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under the name of Peirus, as we learn from Strabo. good reasons for believing that there were more than It is described by Leake as wide and deep in the twelve independent cities in Achaia (Grote, Hist. of latter end of February, although no rain had fallen Greece, vol. ii. p. 614), yet the ancient writers alfor some weeks. Into the Peirus flowed the Teu- ways recognize only 12, and this seems to have been theas (Tevéas), which in its turn received the regarded as the established number of the confedeCaucon. The Peirus flowed past Pharae, where it ration. These cities continued to be governed by the was called Piërus(liepos), but the inhabitants of the descendants of Tisamenus down to Ogygus, after coast called it by the former name. (Strab. p. 342; whose death they abolished the kingly rule and esHerod. i. 145; Paus. vii. 18. § 1, 22. § 1; Leake, tablished a democracy. Each of the cities formed at vol. ii. p. 155.) Strabo in another passage calls it separate republic, but were united together by reMelas (Médas), but the reading is probably cor- riolical sacrifices and festivals, where they arranged rupt. Dionysius Periegetes mentions the Melas along their disputes and settled their common concerns. with the Crathis among the rivers flowing from Mt. In the time of Herodotus (i. 145) the twelve cities Erymanthus. (Strab. p. 386; Dionys. 416.) 15. were Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegium, LARISUS (Náploos: Mana), forming the boundary Rhypes, Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyme, between Achaia and Elis, rising in Mt. Scollis, Tritaeeis (Tritaea). This list is copied by Strabo and falling into the sea 30 stadia from Dyme. (pp. 385, 386); but it appears from the list in (Paus. vii. 17. $ 5; Strab. p. 387; Liv. xxvii. 31.) Polybius (ii. 41), that Leontium and Ceryneia were
The original inhabitants of Achaia are said to afterwards substituted in the place of Rhypes and have been Pelasgians, and were called Aegialeis Aegae, which had fallen into decay. Pausanias (vii. (Aiyareis), or the “ Coast-Men," from Aegialus, 6. $ 1) retains both Rlıypes and Aegae, and substithe ancient name of the country, though some tutes Ceryneia for Patrae; but his authority is of no writers sought a mythical origin for the name, and value in opposition to Polybius. The bond of union derived it from Aegialeus, king of Sicyonia. (Herod. between these cities was very loose, and their connecvii. 94; Paus. vii. 1.) The Ionians subsequently tion was of a religious rather than of a political settled in the country. According to the mythical nature. Thus we find them sometimes acting quite account, Ion, the son of Xuthus, crossed over from independently of one another. Pellene alone joined Attica at the head of an army, but concluded an al- tho Lacedaemonians at the commencement of the liance with Selinus, the king of the country, married Peloponnesian war, while the rest remained nentral; his daughter Helice, and succeeded him on the throne. and at a later period of the war Patrae alone esFrom this time the land was called Ionia, and the in- poused the Athenian cause. (Thuc. ii. 9, v. 52.) habitants Ionians or Aegialian Ionians. The Ionians Their original place of meeting was at Helice, where remained in possession of the country till the invasion they offered a common sacrifice to Poseidon, the tute. of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, when the Achaeans, lary god of the place; but after this city had been who had been driven out of Argos and Lacedaemon by swallowed up by the sea in B. C. 373 (HELICE), the invaders, marched against the Ionians in order they transferred their meetings to Aegium, where to obtain new homes for themselves in the country they sacrificed to Zeus Homagyrius, or Homarius, of the latter Under the command of their king and to the Panachaean Demeter. (Paus. vii. 24; Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, they defeated the Pol. v. 94.) Ionians in battle. The latter shut themselves up in The Achaeans are rarely mentioned during the Helice, where they sustained a siege for a time, but flourishing period of Grecian history. Being equally they finally quitted the country and sought refuge unconnected with the great Ionian and Doric races, in Attica. The Achaeans thus became masters of they kept aloof for the most part from the struggles the country, which was henceforth called after between the Greek states, and appear to have enthem Achaia. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Paus. I joyed a state of almost uninterrupted prosperity down vii. 1; Strab. p. 383.) This is the common legend, to the time of Philip. They did not assist the other but it should be observed that Homer takes no no-Greeks in repelling the Persians. In B. c. 454 they tice of Ionians on the northern coast of Pelopon- formed an alliance with the Athenians, but the latter nesus; but on the contrary, the catalogue in the were obliged to surrender Achaia in the truce for Iliad distinctly includes this territory under the do-thirty years, which they concluded with Sparta and minions of Agamemnoni. Hence there seems reason her allies in B. C. 445. (Thuc. i. 111, 115.) In for questioning the occupation of northern Pelopon- | the course of the Peloponnesian war they joined the nesus by the lonians and their expulsion from it by Lacedaemonians, though probably very reluctantly. Tisamenus; and it is more probable that the histo- (Thuc. ii. 9.) They retained, however, a high charical Achaeans in the north part of Peloponnesus are racter among the other Greeks, and were esteemed a small undisturbed remnant of the Achaean popu- on account of their sincerity and good faith. So lation once distributed through the whole peninsula. highly were they valued, that at an early ago some (Grote, History of Greece, vol. i. p. 17.)
