

iv. 3, 7, 8), and were again conquered by Judas Maccabaeus. (1 Mace. v. 6, &c) Justin Martyr speaks of a great multitude of Ammonites existing in his day (Dial. p. 272); but Origen shortly after sjjeaks of the name as being merged in the common appellation of Arab), under which the Idumacans and the Moabites were comprehended together with the Ishmaelites and Joctanites. (Orig. in Jobum, lib. i.) [G. W.]

AMMO'N'IUM. [oasis.]

A'MN'IAS ('A/wai, 'Actios), a river in Pontus. In the broad plain on the banks of this stream the generals of Mithridates defeated Nicoinedes, king of Bithynia, and the ally of the Romans, B. C. 88. (Appian. Mitkridat. c 18; Strab. p. 562.) The plain through which the river flowed is called by Strabo Domanitis. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 362) identifies the Amnias with an affluent of the Ualys, now called Cottambol Chai, and sometimes Giaour Irmak. It appears that the river is also called Kara SO. [G. L.]

AMNTSUS ('AAUwds), a town in the N. of Crete, and the harbour of Cnossus in the time of Minos, was situated at the mouth of a river of the same name (the modern Aposelemi). It possessed a sanctuary of Eileithyia, and the nymplis of the river, called 'AitmaidSes and 'AjUno-fSf i, were sacred to this goddess. (Horn. Od.xix. 188; Strab. p.476; Apoll. Bhod. iii. 877; Callim. Hymn, in Dion. 15; Steph. B. ». p.)

AMORGOS ('Auopy6s: Eih. 'Apopylvos, also 'Ati6pytos,'AfMOfrylTrjs: Amorgo"), an island of the Sporades in the Aegean sea, SE. of Naxos. It is rarely mentioned in history, and is chiefly celebrated as the birthplace of the iambic poet Simonides. (Strab. p. 487.) There was in Amorgos a manufactory of a peculiar kind of linen garments, which bore the name of the island, and which were dyed red. (Steph. B. s. v.; Eustath. ad Dionyt. 526; 1'ollux, vii. 16.) In dyeing them use appears to have been made of a kind of lichen, which is still found in the island, and of which Tournefort has given an account. The soil of Amorgos is fertile. It produces at present com, oil, wine, figs, tobacco, and cotton, all of good quality. Hence it was considered under the Roman empire one of the most favourable places for banishment. (Tac. Ann. iv. 30.) We learn from Scylax (p. 22) that Amorgos contained three towns, the names of which, according to Stephanus (s. v. 'Afiopyds), were Minoa (Micwo, Mivuta, Ptol.

v. 2. § 33), the birthplace of Simonides, Arcesine ('ApKtaim)), and Aegialo (AfyidATj, B*7«i\i's, Ptol.). Remains of all these cities have been discovered, and a minute description of them is given by Ross, who spent several days upon the island. They are all situated on the western side of the island opposite Naxos, Aegiale at the N., and Arcesine at the S., while Minoa lies more in the centre, at the head of a large and convenient harbour, now called Ta Katapola, because it is icoTa Tv T6\w. It appears, from the inscriptions found in the island, that it possessed other demes besides the above-mentioned towns. It is probable that Melania (MfAaWa), which Stephanus in another passage (s. v. *ApKeolmj) mentions as one of the three towns of Amorgos in place of Aegiale, may have been one of these demos.

We learn from several inscriptions that Mfl'sianj were settled in Minoa and Aegiale, and that they formed in the latter town a separate comnranitj. (Biickh, Corp. Inter, vol. ii. No. 2264; Ross, Inter. Gr. Ined. vol. ii. No. 112( 120—122.) The island contains at present 3,500 inhabitants, (Tournefort, Voyage, &c. vol. ii. p. 182, soq.; Fiedler, Reise, &c. vol. ii. p. 325, seq.; and more especially Ross, Reisen auf den Griech. Inseln, vol. L p. 173, seq., vol. ii. p. 39, seq.)

