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At the western extremity of the latter promontory are the ruins of a Greek town, about two miles in circumference, which Leake supposes to have been Anactorium. They are situated near a small church of St. Peter, which is the name now given to the place. Other writers place Anactorium at Vonitza, on the E. extremity of the promontory, but with less probability. (Thuc. i. 55, iii. 114, iv. 49, vii. 31; Strab. x. pp. 450—452; Dionys. i. 51; Pans. v. 23. § 3; Plin. iv. 1; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 493.)

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ANAEA. [annaea.]

ANA'GNIA ('Awyvi'n: Eth. Anagninus), an ancient city of Latmm in the more extended sense of that term, but which in earlier times was the capital or chief city of the Hemicans. It is still called Anagni, and is situated on a hill to the left of the Via Latum, 41 miles from Kome, and 9 from Fercntinum. Virgil calls it " the wealthy Anagnia" (Aen. vii. 684), and it appears to have in early ages enjoyed the same kind of pre-eminence over the other cities of the Hemicans, which Alba did over those of the Latins. Hence as early as the reign of Tullus Hostilius, we find Laevus Cispius of Anagnia leading a force of Hemican auxiliaries to the assistance of the Roman king. (Varro ap. Fest. v. Septimontio, p. 351; Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 86.) At a later period we find C. Marcius Tremulus recorded as triumphing " de Anagninis Hernicisque." (Fast Capit.) No separate mention of Anagnia occurs on occasion of the league of the Hemicans with Home in B. c. 486; but it is certain that it was included in that treaty, and when after nearly two centuries of friendship the Hemicans at length became disaffected towards their Roman allies, it was the Anagnians who summoned a general council of the nation to meet in the circus beneath their city. At this congress war was declared against Borne: but they had miscalculated their strength, and were easily subdued by the arms of the consul C. Marcius Tremulus B. C. 306. For the prominent part they had taken on this occasion they were punished by receiving the Roman civitas without tho right of suffrage, and were reduced to the condition of a Praefectura. (Liv. ix. 42, 43; Died. xx. 80; Festus. s.v.ilunicipium,f. 127, and t.v.Praefectura, p. 233.) The period at which tho city obtained the full municipal privileges, which it certainly appears to have enjoyed in the time of Cicero, is uncertain; but from the repeated allusions of the great orator (who had himself a villa in the neighbourhood) it is clear that it still continued to be a populous and flourishing town. Strabo also calls it " a considerable city." (Cic. pro Dam. 30, Philipp. ii. 41, adAtU xii. 1; Strab. v. p. 238.) Its position on the Via Latina however exposed it to hostile attacks, and its territory was traversed and ravaged both by Pyrrhus (who according to one account even made himself master of the city) and by Hannibal, during his sudden advance from Capua upon Rome in B. c. 211. (Appian. Samn. 10. 3; Liv. xxvi. 9.) Under tho Roman empire it continued to be a municipal

town of some consideration; but though we are told that it received a Roman colony by the command of Drusus Caesar its colonial rank is not recognised either by Pliny or by extant inscriptions. (Lib. Colon, p. 230; Znmpt de Colon, p. 361; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Orell. Inscr. 120; Grater, p. 464. 2, 3.) Its territory was remarkably fertile (Sil. Ital. viii. 393), and the city itself abounded in ancient temples and sanctuaries, which, as well as the sacred rites connected with them, were preserved unaltered in the time of M. Aurelius, and are described by that emperor in a letter to Fronto. (Front. Epp. iv. 4.) It was the birthplace of Valens, the general of Vitellius. (Tac. But iii. 62.)

Anagni continued throughout tho middle ages to be a city of importance, and is still an episcopal see, with a population of above 6000 inhabitants.