of the powerful Greek colonies in Italy applied for The Ionians are said to have dwelt in villages, their mediation and adopted their institutions, and and the cities in the country to have been first built at a later time they were chosen by the Spartans and by the Achaeans. Several of these villages were | Thebans as arbiters after the battle of Leuctra. united to form a town ; thus Patrue was formed by (Pol. ii. 39.) The first great blow which the an union of seven villages, Dyme of eight, and Achaeans experienced was at the battle of ChacroAegium also of seven or eight. The Achaeans pos- neia (B. C. 338), when they fought with the Athesessed twelve cities, the territory of each of which nians and Boeotians against Philip and lost some of was divided into seven or eight demi. (Strab. p. their bravest citizens. Eight years afterwards (B. C. 386.) This number of 12 is said to have been 330) all the Achaean towns, with the exception of borrowed from the lonians, who were divided into Pellene, joined the Spartans in the cause of Grecian 12 parts (uépea), when they occupied the country, freedom, and shared in the disastrous defeat at Manand who accordingly refused to allow of more than tineia, in which Agis fell. This severe blow left twelve cities in their league. Although there are them so prostrate that they were unable to render any assistance to the confederate Greeks in the La- first 25 years there were two Strategi ; but at the mian war after the death of Alexander. (Paus, vii. ! end of that time (B.c. 255) only one was appointed. 6.) But their independent spirit had awakened the Marcus of Ceryneia was the first who held the sole jealousy of the Macedonian rulers, and Demetrius, office. (Pol. ii. 43; Strab. p. 385.) It was proCassander, and Antigonus Gonatas placed garrisons bably at this time that an Hipparchus (la mapxos) in their cities, or held possession of them by means or commander of the cavalry was then first appointed of tyrants. Such a state of things at length be- | in place of the Strategus, whose office had been came insupportable, and the commotions in Mace- | abolished. We also read of an Under-Strategus donia, which followed the death of Lysimachus (B. C. (ÚTOOT patnyós), but we have no account of the 281), afforded them a favourable opportunity for extent of his powers or of the relation in which he throwing off the yoke of their oppressors; and the stood to the chief Strategus. 2. A Secretary of Gaulish invasion which shortly followed effectually State ( ypapuateús). 3. Ten Demiurgi (onulovpyoi), prevented the Macedonians from interfering in the who formed a kind of permanent committee, and affairs of the Peloponnesus. Patrae and Dyme were who probably represented at first the 10 Achaean the first two cities which expelled the Macedonians. cities, of which the League consisted. The numTheir example was speedily followed by Tritaea ber of the Demiurgi, however, was not increased, and Pharae ; and these four towns now resolved to when new cities were subsequently added to the renew the ancient League. The date of this League. All these officers were clected for one event was B. C. 280. Five years afterwards (B. C. year at the spring meeting of the assembly, and the 275) they were joined by Aegium and Bura, and Strategus was not eligible for re-election till a year the accession of the former city was the more im- had elapsed after the expiration of his office. If the portant, as it had been the regular place of meeting Strategus died under the period of his office, his of the earlier League after the destruction of Helice, place was filled up by his predecessor, until the as has been already related. The main principles of time for the new elections arrived. the constitution of the new League were now fixed, and It remains to give a brief sketch of the history of a column was erected inscribed with the names of the the League. At the time of its revival its numbers confederate towns. Almost immediately afterwards were so inconsiderable, that the collective population Coryneia was added to the League. There were now of the confederate states was scarcely equal to the only three remaining cities of the ancient League, inhabitants of a single city according to Plutarch. which had not joined the new confederation, namely, (Arat. 9) Its greatness may be traced to its conLeontium, Aegeira, and Pellene; for Helice had been nection with Aratus. Up to this time the League swallowed up by the sea, and Olenus was soon after was confined to the Achaean cities, and the idea wards abandoned by its inhabitants. The three cities | does not seem to have been entertained of incor. mentioned above soon afterwards united themselves porating foreign cities with it. But when Aratus to the League, which thus consisted of ten cities. had delivered his native city Sicyon from its tyrant, (Pol. ii. 41; Strab. p. 384; Paus. vii. 18. § 1.) and had persuaded his fellow-citizens to unite them