AMORITES, one of the seven Canaanitish tribes (Gen. x. 16) who held possession of the Promised Land, during the times of the Patriarchs, until the coming in of the Children of Israel. It appears to have been one of the most powerful tribes, and the name is used as a general term for all the Canaanites. (Gen. xv. 16.) Their original seat was at the south-west of the Dead Sea, between the AmalkKitae and the Vale of Siddim, and their principal city was Hazezon-Tamar, or Engedi ('Ain-Jidi). (Gen. xiv. 7, and 2 Chron. xx. 2T) At the time of the exodus, however, they had seized and occupied the country on the east side of the Dead Sea and of the Valley of the Jordan, where they had established two powerful kingdoms, the capitals of which were Heshbon and Basan. Heshbon, the southern part of this extensive country, had been taken from the Moabites and Ammonites by Sihon, and extended from the Arnon (Mqjeb) to the Jabbok (Zerbt) (Numb. xxi. 26), and this was the plea on which the Ammonites grounded their claim to that country in the days of Jephthah. (Judges, xi.) This district comprehended Mount Gilead, and was settled by the Tribes of Reuben and Gad. The northern division of Basan, of which Og was the king, extended from the Jabbok to the northern extremity of the Promised Land, to Mount Hermon, which the Ammonites named Slienir. This country was given to the half tribe of Manasseh. (Numb. xxi.; Deftii. iii.; 1 Chron. v. 23.) All this region was comprehended in Pebaka. The Amorites are also found on the western coast of Palestine, in the vicinity of the Tribe of Dan (Judges, i. 34), arid in the borders of the Tribe of Ephraim (v. 35). Still the southeastern extremity of Canaan is recognised as their proper seat (v. 36; comp. Numb, xxxiv. 4, and Joshua, xv. 3), and the practice of using this name ns a general designation of all the Canaanitish tribes renders it difficult to determine their exact limits. [G.W.]

AMO'RIUM (^Auipiov: Eth.'A/iopuvs), a city of Phrygia, according to Strabo (p. 576). Its pro" bable position can only be deduced from the PeQtinger Table, which places it between Pessinus (Bala Ilissar) and Laodicea, Hamilton (Research**, Sec vol. i. p. 451) identifies it with Ilergan Kaleh, whero there are the ruins of a large city; but the present remains appear to belong to the fourth or fifth centuries of our aera. This determination would place Amorium in Galatia. [G. L.]

AMPE (*Ajim): Eth. 'Axnnubi), a place where Darius settled the Milesians who were made prisoners at the capture of Miletus, B. c. 494. (Herod, vi. 20.) Herodotus describes the place as on the Erythraean sea (Persian Gulf); he adds that the Tigris flows past it. This description does not enable us to fix the place. It has been supposed to be the Iamba of Ptolemy, and the Ampelonc of Pliny ("■ 28), who calls it " Colonia Milesiorum." Tzetzes has the name Ampc. (Harduin's note on rlinvi. 28.) [G. L.]

ATtlPELOS (*A/i«Aos), a promontory at the extremity of the peninsula Sithonia in Chalcidice in Macedonia, called by Herodotus the Toronaean promontory. It appears to correspond to the modern C. Kartdli, and Derrhis, which is nearer to the city of Torone, to C. Dhrepano. (Herod, vii. 122; Steph. B. s.v.; Ptol. iii. 13. § 12.)