It is remarkable that notwithstanding the prominent position held by Anagnia in early times it presents no trace of those massive ancient walls, for which all the other important cities of the Hemicans are so conspicuous: the only remains extant there are of Roman date, and of but little interest. (Dionigi, Viaggio nel Lazio, pp. 22, 23; Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 320, &c.) It is clear from the statements both of Cicero and M. Aurelius that the ancient city occupied the same site as the modem one, about a mile from the Via Latina on a hill of considerable elevation; the station on that road called the Compitum Asagnihum, which is placed by tho Itineraries at 8 miles from Ferentinum, must havo been near the site of the modem Osteria, where tho road still rums off to Anagni. We leam from Livy that there was a grove of Diana there. No traces remain of the circus beneath the city, mentioned by the same author, which was known by the singular epithet of " Maritimus." (Liv. ix. 42, xxvii. 4; Itin. Ant. pp. 302, 305, 306; Tab. Peut) [E. H. B.]

ANAGYRU'S ('Avaryvpovt, -ovvtoi: Eth. 'Avayvpaurtos*), a demus of Attica belonging to the tribo Erechtheis, situated S. of Athens, near the promontory Zoster. Pausanias mentions at this place a temple of the mother of the gods. The ruins of Anagyrus have been found near Vari. (Strab. p. 398; Pans. i. 31. § 1; Harpocrat, Suid., Steph. B.; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 56.)

ANAI'TICA or ANAITIS. [armenia.]

ANAMARI. [anahes.]

ANAMIS CAKOftis), a river of Carmania, which is called Andanis by Pliny (vi. 25). It was one of the rivers at the mouth of which the fleet of Nearchus anchored on the voyage from the Indus to the head of the Persian Gulf. The place where the fleet stopped at the month of the river was called Harmozeia. (Arrian, Indie, c. 33.) The outlet of the Anamis was on the east side of the Persian Gnlf, near 27° N. lat, and near the small island afterwards called Ormuz or Hormuz. The Anamis is the Ibrahim Rod or River. [G. L.]

ANANES ('Ayayej), a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls, who,—according to Polybius (ii. 17), the only author who mentions them,—dwelt between the Padns and the Apennines, to the west of the Boians, and must consequently have been the westernmost of the Cispadane Gauls, immediately adjoining the Ligurians. It has been conjectured, with much plausibility, that the Akamari of the same author (ii. 32), a name equally unknown, but whom he places opposite to the Insubres, must have been the same people. (Schweigh. ad 1. c.; Cluver./<oZ. p. 265.) If Bo, they occupied the territory on which the colony of Placentia was shortly after founded; and probably extended from the Trebia to the Tarns. [E.H.B.]

ANAO PORTUS. [nicaea.]

A'NAPHE Chvitpn: Eth.'Ara<t>aios: Anaphe, Namfi or Namjto), one of the Sporades, a small island in the south of the Grecian Archipelago, E. of Thera. It is said to have been originally called Membliarus from the son of Cadmus of this name, who came to the island in search of Europa. It was celebrated for the temple of Apollo Aegletes, the foundation of which was ascribed to the Argonauts, because Apollo had showed them the island as a place of refuge when they were overtaken by a storm. (Orpheus, Argon. 1363, seq.; Apollod. i. 9. §26; Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1706, seq.; Conon,49; Strab. p. 484; Stcph. B. t.v.; Plin. ii. 87, iv. 12; Ov.Met. viL 461.) There are still considerable remains of this temple on the eastern side of the island, and also of the ancient city, which was situated nearly in the centre of Anaphe on the summit of a hill. Several important inscriptions have been discovered in this place, of which an account is given by Ross, in the work cited below. The island is mountainous, of little fertility, and still worse cultivated. It contains a vast number of partridges, with which it abounded in antiquity also. Athenacus relates (p. 400) that a native of Astypalaea let loose a brace of these birds upon Anaphe, where they multiplied so rapidly that the inhabitants were almost obliged to abandon the island in consequence. (Toumefort, Voyage, &c, vol. i. p. 212, seq.; Ross, Ueber Anaphe und Anapkdische Inschrijien, in the Transactions of the Munich Academy for 1838, p. 401, seq.; Ross,Reisen auf den Griechitchen Inseln, vol. i. p. 401, seq.; B&ckh, Corp. Inter. No. 2477, seq.)