The Achaean League thus renewed eventually selves to the League (B.C. 251), a new impulse became the most powerful political body in Greece ; was given to the latter. Aratus, although only 20 and it happened by a strange coincidence that the years of age, became the soul of the League. The people, who had enjoyed the greatest celebrity in the great object of his policy was to liberate the Peloheroic age, but who had almost disappeared from ponnesian cities from their tyrants, who were all history for several centuries, again became the inore or less dependent upon Macedonia, and to greatest among the Greek states in the last days | incorporate them with the League ; and under his of the nation's independence. An account of the able management the confederacy constantly reconstitution of this League is given in the Dictionary | ceived fresh accessions. Antigonus Gonatas, king of Antiquitics (art. Achaicum Foedus), and it is of Macedonia, and his successor Demetrius II., used therefore only necessary to give here a brief re every effort to crush the growing power of the capitulation of its fundamental laws. The great | Achaeans, and they were supported in their efforts object of the new League was to effect a much by the Aetolians, who were equally jealous of the closer political union than had existed in the former confederacy. Aratus however triumphed over their one. No city was allowed to make peace or war or opposition, and for many years the League enjoyed to treat with any foreign power apart from the entire an uninterrupted succession of prosperity. In B. C. nation, although each was allowed the undisturbed 243 Aratus surprised Corinth, expelled the tyrant, control of its internal affairs. This sovereign power and united this important city to the League. The resided in the federal assembly (oúvodos, ekkinoia, neighbouring cities of Megara, Troezen, and Epiouvéoprov) which was held twice a year originally daurus followed the example thus set them, and at Aegium, afterwards at Corinth or other places, joined the League in the course of the same year. though extraordinary meetings might be convened A few years afterwards, probably in B. c. 239, Megaby the officers of the League either at Aegium or lopolis also became a member of the League ; and elsewhere. At all these meetings, every Achaean, in B.C. 236 it received the accession of the powerful who had attained the age of 30, was allowed to city of Argos. It now seemed to Aratus that the epeak : but questions were not decided by an ab- time had arrived when the whole of Peloponnesus solute majority of the citizens, but by a majority of might be annexed to the League, but he experienced the cities, which were members of the League. In a far more formidable opposition from Sparta than he addition to the general assembly there was a Council had anticipated. Cleomenes III., who had lately as. (Bourn), which previously decided upon the ques-cended the Spartan throne, was a man of energy; and tions that were to be submitted to the assembly. his military abilities proved to be far superior to those The principal ofñcers of the League were: 1. The of Aratus. Neither he nor the Spartan government Strategus or general (Etpatnyós), whose duties were | was disposed to place themselves on a level with the partly military and partly civil, and who was the Achaean towns; and accordingly when Aratus atacknowledged head of the confederacy. For the tempted to obtain possession of Orchomenus, Tegea, and Mantineia, which had joined the Aetolian League B.c. 188 by razing the fortifications of the city and and had been ceded by the latter to the Spartans, abolishing the laws of Lycurgus, their conduct was war broke out between Sparta and the Achaean severely censured by the senate; and every succeedLeague, B.c. 227. In this war, called by Polybius ing transaction between the League and the senate the Cleomenic war, the Achaeans were defeated in showed still more clearly the subject condition of the several battles and lost some important places; and Achaeans. The Romans, however, still acknowso unsuccessful had they been, that they at length ledged in name the independence of the Achaeans ; resolved to form a coalition or alliance with Sparta, and the more patriotic part of the nation continued acknowledging Cleomenes as their chief. Aratus to offer a constitutional resistance to all