AMPELU'SIA, or COTES PROM, (at RjJrtu, Strab. p. 825; Kcuttjj Ixpov, Ptol. iv. 1. § 2: apparently also the Cotta of Pfin. xxxii. 2. s. 6: C. Spartel, or Espartel, a corruption of the Arabic Achbertil, or Chbertil; also lias- or Tar/- eshSliakhar), the NW. headland of Mauretania Tingitana and of the whole continent of Africa; about 10 miles W. of Tingis (Tangier). Cotes was its native name, of which the Greek Ampelusia (vineclad) was a translation (Strab. I. c.; Plin. v. 1; Mela. i. 5). It is a remarkable object; a precipitous rock of grey freestone (with basaltic columns, according to Drummond Hay, but this is doubtful), pierced with many caves, among which one in particular was shown in ancient times as sacred to Hercules (Mela, /. c.); from these caves mill-stones were and still are obtained. Its height is 1043 feet above the sea. Strabo describes it as an offset (irpuTous) of M.Atlas; and it is, in fact, the western point, as Abyla is the eastern, of the end of that great NW. spur of the Atlas, which divides the Atlantic from the Mediterranean. The two hills form the extremities of the S. shore of the Fretum Gaditanum (Straits of Gibraltar), the length of the Strait from the one to the other being 34 miles. The W. extremity of the Strait on the European shore, opposite to Ampelusia, at a distance of 22 miles, was Junonis Pr. (C. Trafalgar). Mela is very explicit in drawing the line of division between the Atlantic and the Straits through these points (i. 5, ii. 6, iii. 10; his last words are, Ampelusia in nostrum jam fretum vergens, operis hujus atque Atlantici litoris terminus; so Phn. v. 1, Promontorium Oceani extimum Ampelusia). The erroneous notion of the ancients respecting the shape of this part of Africa (see Libya) led them to make this promontorytheW. extremity of the continent. (Strab. I. c.) Seylax (p. 52, p. 123, Gronov.) mentions a large bay called Cotes, between the Columns of Hercules and the promontory of Hermacum; but whether his Hermaeum is our Ampelusia, or a point further S. on the W. coast, is doubtful. Gosselin (ap. Bredow, ii. 47), and Rittcr (Erdhmde, vol. i. p. 336), regard Ampelusia as identical with the Soloeis of Herodotus (ii. 32) and Hanno (Peripl. p. 2). [P. S.]

AMPHAXI'TIS ('Ajufmprij), the maritime part of Mygdonia in Macedonia, on the left bank of the Axius, which, according to Strabo, separated Bottiaea from Amphaxitis. The name first occurs in Polybins. No town of this name is mentioned by ancient writers, though the Amphaxii are found on coins. (Pol. v. 97; Strab. p. 330; Ptol. iii. 13. §§ 10,14; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 449.)

AMPHEIA ("A/ufwio: Eth. 'AuQcvs), a town of Mcssenia, situated on the frontiers of Laconia, upon a hill well supplied with water. It was surprised and taken by the Spartans at the beginning of the Messenian war, and was made their head-quarters in conducting their operations against the Messenians. Its capture was the first act of open hostilities between the two people. It is placed by Leake at the Hellenic ruin, now called the Castle of Xuria, and by Boblaye on the mountain called

Koiala. (Pans. iv. 5. § 9; Leake, Morta, vol. i. p. 461; Boblaye, Recherches, p. 109.)

AMPHI'ALE. [aeoaleos.]

AMPH1CAEA or AMPHICLEIA ('A^(<ceua, Herod., Steph. B.; 'AfupinXtia, Paus.: Eth. 'Autpucatws, 'A^pucAetfwj), a town in the N. of Phot-is, distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from Tithronium. It was destroyed by the army of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Although Herodotus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient traditions, the Amphictyons gave it the name of Amphicleia in their decree respecting rebuilding the town. It also bore for some time the name of OrmTeia (?0<t>trtta), in consequence of a legend, which Pausanias relates. The place was celebrated in the time of Pausanias for the worship of Dionysus, to which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the site of the ancient town. (Herod, viii. 33; Paus. x. 3. § 2, x. 33. § 9, sea,.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 75, 86.)

AMPHIDOLI CAa$(SoAoi), a town in Pisatis in Elis, which gave its name to the small district of Amphidolis or Amphidolia ('AfifiSoXts, 'AfifiSoAla). The town of Margancae or Margalae was situated in this district. The site of Amphidoli is uncertain, but its territory probably lay to the west of Acroreia. [ackokeia.] (Xen. Ihll. iii. 2. § 30; Strab. pp. 341, 349; ~Leake, Pelponnesiaca, p. 219.)