ANAPHLYSTUS CAvi/pKvarot: Eth. 'hvaQXiariot: Andvyso), a demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Antiochis, on the W. coast of Attica, opposite the island of Eleussa, and a little N. of the promontory of Sunium. It was a place of some importance. Xenophon recommended the erection of a fortress here for the protection of the mines of Sunium. (Herod, iv. 99; Scylax, p. 21; Xcn. de Vectig. 4. § 43; Strab. p. 398; Leake, Demi, p. 59.)

ANA'PUS (*A»oirot). 1, (Anapo), one of the most celebrated and considerable rivers of Sicily, which rises about a mile from the modem town of Btueemi, not far from the site of Acrac; and flows into the great harbour of Syracuse. About three quarters of a mile from its mouth, and just at the foot of the hill on which stood the Olympieium, it receives the waters of the Cyane. Its banks for a considerable distance from its mouth are bordered by marshes, which rendered them at all times unhealthy; and the fevers and pestilence thus generated were among the chief causes of disaster to the Athenians, and still more to the Carthaginians, during the several sieges of Syracuse. But above these marshes the valley through which it flows is one of great beauty, and the waters of the Anapus itself are extremely limpid and clear, and of great depth. Like many rivers in a limestone country it rises all at once with a considerable volume of water, which is, however, nearly doubled by the accession of the Cyane. The tutelary divinity of the stream was worshipped by the Syracusans under the form of a young man (Ael. V. H. ii. 33), who was regarded as the husband of the nymph Cyane. (Ovid. Met. v. 416.) The river is now commonly known as the A Ifco, evidently from a misconception of the story of Alpheus and Arethusa; but is also called and marked

on all maps as tho Aruxpo. (Thuc. vi. 96, viL 78; Theocr. L 68; Plut. Dion. 27, Timol. 21; Liv. xxiv. 36; Ovid. Ex Pont. ii. 26; Vib. Seq. p. 4; Oberlin, ad foe.; Fazell. iv. 1, p. 196.)

It is probable that the Palus Ltsimf.leia (i) Afyinj i) AiKrine'Af ia KaXovfiemf) mentioned by Thucydides (vii. 53), was a part of the marshes formed by the Anapus near its month. A marshy or stagnant pool of some extent still exists between the site of the Neapolis of Syracuse and the mouth of the river, to which the name may with some probability be assigned.

2. A river falling into the Achclous, 80 stadia S. of Stratus. [achelous.] [E.H.B.]

ANA'REI MONTES (rd 'Aripea Op*), a range of mountains in " Scythia intra Imaum," is one of the western branches of the Altai, not far from the sources of the Ob or Irtish. Ptolemy places in their neighbourhood a people called Anarei. (Ptol. vi. 14. §§ 8, 12, 13.)

ANARI'ACAE CAmpiaKai, Strab.; Anariaci, Plin.; in Ptol. vi. 2. § 5, erroneously 'Afiapidxai), a people on the southern side of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Mardi or Amardi. Their city was called Anariaca ('Arapitbri)), and possessed an oracle, which communicated the divine will to persons who slept in the temple. (Strab. xi. pp. 508, 514; Plin. vi. 16. s. 18; Solin. 51 ; Steph. B. *. r.)

ANARTES (Caes. B. G. vi. 25), ANARTI ^Avaproi, Ptol. iii. 8. § 5), a people of Dacia, on the N. side of the Tibiscus (Theui). Caesar defines the extent of the Hercynia Silva to the E. as adJines Dacorvm et Anartium. [P. S-]