the Roman was unable to brook this humiliation, and in an evil encroachments upon the liberties of the League, hour applied to Antigonus Doson for help, thus whenever this could be done without affording the undoing the great work of his life, and making the Romans any pretext for war. At the head of this Achaean cities again dependent upon Macedonia. party was Philopoemen, and after his death, LyAntigonus willingly promised his assistance; and cortas, Xenon, and Polybius. Callicrates on the the negotiations with Clemcnes were broken off, B.C. other hand was at the head of another party, which 224. The war was brought to an end by the defeat counselled a servile submission to the senate, and of Cleomenes by Antigonus at the decisive battle of sought to obtain aggrandizement by the subjecSellasia, B.C. 221. Cleomenes immediately left the tion of their country. In order to get rid of his country and sailed away to Egypt. Antigonus thus political opponents, Callicrates, after the defeat of became master of Sparta ; but he did not annex it Perseus by the Romans, drew up a list of 1000 to the Achaean League, as it was no part of his Achaeans, the best and purest part of the nation, policy to aggrandize the latter.
whom the Romans carried off to Italy (B. c. 167) The next war, in which the Achaeans were en- | under the pretext of their having afforded help to gaged, again witnessed their humiliation and de Perseus. The Romans never brought these prisoners pendence upon Macedonia. In B.c. 220 commenced to trial, but kept them in the towns of Italy; and the Social war, as it is usually called. The Aetolians it was not till after the lapse of 17 years, and when invaded Peloponnesus and defeated the Achaeans, their number was reduced to 300, that the senate whereupon Aratus applied for aid to Philip, gave them permission to return to Greece. Amorg who had succeeded Antigonus on the Macedo- those who were thus restored to their country, there nian throne. The young monarch conducted the were some men of prudence and ability, like the war with striking ability and success; and the historian Polybius; but there were others of weak Aetolians having become weary of the contest were judgment and violent passions, who had been exasglad to conclude a peace in B.C. 217. The Achaeans perated by their long and unjust confinement, and now remained at peace for some years; but they had who now madly urged their country into a war with lost the proud pre-eminence they had formerly en- Rome. A dispute having arisen between Sparta and joyed, and had become little better than the vassals the League, the senate sent an embassy into Greece of Macedonia. But the influence of Aratus excited in B. c. 147, and required that Sparta, Corinth, the jealousy of Philip, and it was commonly believed Argos, and other cities should be severed from the that his death (B.c. 213) was occasioned by a slow League, thus reducing it almost to its original conpoison administered by the king's order. The re- dition when it included only the Achaean towns. generation of the League was due to Philopoemen, This demand was received with the utmost indignaone of the few great men produced in the latter days tion, and Critolaus, who was their general, used of Grecian independence. He introduced great every effort to inflame the passions of the people reforms in the organization of the Achaean army, against the Romans. Through his influence the and accustomed them to the tactics of the Mace- Achaeans resolved to resist the Romans, and declared donians and to the close array of the phalanx. By war against Sparta. This was equivalent to a dethe ascendancy of his genius and character, he claration of war against Rome itself, and was so acquired great influence over his countrymen, and understood by both parties. In the spring of 146 breathed into them a martial spirit. By these means Critolaus marched northwards through Boeotia into he enabled them to fight their own cause, and the S. of Thessaly, but retreated on the approach of rendered them to some extent independent of Mace- Metellus, who advanced against him from Macedonia. His defeat of Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta donia. He was, however, overtaken by Metellus (B. C. 208), both established his own reputation, near Scarphea, a little S. of Thermopylae ; his forces and caused the Achaean arms again to be respected were put to the rout, and he himself was never heard in Greece. In the war between the Romans and of after the battle. Metellus followed the fugitives Philip, the Achaeans espoused the cause of the to Corinth. Diaeus, who had succeeded Callicrates former, and concluded a