AMPHIGENEIA ('A/Mpiyirua: Eth. 'Afuptytvtvs), one of the towns belonging to Nestor (Horn. 77. ii. 593), was placed by some ancient critics in Messenia, and by others in Macistia, a district in Triphylia, Strabo assigns it to Macistia near the river Hypsoeis, where in his time stood a temple of Leto. (Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. p. 349.)

AMPHILO'CHIA ('Afu^ikoxia: Eth. 'Au*p(koXos), a small district at the eastern end of the Ambraciot gulf, bounded on the N. by Ambracia and on the S. by the territory of the Agraei. It did not extend far inland. It is a mountainous district, and the rocks along the coast rise hi some parts to 450 or 500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic tribe, although they were supposed to have derived their name from the Argive Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an Epirot people, but their country is more usually described as a part of Acarnania. (Steph. B. s. v.; Scyl. p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was probably something intermediate between the Acarnanians and Epirots. At the time of the Peloponnesian war the Amphilochi were in close alliance with the Acamanians. After the death^of Alexander the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the Aetolians; and they were at a later time included in the Roman province of Epirus. The only town in their country was Argos, surnamed Amphilochicnm, under which the history of the people is more fully given. There were also a few villages or fortresses, which owe their importance simply to their connection with the history of Argos, and which are therefore described in that article. [aroos AmphiloChicum.]

AMPUIMALLA ('AfuplnaMa, Strab. p. 475; Plin. iv. 20; 'A/up 1/tdAioK, Steph. B. s.v.), a town in the N. of Crete, situated on the bay named after it ('Autpinukiit miAirot, Ptol. iii. 17. § 7), which corresponds, according to some, to the bay of Armiro, and, according to others, to the bay of Suda.

AMPHI'POLIS ('A^droAu: Eth. 'AfupnoAtTTjt, Amphipolites: Adj. Amphipolitanus, Just, xiv. sub fin.), a town in Macedonia, situated upon an eminence on the left or eastern bank of the Strymon, just below its egress from the lake Cercinitis, at the distance of 25 stadia, or about three miles from the sea. (Thuc. iv. 102.) The Strymon flowed almost round the town, whence its name Amphi-polis. Ita position is one of the most important in this part of Greece. It stands in a pass, which traverses tne mountains bordering the Strymonic gulf; and it commands the only easy communication from the coast of that gulf into the great Macedonian plains. In its vicinity were the gold and silver mines of Mount Pangacus, and large forests of ship-timber. It was originally called Ennea Hodoi, or 11 Nine-Ways" ('Ewea 6^oC)} from the many roads which met at this place; and it belonged to the Edonians, a Thracian people. Aristagoras of Miletus first attempted to colonize it, but was cut off with bis followers by the Edonians, B. O* 497. (Thuc. le.\ Herod, v. 126.) The next attempt was made by the Athenians, with a body of 10,000 colonists, consisting of Athenian citizens and allies; but they met with the same fate as Aristagoras, and were all destroyed by the Thracians at Drabescus, n. c. 465. (Thuc. L 100, iv. 102; Herod, ix. 75.) So valuable, however, was the site, that the Athenians sent out another colony in B. C. 437 under Agnon, the son of Nicias, who drove the Thracians out of Nine-Ways, and founded the city, to which he gave the name of Amphipolis. On three sides the city was defended by the Strymon; on the other side Agnon built a wall across, extending from one part of the river to the other. South of the town was a bridge, which formed the great means of communication between Macedonia and Thrace. The following plan will illustrate the preceding account. (Thuc. iv. 102.)

