صور الصفحة

ciura to Tiviscum, probably near Sofia or Station, on the river Nero. [P. S.]

AKCOBRI'GA CApK6epiya, Ptol. ii. 6. §58: Arcobrigenses, Plin. Hi. 3. s. 4: Arcos), a stipendiary city of the Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis, between Segontia and Aquae Bilbitanorum, on the high road from Emerita to Caesaraugusta. (/tin. Ant. pp. 437, 438.) [P. S.]

ARCONNE'SUS ('ApKoVnio-os), a small island of Caria, near to the mainland, and south of Halicarnassus. It is now called Orak Ada. When Alexander besieged Halicamassus, some of the inhabitants fled to this island. (Arrian, Anab. i. 23; Strabo, p. 656; Chart of the Prom, of Ilaliearnassta, <fc., in Beaufort'sKaramania; Hamilton,Researches,\\.34.)

Strabo (p. 643) mentions an island, Aspis, between Tcos and Lebedus, and he adds that it was also called Arconnesus. Chandler, who saw the island from the mainland, says that it is called Carabash. Barbie* du Bocage (Translation of Chandler's Travels, i. p. 422) says that it is called in the charts Sainte-Euphemie. This seems to be the island Macris of Livy (xxxvii. 28), for he describes it as opposite to the promontory on which Myonnesos was situated. Cramer (Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 355) takes Macris to be a different island from Aspis. [G. L.]

ARDABDA, ARDAUDA ('ApSaSSa, 'ApSauoa), signifying the city of Hie seven gods, was the name given by the Aluni or the Tauri to tho city of Theodosia on the Tauric Chersonese. (Anon. Peripl. Pont. Eux. p. 5.) [P. S.]

ARDANIS or ARDANIA ('AptavU &cpa, PtoL iv. 5. § 2; Peripl.; 'Apbavia, Strab. i. p. 40, corrupted into 'Apfiavdtrif, xvii. p. 838: Ras~al~Milhr), a low promontory, with a roadstead, on the N. coast of Africa, in that part of Marmarica which belonged to Cyrene, between Pctra Magna and Menelaus Portus; at the point where the coast suddenly falls off to the S. before the commencement of the Catabathmus Magnus. [P. S.J

A'RDEA('ApS«a: Eth. 'ApJedVijs, Ardcas, -Stis), a very, ancient city of Latium, still called Ardea, situated on a small river about 4 miles from the seacoast, and 24 miles S. of Rome. Pliny and Mela reckon it among the maritime cities of Latium: Strabo and Ptolemy more correctly place it inland, but the former greatly overstates its distance from the sea at 70 stadia. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Mela, ii. 4; Strab. v. p. 232; Ptol. iii. 1. § 61.) All ancient writers agree in representing it as a city of great antiquity, and in very early times one of the most wealthy and powerful in this part of Italy. Its foundation was ascribed by some writers to a son of Ulysses and Circe (Xenag. ap. Dion. Hal. i. 72; Steph. B. v. 'ApSta); but the more common tradition, followed by Virgil as well as by Pliny and Solinus, represented it as founded by Danae, the mother of Perseus. Both accounts may be considered as pointing to a Pelasgic origin; and Niebuhr regards it as the capital or chief city of the Pelasgian portion of the Latin nation, and considers the name of its king Turnus as connected with that of the Tyrrhenians. (Virg. Aen. viL 410; Plin. I c; Solin. 2. § 5; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 44, vol. ii. p. 21.) It appears in the legendary history of Aeneas as the capital of the Rutuli, a people who had disappeared or become absorbed into the Latin nation before the commencement of the historical period: but their king Tumus is represented as dependent on Latinus, though holding a separate sovereignty. The tradition mentioned by Livy (xxi. 7), that the Ardeans