treaty of peace with the in the office of General, resolved to continue the republic, B.c. 198. About this time, and for several contest, as he had been one of the promoters of the subsequent years, the Achaeans were engaged in war and knew that he had no hope of pardon from hostilities with Nabis, who had succeeded Machani- the Romans. Meantime the consul Mummius ardas as tyrant of Sparta. Nabis was slain by some rived at the Isthmus as the successor of Metellus. Aetolians in B. c. 192 ; whereupon Philopoemen Encouraged by some trifling success against the hastened to Sparta and induced the city to join the Roman outposts, Diaeus ventured to offer battle to League. In the following year (B. C. 191) the the Romans. The Achaeans were easily defeated and Messenians and the Eleans also joinod the League. Corinth surrendered without a blow. Signal venThus the whole of Peloponnesus was at length an- geance was taken upon the unfortunate city. The nexed to the League ; but its independence was men were put to the sword; the women and children now little more than nominal, and its conduct and were reserved as slaves : and after the city had proceedings were regulated to a great extent by the been stript of all its treasures and works of art, its decisions of the Roman senate. When the Achaeans buildings were committed to the flames, B. C. under Philopoemen ventured to punish Sparta in 146. [CORINTHIUS.] Thus perished the Achacan
ue B.c. 188 by razing the fortifications of the city and ns, abolishing the laws of Lycurgus, their conduct was can severely censured by the senate; and every succeed Lus ing transaction between the League and the senate
in showed still more clearly the subject condition of the nd Achaeans. The Romans, however, still acknor. th ledged in name the independence of the Achaeais; ta, and the more patriotic part of the nation contined tus to offer a constitutional resistance to all the Roman
vil encroachments upon the liberties of the League, 20s whenerer this could be done without affording the the Romans any pretext for war. At the head of this nia. party was Philopoemen, and after his death, Liand cortas, Xenon, and Polybius. Callicrates on the 5.c. other hand was at the head of another party, which feat counselled a servile submission to the serate, and e of sought to obtain aggrandizement by the subjee.
the tion of their country. In order to get rid of his hus political opponents, Callicrates, after the defest of x it Persens by the Romans, drew up a list of 1000 his Achaeans, the best and purest part of the natide,
whom the Ronans carried off to Italy (6.c. 167) en- under the pretext of their having atřorded help to de Perseus. The Romans never brought these prixners need to trial, but kept them in the towns of Italy; and Eans it was not till after the lapse of 17 years, and when ins, their number was reduced to 300, that the senate
ilip, gave them permission to return to Greece. Amery -do- those who were thus restored to their country, there the were some men of prudence and ability, like the the historian Polybius; but there were others of weak were judgment and violent passions, who had been elas
ans perated by their long and unjust continerent, and had / who now madly urged their country into a war with en- Rome. A dispute having arisen between Sparta and
als the League, the senate sent an embassy into Greece Ited in B. c. 147, and required that Sparta, Corinth, ved Argos, and other cities should be severed from the low League, thus reducing it almost to its original ca
re- dition when it included only the Achacan tomis. zen. This demand was received with the utmost indigtsays tion, and Critolaus, who was their general, el
cat every effort to inflame the passions of the people ny, against the Romans. Through his influence the ce- Achaeans resolved to resist the Romans, and declared By war against Sparta. This was equivalent to a de
he claration of war against Rome itself, and 1988 so and understood by both parties. In the spring of 146 ans Critolaus marched northwards through Borotia into and the S. of Thessaly, but retreated on the approach of ce- Metellus, who advanced against him from Muce. rta donia. He was, however, overtaken by Metellus
ACHAIA, League, and with it the independence of Greece ; | allusion to the establishment of a Roman province, but the recollection of the Achaean power was perpe- although we find mention of various regulations tuated by the name of Achaia, which the Romans adopted by the Romans for the consolidation of gave to the south of Greece, when they formed it into their power. 2. Many of these regulations would a province. (Paus. vii. 16, sub fin.)