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

Amphipolis soon became an important city, and was regarded by the Athenians as the jewel of their empire. In B. C. 424 it surrendered to the Lacedaemonian general Brasidas, without offering any resistance. The historian Thucydides, who commanded the Athenian fleet off the coast, arrived in time from the island of Thasos to save Eion, the port of Amphipolis, at the mouth of the Strymon, but too late to prevent Amphipolis itself from falling into the hands of Brasidas. (Thuc. iv. 103—107.) The loss of Amphipolis caused both indignation and alarm at Athens, and led to the banishment of Thucydides. Iu B. C. 422 the Athenians sent a large force, under the command of Cleon, to attempt the recovery of the city. This expedition completely failed; the Athenians were defeated with considerable loss, hut Brasidas as well as Cleon fell in the battle. The operations of the two commanders are detailed at length by Thucydides, and his account is illustrated by the masterly narrative of Grote. (Thuc. v. 6—II; Grote, Hist, of Greece, voL vi. p. 634, seq.)

From this time Amphipolis continued independent of Athens. According to the treaty made between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians in B. C. 421, it was to have been restored to Athens; but its inhabitants refused to surrender to their former masters, and the Lacedaemonians were unable to compel them to do so, even if they had been so inclined. Amphipolis afterwards became closely allied with Olynthus, and with the assistance of the latter was able to defeat the attempts of the Athenians under Timotheus to reduce the place in B. C. 360. Philip, upon his accession (359) declared Amphipolis a free city; but in the following year (358) he took the place by assault, and annexed it permanently to his dominions. It continued to belong to the Macedonians, till the conquest of their country by the Romans in B. C. 168. The Romans made it a free city, and the capital of the first of the four districts, into which they divided Macedonia. (Dem. in Aristocr. p. 669; Diod. xvi. 3. 8; Liv. xlv. 29; Plin. iv. 10.)

The deity chiefly worshipped at Amphipolis appears to have been Artemis Tauropolos or Brauronia (Diod. xviii. 4; Liv. xliv. 44), whose head frequently appears on the coins of the city, and the ruins of whose temple in the first century of the Christian era are mentioned in an epigram of Antipater of Thessalonica. (Anth. Pal. vol. L no. 705.) The most celebrated of the natives of Amphipolis was the grammarian Zoilus.

Amphipolis was situated on the Via Egnatia. It has been usually stated, on the authority of an anonymous Greek geographer, that it was called Chrysopolis under the Byzantine empire; but Tafel has clearly shown, in the works cited below, that this is a mistake, and that Chrysopolis and Amphipolis were two different places. Tafel has also pointed out that in the middle ages Amphipolis was called Popolia. Its site is now occupied by a village called Neokhdrio, in Turkish Jeni-Kcui, or " NewTown." There are still a few remains of the ancient city; and both Leake and Cousinery found among them a curious Greek inscription, written in the Ionic dialect, containing a sentence of banishment against two of their citizens, Philo and Stratocles. The latter is the name of one of the two envoys sent from Amphipolis to Athens to request the assistance of the latter against Philip, and he is

7. Mt. Cerdyiinm. , .

| therefore probably the same person as the Stratocles

[merged small][graphic][ocr errors]

AMPHISSA ("Ap)>i<7<7a: Eth. 'Aiupi<raa7os,'AuQio-atvs, Amphissensis: Adj. Amphissius: Salona), the chief town of the Locri Ozolae, situated in a pass at the head of the Crissaean plain, and' surrounded by mountains, from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name. (Stcph. B. ». «.) Pausanias (x. 38. § 4) places it at the distance of 120 stadia from Delphi, and Aeschines (in Ctetiph. p. 71) at 60 stadia: the latter statement is the correct one, since we leam from modem travellers that the real distance between the two towns is 7 miles. According to tradition, Amphissa was called after a nymph of this name, the daughter of Macar and granddaughter of Aeolus, who was beloved by Apollo. (Paus. /. c.) On the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, many of the Locrians removed to Amphissa. (Herod, viii. 32.) At a later period the Amphictyons declared war against the town, because its inhabitants had dared to cultivate the Crissaean plain, which was sacred to the god, and had molested the pilgrims who had come to consult the oracle at Delphi. The decree by which war was declared against the Ampbissians was moved by Aeschines, the Athenian Pylagoras, at the Amphictyonic Council. The Amphictyons entrusted the conduct of the war to Philip of Macedon, who took Amphissa, and razed it to the ground, B.C. 338. (Aesch. in Ctesiph. p. 71, seq.; Strab. p. 419.) The city, however, was afterwards rebuilt, and was sufficiently populous in B. c. 279 to supply 400 hoplites in the war against Brennus. (Paus. x. 23. § 1.) It was besieged by the Romans in B.C. 190, when the inhabitants took refuge in the citadel, which was deemed impregnable. (Liv. xxxvii. 5, 6.) When Augustus founded Nicopolis after the battle of Actium, a great many Aetolians, to escape being removed to the new city, took up their abode in Amphissa, which was thus reckoned an Aetolian city in the time of Pausanias (x. 38. § 4). This writer describes it as a flourishing place, and well adorned with public buildings. It occupied the site of the modern Salona, where the walls of the ancient acropolis are almost the only remains of the ancient city. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 588, seq.)