ANAS (i'Aras: Guadiana, i. e. Wadi-Ana, river Anas, Arab.), an important river of Hispania, described by Strabo (iii. pp. 139, foil.) as rising in the eastern part of the peninsula, like the Tagus and the Baetis (Guadalquivir), between which it flows, all three having the some general direction, from E. to W., inclining to the S.; the Anas is the smallest of the three (comp. p. 162). It divided the country inhabited by the Celts and Lusitanians, who had been removed by the Romans to the S. side of the Tagus, and higher up by the Carpetani, Oretani, and Vettones, from the rich lands of Baetica or Turdetania. It fell into the Atlantic by two months, both navigable, between Gades (Cadiz), and the Sacred Promontory (C. St. Vincent). It was only navigable a short way up, and that for small vessels (p. 142). Strabo further quotes Polybins as placing tho sources of the Anas and the Baetis in Celtiberia (p. 148). Pliny (iiL 1. s. 2) gives a more exact description of the origin and peculiar character of the Anas. It rises in the territory of Laminium ; and, at one time diffused into marshes, at another retiring into a narrow channel, or entirely hid in a subterraneous course, and exulting in being born again and again, it falls into the Atlantic Ocean, after forming, in its lower course, the boundary between Lusitania and Baetica. (Comp. iv. 21. s.35; Mela, ii. 1. § 3, iii. 1. § 3). The Antonine Itinerary (p. 446) places the source of the Anas (caput fluminis Anae) 7 M. P. from Laminium, on the road to Caesaraugusta, The source is close to the village of Ota la Montiel, in La Mancha, at the foot of one of the northern spurs of the Sierra Morena, in about 89° N. lat. and 2° 45' W. long. The river originates in a marsh, from a series of small lakes called Lagunas de liuydera. After a course of about 7 miles, it disappears and runs underground for 12 miles, bursting forth again, near JMymiel, in the small lakes called Los Ojos de Guadiana (the eyes of the Guadiana'). After receiving the considerable river Gigucla from the N., it runs westward through La Maneha and Esiremadura, as far as Badajoz, where it turns to the S., and falls at last into the Atlantic by Ayamonte, the other month mentioned by Strabo, and which appears to have been at Lepe, being long since closed. The valley of the Guadiana forms the S. part of the great central table-land of Spain, and is bounded on the N. by the Mountains of Toledo, and the rest of that chain, and on the S. by the Sierra Moreno. Its whole course is above 450 miles, of which not much above 30 are navigable, and that only by small flatbottomed barges. Its scarcity of water is easily accounted for by the little rain that falls on the tableland. Its numerous tributaries (flowing chiefly from the Sierra Moreno) are inconsiderable streams; the only one of them mentioned by ancient authors is the Adrus (Albaragena), which falls into it opposite Badajoz. Some derive the name Anas from the Semitic verb (Hanas, Punic; Hanasa, Arab.) signifying to appear and disappear, referring to its subterraneous course; which may or may not be right. (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 83.) [P.S.]

ANATHO ('Ava&S: Anah), as the name appears in Isidorus of Charax. It is Anathan in Ammianus Marcellinus (xxiv. 1), and Bethauna (BtBavva, perhaps Beth Ana) in Ptolemy (v. 18. § 6). D'Anville (L'Euphrate, p. 62) observes that the place which Zosimus (iii. 14) calls Phathusae, in his account of Julian's Persian campaign (a. D. 363), and fixes about the position of Anah, is nowhero else mentioned. It seems, however, to be the same place as Anah, or near it.

Anah is on the Euphrates, north of Hit, in a part where there are eight successive islands (about 34J° N.L.). ^InaA itself occupies a "fringe of soil on the right bank of the river, between a low ridge of rock and the swifVflowing waters." (London Geog. Journ. vol. vii. p. 427.) This place was an important position for commerce in ancient times, and probably on the line of a caravan route. When Julian was encamped before Anatho, one of the hurricanes that sometimes occur in these parts threw down his tents. The emperor took and burnt Anatho.

Tavornier (Travels in Turkey and Persia, iii. 6) describes the country around Anah as well cultivated; and the place as being on both sides of the! river, which has an island in the middle. It is a pleasant and fertile spot, in the midst of a desert. Rauwolf, whose travels were published in 1582, 1583, speaks of the olive, citron, orange, and other fruits growing there. The island of Anah is covered with ruins, which also extend for two miles further along the left bank of the river. The place is about 313 miles below Bir, and 440 above Hillah, the site of Babylon, following the course of the river. (London Geog. Journ. vol. iii. p. 232.) Tavemier makes it four days" journey from Bagdad to Anah. [G. L.J

ANATIS. [asama.]

ANAUA ("Avava), a salt lake in the southern part of Phrygia, which Xerxes passed on his march from Celaenae to Colossae. (Herod, vii. 30.) There was a town also called Annua on or near the lake. This is the lake of Chardak, or Hadji Tons Ghhieul, as it is sometimes called. This lake is nearly dry in summer, at which season there is an incrustation of salt on the mud. The salt is collected now, as it

was in former days, and supplies the neighbourhood and remoter parts.