have been unnecessary if a provincial government The history of the Achaean League has been had been established. Thus we are told that the treated with ability by several modern writers. The government of each city was placed in the hands of best works on the subject are:– Helwing, Ges- the wealthy, and that all federal assemblies were chichte des Achäischen Bundes, Letngo, 1829 ; | abolished. Through the influence of Polybius the Schorn, Geschichte Griechenland's von der Entste- | federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, kung des Aetol. und Achäischen Bundes bis auf and some of the more stringent regulations were redie Zerstörung Corinths, Bonn, 1833 ; Flathe's 1 pealed. (Pol. xl. 8-10 ; Paus. vii. 16. $ 10.) Geschichte Macedoniens, vol. ii., Leipz. 1832; Mer- The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears leker, Achaicorum Libri III., Darmst. 1837 ; to have been described by the Romans as a restoraBrandstäter, Gesch, des Aetolischen Landes. Volkes | tion of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an inund Bundes, Berlin, 1844; Droysen, Hellenismus, 'scription discovered at Dyme twention of ý a modedovol. i., Hamburg, 1843 ; Thirlwall, History of luévn kata Kowòv Tois "EX,non devlepía, and Greece, vol. viii.
also of ή αποδοθείσα τοις 'Αχαίοις υπό 'Ρωμαίων The following is a list of the towns of Achaia Toiteta, language which could not have been used from E. to W.; PELLENE, with its harbour Aristo- if the Roman jurisdiction had been introduced into Dautae, and its dependent fortresses Olurus and the country. (Böckh, Corp. Inscript. No. 1543; Goncess, or Donussa; AEGEIRA, with its fortress comp. Thirlwall, vol. viii, p. 458.) 3. We are exPhelloë : AEGAE : BURA : CERYNELA : HELICE: pressly told by Plutarch (Cim. 2), that in the time AEGITM, with the dependent places Leuctrum and of Lucullus the Romans had not yet begun to send Erineum: the harbour of PANORMUS between the pro. praetors into Greece (OŬTW eis Thy 'Exnáda 'Puuaior montories of Drepanum and Rhium: PATRAE, with otpatnyous CleTÉUTOVTO); and that disputes in the the dependent places Boline and Argyra: OLENCS country were referred to the decision of the governor with the dependent places Peirae and Euryteiae : 1 of Macedonia. There is the less reason for ques. Drue, with the dependent places Teichos, Heca- tioning this statement, since it is in accordance torbacon and Langon.. In the interior PHARAE: with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, LEONTICH: TRITAEA. The following towns, of when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as which the sites are unknown, are mentioned only by plundering the countries of southern Greece, and cxStephanus Byzantinus : Acarra ('Arapsa): Alos | ercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly (Alles) : Anace ('AvdKn): Ascheion ('AO XELOV): | have done, if they had been subject to a provincial Austus (A(«Tos): Pella (IIéma): Phaestus / administration of their own. (Cic. c. Pis. 40.) It (PALOTÓS): Politeia (Nonstela): Psophis (ywoís): ( is probable that the south of Greece was first made Soolis (Exodus): Tarne (Tdown): Teneitam (Th- a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first Flor): Thriūs (Oplows), 'which first belonged to governor of the province of whom any mention is Achaia, afterwards to Elis, and lay near Patrae. made (as far as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpicius, Athenaeus (xiv. p. 658) mentions an Achaean town, I and he was appointed to this office by Caesar. (Cic. narned Tromileia (Tpouldera) celebrated for its | ud Fam. vi. 6. § 10.) cheese.