AMPHl'TROPE. [attica.]

AMPHRY'SUS Chiufpvaos). 1. A town of Phocis. See Ambrysus.

2. A small river in Thessaly, rising in Mr. Othrys, and flowing near Alus into tie Pagasaean gulf. It is celebrated in mythology as the river on the banks of which Apollo fed the flocks of king Admctus. (Strab. pp. 433, 435; Apoll. Rhod. i. 54; Virg. Ceorg. iii. 2; Ov. Met. i. 580, vii. 229; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 337.) Hence the adjective A mphrysius is used in reference to Apollo. Thus Virgil {Aen. vi. 398) calls the Sibyl At>*

\phrysia rates. Statins (Silv. i. 4. 105) uses the adjective Arnphrysiacus in the same sense.

AMPSAGA ('A^iya, FtaL: Wad el Kebir, or Sufjimar, and higher np Wadi Roumet), one of the chief rivers of N. Africa, not large, but important as having been (in its lower course) the boundary between Mauritania and Numidia, according to the later extent of those regions (see the articles and Africa). It is composed of several streams, rising at different points in the Lesser Atlas, and forming two chief branches, which unite in 36° 35' N. lat., and about 6° 10' E. long., and then flow N. into the Mediterranean, W. of the promontory Tretum {Has Seba Rous, i. e. Seven Capes'). The upper course of the Ampsaga is the eastern of these two rivera (W. Roumel), which flows past Constantineh, the ancient Cirta; whence the Ampsaga was called Fluvius Cirtensis (Vict. Vit de Pers. Vand. 2); the Arabs still call it the River of Constantineh, as well as Wadi RoumeL This branch is formed by several streams, which converge to a point a little above Constantineh. Pliny (v. 2. s. 1) places the mouth of the Ampsaga 222 Roman miles E. of Cacsarea. (This is the true reading, not, as in the common text, ccexxii., see Sillig.) Ptolemy (iv. 3. § 20) places it much too far E. A town, Tucca, at its mouth, is mentioned by Pliny only; its mouth still forms a small port, Marsa Zeitoun. (Shaw, pp. 92, 93, folio ed. Oxf. 1738, Exploration Scientifiquc de VAlgerie, vol. vii. p. 357.) [P. S.]

AMPSASCTI or AMSANCT1 VALLIS, a celebrated valley and small sulphureous lake in the heart of the Apennines, in the country of the Hirpini, about 10 miles SE. of Aeculanum. The fine description of it given by Virgil {A en. vii. 563— 572) is familiar to all scholars, and its pestilential vapours are also noticed by Claudian {Be Rapt. Pros. ii. 349). It has been strangely confounded by some geographers with the lake of Cutiliae near Keate; but Servius, in his note on the passage, distinctly tells us that it was among the Hirpini, and this statement is confirmed both by Cicero and Pliny. (Cic. de Div. i. 36; Plin. ii. 93.) The spot is now called Le Mofete, a name evidently derived from Mephitis, to whom, as we learn from Pliny, a temple was consecrated on the site: it has been visited by several recent travellers, whose descriptions agree perfectly with that of Virgil; but the dark woods with which it was previously surrounded have lately been cut down. So strong are the sulphureous vapours that it gives forth, that not only men and animals who have incautiously approached, but even birds have been suffocated by them, when crossing the valley in their flight. It is about 4 miles distant from the modem town of Frigento. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 351; Swinburne's Travels, vol. i. p. 128; Craven's Abruzd, vol. ii. p. 218; Daubeny, on Volcanoes, p. 191.) [E.H.B.]