Arrian (Anab. i. 29) describes, nnder the name of Ascania, a salt lake which Alexander passed on his march from Pisidia to Celaenae; and the description corresponds to that of Lake Chardak so far as its saline properties. Leake (Asia Minor, p. 146) takes the Ascania of Arrian to be the lake Bwrdur or Buldur, which is some distance SE. of Chardak. There is nothing in Arrian to determine this question. Leake (p. 150) finds a discrepancy between Arrian and Strabo as to the distance between Sagalassus and Celaenae (Apameia). Strabo (p. 5G9) makes it one day's journey, " whereas Arrian relates that Alexander was five days in marching from Sagalassus to Celaenae, passing by the lake Ascania." But this is a mistake. Arrian docs not say that he was five days in marching from Sagalassus to Celaenae. However, he does make Alexander pass by a lake from which the inhabitants collect Bait, and Buldur has been supposed to be the lake, because it lies on the direct road from Sagalassus to Celaenae. But this difficulty is removed by observing that Arrian does not say that Alexander marched from Sagalassus to Celaenae, but from the country of the Pisidians; and so he may have passed by Annua. Hamiltonobscrves(/i«eo)TAe«,&c. vol. i. p. 496), that Buldur is only slightly brackish, whereas Chardak exactly corresponds to Arrian's description (p. 504). P. Lucas ( Voyage, &c. i. book iv. 2) describes Lake Bondur, as he calls it, as having water too bitter for fish to live in, and as abounding in wild-fowl.

In justification of the opinions here expressed, it may be remarked, that the "five days" of Alexander from Sagalassus to Celaenae have been repeated and adopted by several writers, and thus the question has not been truly stated. [G. L.]

ANAURUS ("Avavpos), a small river in Magnesia, in Thessaly, flowing past Iolcos into the Pagasaean gulf, in which Jason is said to have lost one of his sandals. (Apoll. Rhod. i. 8; Simonid. ap. Athen. iv. p. 172, e; Apollod. i. 9. § 16; Strab. ix. p. 436; Lucan, vL 370; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 381.)

ANAZARBUS or -A ('Avdfapeos, 'A.yi£apga: Eth. 'Ava^apGtbs, Anazarbenus), a city of Cilicia, so called, according to Stephanus, either from an adjacent mountain of the same name, or from the founder, Anazarbus. It was situated on the Pyramus, and 11 miles from Mopsuestia, according to the Peutinger Table. Suidas (s.v. KvieSa) says that the original name of the place was Cyinda or Quinda; that it was next called Diocaesarea; and (s.v. 'AvifopSos) that having been destroyed by an earthquake, the emperor Nerva sent thither one Anazarbus, a man of senatorial rank, who rebuilt the city, and gave to it his own name. All this cannot be true, as Valesius (Amm. Marc. xiv. 8) remarks, for it was called Anazarbus in Pliny's time (v. 27). Dioscorides is called a native of Anazarbus; but the period of Dioscoridcs is not certain.

Its later name was Caesarea ad Anazarbnm, and there are many medals of the place in which it is both named Anazarbus and Caesarea at or under Anazarbus. On the division of Cilicia it became the chief place of Cilicia Secunda, with the title of Metropolis. It suffered dreadfully from an earthquake both in the time of Justinian, and, Btill more, in the reign of his successor Justin.

The site of Anazarbus, which is said to be named Anawasy or Amnasy, is described {London Geog. Journ. vol. vii. p. 421), but without any exact description of its position, as containing ruins "backed by an isolated mountain, bearing a castle of various architecture." It seems not unlikely that tins mountain may be Cyinda, which, in the time of Alexander and his successors, was a deposit for treasure. (Strab. p. 672; Diod. xviii. 62, xix. 56; Plut. Eumen. c. 13.) Strabo, indeed, places Cyinda above Anchiale; but as he does not mention Anazarbus, this is no great difficulty; and besides this, his geography of Cilicia is not very exact. If Pococke's account of the Pyramus at Anawasy being called Quinda is true, this is some confirmation of the hill of Anazarbus being Quinda. It seems probable enough that Quinda is an old name, which might be applied to the hill fort, even after Anazarbus became a city of some importance. An old traveller (Willebrand v. Oldenburg), quoted by Forbiger, found, at a place called tfaversa (manifestly a corruption of Anazarbus)or Anawasy, considerable remains of an old town, at the distance of 8 German miles from Sis. [G. L.]