In the division of the provinces made by AuBespecting the geography of Achaia in general gustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the See Müller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 428, seq.; Leake's provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Epeirus, the Morea, vols. ii. & iii., and Peloponnesiaca; Boblaye,
latter of which forined part of Illyris. Achaia was Rechercher, p. 15, seq. ; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol.
one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was 1. p. 403. seq.
governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Dion Cass. liii. 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his reign (A. D. 16) took it away from the senate and made it an imperial province (Tac. Ann. i. 76). but Claudius gave it back again to the senate (Suet. Claud, 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth
was the residence of the proconsul, and it was here COIN OF ACHAIA.
that the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia. (Acta Apost. xvii. 3. ACHAIA, the Roman province, including the | 12.) Nero abolished the province of Achaia, and whole of Peloponnesus and the greater part of gave the Greeks their liberty ; but Vespasian again Hellas proper with the adjacent” islands. The established the provincial government and compelled time, however, at which this country was reduced the Greeks to pay a yearly tribute. (Paus, vii, 17. to the form of a Roman province, as well as its $$ 3, 4; Suet. V'esp. 8.) exact limits, are open to much discussion. It is The boundaries between the provinces of Maceusually stated by modern writers that the province donia, Epeirus, and Achaia, are difficult to deterwas formed on the conquest of the Achaeans in mine. Strabo (p. 840), in his enumeration of the proB. C. 146; but there are several reasons for gues-, vinces of the Roman empire,says: 'EBBóuqu 'Axafav tioning this statement. In the first place it is not uéxpı Oettarias kai Airwûv kal'Axapvévwv, kai stated by any ancient writer that Greece was formed TVW 'HTEIPWTIK@ Ovæv, boa Tņ Makedovia into a province at this time. The silence of Poly- | pooupiotai. “The seventh (province) is Achaia, up bius on the subject would be conclusive, if we pos- to Thessaly and the Aetolians and Acarnanians and hessed entire that part of his history which related some Epeirot tribes, which border upon Macedonia." the conquest of the Achaeans; but in the existing Most modern writers understand uéxpi as inclusive, Tragments of that portion of his work, there is no and consequently make Achaia include Thessaly,
in the office has been one of the profi mardon from
on, near Scarphea, a little S. of Thermopylae ; his forces
geance was taken upon the unfortunate city. The
men were put to the sword; the women and children 1 were reserved as slares: and after the city had
been stript of all its treasures and works of art, its
buildings were committed to the flarncs, B. C. 1146. [CORINTITUS.] Thus perished the Achacun
I were were put to the pon the infor
Aetolia, and Acarnania. Their interpretation is con- Achates between Thermae and Selinus, in the SW. firmed by a passage in Tacitus, in which Nicopolis quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the in the south of Epeiras is called by Tacitus (Ann. Dirillo, but its modern name is unknown. (Plin. ii. į. 53) a city of Achaia ; but too much stress must 8. s. 14, xxxvii. 10. 8. 54; Theophrast. de Lapid. not be laid upon this passage, as Tacitus may only $ 31; Vib. Seq. p. 3; Solin. 5. § 25; Cluver. Sicil. have used Achaia in its widest signification as p. 201.)
[E. H. B.) equivalent to Greece. If uéxpi is not inclusive, ACHELOUS ('Axenos, Epic "Axencios). Thessaly, Aetolia, and Acarnania must be assigned 1. (Aspropotamo), the largest and most celebrated either wholly to Macedonia, or partly to Macedonia river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after and partly to Epeirus. Ptolemy (iii. 2, seq.), in flowing through the mountainous country of the his division of Greece, assigns Thessaly to Mace- Dolopians and Agracans, entered the plain of donia, Acarnania to Epeirus, and Aetolia to Achaia; | Acarnania and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged and it is probable that this represents the political itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acarnanian division of the country at the time at which he lived town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the (A.D. 150). Achaia continued to be a Roman pro boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia, but in vince governed by proconsuls down to the time of the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadae Justinian. (Kruse, Hellas, vol. i. p. 573.)