AMYCLAE ('A/iu/eAai: Eth. 'A^wtAmos, 'AfiuKAattvs, Amyclaeus), an ancient town of Laconia, situated on the right or eastern bank of the Eurotas, 20 stadia S. of Sparta, in a district remarkable for the abundance of its trees and its fertility. (Pol. v. 19; Liv. xxxiv. 28.) Amyclae was one of the most celebrated cities of Peloponnesus in the heroic age. It is said to have been founded by the Lacedaemonian king Amyclas, the father of Hyacinthus, and to have been the abode of Tyndarus, and of Castor and Pollux, who are hence called AmycUui Fratres. (Paus. iii. 1. § 3; Stat Theb. vii. 413.) Amyclae is mentioned by Homer (//. ii. 584), and it con

tinued to maintain its independence as an Achaean town long after the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians. According to the common tradition, which represented the conquest of Peloponnesus as effected in one generation by the descendants of Hercules, Amyclae was given by the Dorians to Philonomus, as a reward for his having betrayed to them his native city Sparta. Philonomus is further said to have peopled the town with colonists from Imbros and Lemnos; but there can be no doubt that the ancient Achaean population maintained themselves in the place independent of Sparta for many generations. It was only shortly before the first Messcnian war tliat the town was conquered by the Spartan king Teleclus. (Strab. p. 364; Conon, 36; Paus. iii. 2. § 6.) The talc ran, that the inhabitants of Amyclae had been so often alarmed by false reports of the approach of the enemy, that they passed a law that no one should mention the- subject; and accordingly, when the Spartans at last came, and no one dared to announce their approach, "Amyclae perished through silence:" hence arose the proverb Amyclis ipsis taciturnior. (Sen', ad Virg. Aen. x. 564.) After its capture by the Lacedaemonians Amyclae became a village, and was only memorable by the festival of the Hyacinthia celebrated at the place annually, and by the temple and colossal statue of Apollo, who was hence called Amyclaeus. The throne on which this statue was placed was a celebrated work of art, and was constructed by Bathyclcs of Magnesia. It was crowned by a great number of bas-reliefs, of which an account is given by Pausanias (iii. 18. § 9, seq.; Diet, of Biogr. art. Botkycles).

The site of Amyclae is usually placed at Sklavokhori, where the name of Amyclae has been found on inscriptions in the walls. But this place is situated nearly 6 miles from Sparta, or more than double the distance mentioned by Polybius. Moreover, there is every probability that Sklavokhori is a Sclavonian town not more ancient than the 14th century; and becoming a place of importance, some of its buildings were erected with the ruins of Amyclae. Accordingly Leake supposes Amyclae to have been situated between Sklavokhori and Sparta, on the hill of Aghia Kyriald, half a mile from the Eurotas. At this place Leake discovered, on an imperfect inscription, the letters AMT following a proper name, and leaving little doubt that the incomplete word was AMTKAAIOT. (Leake, Morea, vol.i. p. 135, seq., Pchponnesiaca, p. 162.)