ANCALITES, a people in Britain, inhabiting the hundred of ffenly, a locality which, probably, preserves their name. Caesar alone mentions them. Gale and Horsely reasonably suppose that they were a section of the Attrebates of Ptolemy. They were the most western Britons with which Caesar came in contact. (Caes. B. G. v. 21.) [K. G. L.]

Anchi'ale('a7x«£aij, 'A7x«£Aeio, 'A-yxuJAoj: Eth. 'A7xiaAciit), a town of Cilicia, which Stephanus («. v. 'Ayx'i^v) places on the coast, and on a river Anchialeus. One story which he reports, makes its origin purely mythical. The other story that he records, assigns its origin to Sardanapalus, who is said to have built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day. Strabo also places Anchiale near the coast. [anazakbus.] Aristobulus, quoted by Strabo (p. 672), says that the tomb of Sardanapalus was at Anchiale, and on it a relief in stone (rinrov AiSuw) in the attitude of a man snapping the fingers of his right hand. He adds, "some say that there is an inscription in Assyrian characters, which recorded that Sardanapalus built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day, and exhorted the reader to eat, drink, and so forth, as everything else is not worth That—, the meaning of which the attitude of the figure showed." In the text of Strabo, there follow six hexameter Greek verses, which are evidently an interpolation in the text. After these six verses, the text of Strabo proceeds: "Choerilus, also, mentions these matters; and the following verses also are generally circulated." The two hexameters which then follow, are a paraphrase of the exhortation, of which Strabo has already given the substance in prose. Athenaeus (xii. p. 529) quotes Aristobulus as authority for the monument at Anchiale; and Amyntas as authority for tho existence of a mound at Ninus (Nineveh'), which was the tomb of Sardanapalus, and contained, on a stone slab, in Chaldaic characters, an inscription to the same effect as that which Strabo mentions; and Athenaeus says that Choerilus paraphrased it in verse. In another passage, Athenaeus (p. 336) qnotes the six hexameters, which are interpolated in Strabo's text, bnt ho adds a seventh. He there cites Chrysippus as authority for the inscription being on the tomb of Sardanapalus; but he does not, in that passage, say who is the Greek paraor where the inscription was. Athenaeus, (p. 529), just like a mere collector who

uses no judgment, gives a third story about a monument of Sardanapalus, without saying where it was; the inscription recorded that he built Tarsus and Anchiale in one day, " but now is dead;" which suggests very different reflections from the other version. Anion (Anab. ii. 5), probably following Ptolemy, says, that Alexander marched in one day from Anchiale to Tarsus. He describes the figure on the monument as having the hands joined, as clapping the hands; he adds, that the former magnitude of the city was shown by the circuit and the foundations of the walls. This description does not apply to the time of Arrian, but to the age of Alexander, for Arrian is merely copying the historians of Alexander. It seems hardly doubtful that the Assyrians once extended their power as far, at least, as Anchiale, and that there was a monument with Assyrian characters there in the time of Alexander; and there mink be one also to the same effect at Nineveh. (See Cic. Tusc.Disp. v. 35; Polyb. viii. 12; and as to the passage of Strabo, Groskurd's Translation and Notes, vol. iii. p. 81.) Leake (Asia Minor, p. 214) observes, that a little west of Tarsus, and between the villages Kazalu and Karaduar, is a river that answers to the Anchialeus; and he observes that "a large mound, not far from the Anchialeus, with some other similar tumuli near the shore to the westward, are the remains, perhaps, of the Assyrian founders of Anchiale, which probably derived its temporary importance from being the chief maritime station of the Assyrian monarchs in these seas." [G. L.]