extended east of the river. It is usually called a ACHARACA ('Axápaka), a village of Lydia, river of Acarnania, but it is sometimes assigned to on the road from Tralles to Nysa, with a Plutonium Aetoli. Its general direction is from north to or a temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Charonium, south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream where the sick were healed under the direction of colour, whence it derives its modern name of Asprothe priests. (Strab. xiv. PP. 649, 650.)
potamo or the White river, and to which Dionysius ACHARNAE ('Axapval: Eth. 'Axapveus, Achar (432) probably alludes in the epithet åpyupodivns. nanus, Nep. Them. 1.; Adj. 'Axapvirós), the prin- It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, cipal demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Oeneis, Axenus and Thestius (Thuc. ii. 102; Strab. pp. was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and conse 449, 450, 458; Plut. de Fluv. 22; Steph. B. 3. .) quently not far from the foot of Mt. Parnes. It was We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of from the woods of this mountain that the Achar- | the Achelous are at a village called Khaliki, which nians were enabled to carry on that traffic in char- | is probably a corruption of Chalcis, at which place coal for which they were noted among the Athenians. Dionysius Periegetes (496) places the sources of (Aristoph. Acharn. 332.) Their land was fertile ; | the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous their population was rough and warlike; and they torrents, which it receives in its passage through furnished at the commencement of the Peloponnesian the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena is often filled, but in the middle of summer the Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Melpomenus, river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the which only two are of a considerable size. After Acharnians said that the ivy first grew in this leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, demus. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears the in the lower part of its course, the plain through name of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that which it flows was called in antiquity Paracheloitis branch of the plain of Athens, which is included after the river. This plain was celebrated for its between the foot of the hills of Khassis and a fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching east- several of which were formed by the overflowings of ward from the northern termination of that moun the Achelous. In this part of its course the river tain, to have been the district of the demus Acharnae. presents the most extraordinary series of wander
The exact situation of the town has not yet been ings; and these deflexions, observes a recent tradiscovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated of a veller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, mile to the westward of Menidhi, have generally as to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its been taken for those of Archarnae ; but Menidhi is bed, and sometimes, for several miles, having its more probably a corruption of lalovidar. (Thuc. ii. direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow 13, 19-21; Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. back into the mountains in which it rises. The Nem. ii. 25; Paus. i. 31. § 6; Athen. p. 234 ; Achelous brings down from the mountains an Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 35, seq.) | immense quantity of earthy particles, which have
ACHARRAE, a town of Thessaly in the district formed a number of small islands at its mouth, Thessaliotis, on the river Pamisus, mentioned only which belong to the group anciently called Echiby Livy (xxxii. 13), but apparently the same place nades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is as the Acharne of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16).
only alluvial deposition. [ECHINADES.] (Leake, ACHA'TES ('Axárns), a small river in Sicily, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. noticed by Silius Italicus for the remarkable clear- 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in ness of its waters (perlucentem splendenti gurgite Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries Achaten, xir. 228), and by various other writers as of the Achelous were:-on its left, the CAMPYLUS the place where agates were found, and from whence (Kautúdos, Diod. xix. 67: Medghova), a river of they derived the name of " lapis Achates," which considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the they have retained in all modern languages. It has | territory of the Dryopes and Eurytanes, and the been identified by Cluverius (followed by most mo- | CYATHUS (Kvados, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowdern geographers) with the river Dirillo, a small | ing out of the lake Hyrie into the main stream just stream on the s. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles E. of above Conope: -- on its right the PETITARUS (Liv. Terranova, which is indeed remarkable for the clear- xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the ANAPUS ("Avanos), ness of its waters: but Pliny, the only author who which fell into the main stream in Acarnania 80 affords any clue to its position, distinctly places the / stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)