AMYCLAE, a city on the coast of Campania, between Tarracina and Caieta, which had ceased to exist in the time of Pliny, but had left the name of Sinus Amyclanus to the part of the coast on which it was situated. (Plin. H. N. xiv. 8; Tac. Ann. iv. 59.) Its foundation was ascribed to a band of Laconians who had emigrated from the city of the same name near Sparta; and a strange story is told by Pliny and Servius of the inhabitants having been compelled to abandon it by the swarms of serpents with which they were infested. (Plin. H.N. iii. 5. s. 9, viii. 29. s. 43; Serv. ad Aen. x. 564.) Other writers refer to this city the legend commonly related of the destruction rf the Laconian Amyclae, in consequence of the silence of its inhabitants; and the epithet applied to it by Virgil of lacitae Amyclae appears to favour this view. (Virg. Aen. x. 564; Sil. Ital. viii. 530.) The exact site is unknown, but it must have been close to the marshes below Fundi; whence Martial terms it " Amyclae Fundanae" (xiii.

115). In the immediate neighbourhood, but on a rocky promontory projecting into the sea, was a villa of Tiberius, called Speluncae, from the natup^l caverns in the rock, in one of which the emperor nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof, whik he was supping there with a party of friends. (Tar. ^4w».iv. 59; Suet. Tib. 39; Plin. iiL 5. s. 9.) Th* ancient name of the locality is retained, with little variation, by the modern village of Sperlonga, about 8 miles W. of Gaeta, where the grottoes in the rock are still visible, with some remains of their ancient architectural decorations. (Craven's A bruzzi, vol. i. p. 73.) [E H.B.]

A'MYDON ^Afivitev), a town in Macedonia on the Axius, from which Pyraechmes led the Paeonians to the assistance of Troy. The place is called Abydon by Suidas and StephanusB. (Horn. IL ii. 849; comp. Strab. p. 330; Juv. iii. 69.)

AMYMO'NE. [lerna.]

A'MYRUS ("Anvpos; Eth. 'A/u/pei/s), a town in Thessaly, situated on a river of the same name falling into the lake Boebeis. It is mentioned \y Hesiod as the " vine-bearing Amyrus." The surrounding country is called the Amyric plain (to 'Afivptitbv Tf'Siov) by Polybius. Leake supposes the ruins at Kastri to represent Amyrus. (Hes. ap Strab. p. 442, and Steph. B. a. p.; "Schol. ad Ap>.M. ffliod. i. 596; Val. Flacc. ii. 11; Pol. v. 99; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 447.1

AMYSTIS {Ativans), an Indian river, a trihotary of the Ganges, flowing past a city called Catadupae (Arrian. Ind. 4), which Mannert suppose, from its name, to have stood at the falls of the Upper Ganges, on the site of the modern Ilitrdtcar, which would make the Amystis the Patterea (Mannert, vol. v. pt. 1. p. 70). [**•$•]

AMY'ZON ('Afivfov), an inconsiderable town of Caria. (Strab. p. 658.) The ruins of tlie citadel and walls exist on the cast side of Mount Latmus, on the road from Bafi to Tchisme. The place is identified by an inscription. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 238.) [G. L.]

ANABURA, a city of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii 15) which lay on the route of the consul Cn. Manlius from Synnada to the sources of the Alander [alanDer]; probably Kirk Ilinn (Hamilton). [G. L.]

ANACAEA. [attica.]

ANACTQ'RWM^AvaKTdptoviEth/AvaKrSpios), a town in Acarnania, situated on the Ambraciot gulf", and on the promontory, which now bears the name of C. Madonna. On entering the Ambraciot gulf from the Ionian sea it was the first town in Acarnania after Actium, from which it was distant 40 stadia, and which was in the territory of Anactorium. This town was for some time one of the most important places in this part of Greece. It was colonized jointly by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans; but in the war between these peoples, in B. C. 432, the Corinthians obtained sole possession of the place by fraud. It remained in the hands of the Corinthians till B. c. 425, when it was taken by the Acarnanians with the assistance of the Athenians, and the Corinthian settlers were expelled. Augustus removed its inhabitants to the town of Nicopolis, which he founded on the opposite coast of Epirns, and Strabo describes it as an emporium of the latter city. The site of Anactorium has been disputed, and depends upon the position assigned to Actium. It has however been shown that Actium must bo placed at the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf on La Punta}an& Anactorium on C.Madonna. [AcntiM.J

« السابقةمتابعة »