ANCHI'ALE ('A7X"fAl: Akiali), a small town on the western coast of the Euxine, to the north of Apollonia, to which its inhabitants were subject. (Strab. vii. p. 319.) The Latin writers, who mention the place, call it Anchialus or Anchialum. (Ov. Trist. i. 9. 36; Pomp. Mel. ii. 2; Plin. H. N. iv. 18; comp. Ptol. iii. 11. §4.) [L. S.]

ANCHIASMUS. [onchesmos.]

ANCHI'SIA. [mantineia.]

A'NCHOE ('A7x^)i a place on the borders of Boeotia and of Locris, near Upper Larymna, at which the waters of the Ccphissus broke forth from their subterraneous channel. There was also a lake of the same name at this place. (Strab. ix. pp. 406, 407; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 289.) [larymna.]

ANCON ('Ayireir), a headland and bay, as the name implies, on the coast of Pontus, east of Amisus. It is mentioned by Valerius Flaccus (iv. 600) in his Argonautica, after the Iris, as if it were east of the mouth of that river. Apollonius Rhodius simply speaks of it as a headland (ii. 369). The ancient authorities do not agree in the distances along this coast (Steph. t. v. XaSitrfa; Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 288). The conclusion of Hamilton seems to be the most probable, that Derbend Bournou, east of Amisus, represents Ancon, as it is the first headland east of Amisus, " and the only place before reaching the mouth of the Iris where a harbour can exist." He adds, that " at the extremity of Derbend Bournou, a small stream falls into the sea between two precipitous headlands, probably the Chadisius of the ancients." [G. L.]

ANCO'NA, or ANCON {'AyKiiv: Eth. 'Ayxcivios, and 'AyKuvlrns, Steph. B., Anconitanns: the form Ancon in Latin is chiefly poetical; but, according to Orelli, Cicero uses Anconem for the acc. case), an important city of Piccnum on the Adriatic sea,

phrast, however

still called Ancona, It was situated on a promontory which forms a remarkable curve or elbow, so as to protect, and almost enclose its port, from which circumstance it derived its Greek name of 'Aytci&v, the elbow. (Strab. v. p. 241; Mela, ii. 4; Procop. B. G. ii. 13. p. 197.) Pliny, indeed, appears to regard it as named from its position at the angle or elbow formed by the coast line at this point (in ipso jlectentis se orae cubito, iii. 13. s. 18), but this is probably erroneous. The promontory on which the city itself is situated, is connected with a more lofty mountain mass forming a bold headland, the CumeBus of Pliny, still known as Monte Comero. Ancona was the only Greek colony on this part of the coast of Italy, having been founded about 380 B. c. by Syracusan exiles, who fled hither to avoid the tyranny of the elder Dionysius. (Strab. I c.) Hence it is called Dorica Alteon by Juvenal (iv. 40), and is mentioned by Scylax (§ 17, p. 6), who notices only Greek cities. We have no account of its existence at an earlier period, for though Pliny refers its foundation to the Siculi (/. c.; see also Solin. 2. § 10), this is probably a mere misconception of the fact that it was a colony from Sicily. We learn nothing of its early history: but it appears to have rapidly risen into a place of importance, owing to the excellence of its port (the only natural harbour along this line of coast) and the great fertility of the adjoining country. (Strab. /. c; Plin. xiv. 6.) It was noted also for its purple dye, which, according to Silins Italicus (viii. 438), was not inferior to those of Phoenicia or Africa. The period at which it became subject to the Romans is uncertain, but it probably followed the fate of the rest of Picenum: in B. c. 178 we find them making use of it as a naval station against the Illyrians and Istrians. (Liv. xli. 1.) On the outbreak of the Civil War it was occupied by Caesar as a place of importance, immediately after he had passed the Rubicon; and we find it in later times serving as the principal port for communication with the opposite coast of Dalmatia. (Caes. B. C. i. 11; Cic. ad Att. vii. 11, ad Earn, xvi. 12; Tac. Ann. iii. 9.) As early as the time of C. Gracchus a part of its territory appears to have been assigned to Roman colonists; and subsequently Antony established there two legions of veterans which had served under J. Caesar. It probably first acquired at this time the rank of a Roman colony, which we find it enjoying in the time of Pliny, and which is commemorated in several extant inscriptions. (App. B. C. v. 23; Lib. Colon. pp. 225, 227, 253; Grater, pp. 451. 3, 465. 6; Zumpt, de Colon, p. 333.) It received great benefits from Trajan, who improved its port by the construction of a new mole, which still remains in good preservation. On it was erected, in honour of the emperor, a triumphal arch, built entirely of white marble, which, both from its perfect preservation and the lightness and elegance of its architecture, is generally regarded as one of the most beautiful monuments of its class remaining in Italy. Some remains of an amphitheatre may also be traced; and numerous inscriptions attest the flourishing condition of Ancona under the Roman Empire. The temple of Venus, celebrated both by Juvenal and Catullus (Juv. iv.40; Catull. xxxvi. 13), has altogether disappeared; but it in all probability occupied the same site as the modem cathedral, on the summit of the lofty hill that commands the whole city and constitutes the remarkable headland from which it derives its name.

We find Ancona playing an important part during the contests of Belisarius and Narses with the Goths in Italy. (Procop. B. G. ii. 11, 13, iii. 30, iv. 23.) It afterwards became one of the chief cities of the Exarchate of Ravenna, and continued throughout the Middle Ages, as it does at the present day, to be one of the most flourishing and commercial cities of central Italy.

The annexed coin of Ancona belongs to the period of the Greek colony: it bears on the obverse the head of Venus, the tutelary deity of the city, on the reverse a bent arm or elbow, in allusion to its name. [E. H. B.]

[graphic]

COIN OF ANCONA.

ANCORA'RIUS MONS (Jebel Ouanseris), a mountain of Mauretania Caesariensis, S. of Julia Caesarca, belonging to the Lesser Atlas chain, and forming the S. limit of the valley of the Chinalaph (Shellif). It was celebrated for the tree called citrus (a species of cedar or juniper), tho wood of which was highly esteemed by the Romans for furniture. Pliny mentions several instances of the extravagant prices given for it. (Plin. H. N. xiii. 15. s. 29; Amm. Marc xxv. 5.) [P. S.]

ANCY'RA Q'Ayxvpa: Eth. 'Ay Kvpavds, Ancyranus.) 1. A town of Phrygia Epictetus. Strabo (p. 567) calls it a "small city, or hill-fort, near Blaudos, towards Lydia." In another passage (p. 576) he says that the Rhyndacus, which flows into the Propontis, receives tho Macestus from Ancyra Abasitis. Cramer (Asia Minor, vol. ii. p. 12) corrects Abasitis into Abbaitis, on the authority of the coins and an inscription found in these parts. As the Macestus is the Susugherli Su, or the Simaul Su, as it is called in its upper course, Ancyra must be at or near the source of this river. The lake of Simaul is the source of the Macestus, and close to the lake is "a remarkable looking hill, the Acropolis of an ancient city." This place appears to be Ancyra. The river flows from the lake in a deep and rapid stream; and no large stream runs into the lake. Simaul seems to be a corruption of Synnaus, or Synaus, and to be on or near the site of Synnaus. Ancyra was on the lake, 7 or 8 miles WNW. of Simaul. (Hamilton, Researches, <j-c. vol. ii. p. 124, seq.)

2. (Angora or EngareK), a town of Galatia, near a small stream, which seems to enter the Sangarius. Ancyra originally belonged to Phrygia. The mythical founder was Midas, the son of Gordius. (Paus. i. 4.) Midas found an anchor on the spot, and accordingly gave the name to the town; a story which would imply that the name for anchor (iyKvpd) was the same in the Greek and in the Phrygian languages. Pausanias confirms the story by saying that the anchor remained to his time in the temple of Zeus. Stephanus (s. v. "AyKvpa') gives another story about the name, which is chronologically false, if Ancyra was so called in the time of Alexander. (Arrian. A nab. ii. 4.) The town became the chief place of the Tectosages (Strab. p. 567), a Gallic tribe from the neighbourhood of Toulouse, which

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