bad united with the Zacynthians in the foundation of Saguntum in Spain, also points to the early power and prosperity ascribed to the city. In the historical period Ardea had become a purely Latin city, and its name appears among the thirty which constituted the Latin League. (Dion. Hal. v. 61.) According to the received history of Rome, it was besieged by Tarquinius Superbus, and it was during this longprotracted siege that the events occurred which led to the expulsion of this monarch. (Liv. i. 57—60; Dion. Hal. iv. 64.) But though we are told that, in consequence of that revolution, a truce for 15 years was concluded, and Ardea was not taken, yet it appears immediately afterwards in the first treaty with Carthage, as one of the cities then subject to Rome. (Pol. iii. 22.) It is equally remarkable that though the Roman historians speak in high terms of the wealth and prosperity it then enjoyed (Liv. i. 57), it seems to have from this time sunk into comparative insignificance, and never appears in history as taking a prominent part among the cities of Latium. The next mention we find of it is on occasion of a dispute with Aricia for possession of the vacant territory of Corioli, which was referred by the consent of the two cities to the arbitration of the Romans, who iniquitously pronounced the disputed lands to belong to themselves. (Liv. iii. 71, 72.) Notwithstanding this injury, the Ardeates were induced to renew their friendship and alliance with Rome: and, shortly after, their city being agitated by internal dissensions between the nobles and plebeians, the former called in the assistance of tbe Romans, with whose aid they overcame the popular party and their Volscian allies. But these troubles and the expulsion of a large number of the defeated party had reduced Ardea to a low condition, and it was content to receive a Roman colony for its protection against the Volscians, B.C. 442. (Liv. ir. 7, 9, 11; Diod. xii. 34.) In the legendary history of Camillus Ardea plays an important part: it afforded him an asylum in his exile; and the Ardeates are represented as contributing greatly to the very apocryphal victories by which the Romans are said to have avenged themselves on the Gauls. (Liv. v. 44, 48; Pint. CamUl. 23, 24.)

From this time Ardea disappears from history as an independent city; and no mention of it is found on occasion of the great final struggle of the Latins against Rome in n. c. 340. It appears to have gradually lapsed into the condition of an ordinary "Coloma Latina," and was one of the twelve which in B. c. 209 declared themselves unable to bear any longer their share of the burthens cast on them by the Second Punic War. (Liv. xxvii. 9.) We may hence presume that it was then already in a declining state; though on account of the strength of its position, we find it selected in B.C. 186 as the place of confinement of Minius Cerrinius, one of the chief persons implicated in the Bacchanalian mysteries. (Liv. xxxix. 19.) It afterwards suffered severely, in common with the other cities of this part of Latinm, from the ravages of the Samnites during the cavil wars between Marins and Sulla: and Strabo speaks of it in his time as a poor decayed place. Virgil also tells us that there remained of Ardea only a great name, but its fortune was past away. (Strab. v. p. 232; Virg. Aen. vii. 413; SiL Ital. i. 291.) The unhealthiness of its situation and neighbourhood, noticed by Strabo and various other writers (Strab. p. 231; Seneca, Ep. 105; Martial, iv. 60), doubtless contributed to its decay; and Juvenal tell* us that in his time the tame elephants belonging to the emperor were kept in the territory of Ardea (xii. 105); a proof that it must hare been then, as at the present day, in great part uncultivated. We find mention of a redistribution of its " ager" by Hadrian (Lib. Colon, p. 231), which would indicate an attempt at its revival, — but the effort seems to have been unsuccessful: no farther mention of it occurs in history, and the absence of almost all inscriptions of imperial date confirms the fact that it had sunk into insignificance. It probably, however, never ceased to exist, as it retained its name unaltered, and a " castellnm Ardeae " is mentioned early in the middle ages,—probably, like the modem town, occupying the ancient citadel. (Nibby, vol. i. p. 231.)

The modern village of Ardea (a poor place with only 176 inhabitants, and a great castellated man* siou belonging to the Dukes of Cesarini) occupies the level surface of a hill at the confluence of two narrow valleys: this, which evidently constituted the ancient An or citadel, is joined by a narrow neck to a much broader and more extensive plateau, on which stood the ancient city. No vestiges of this exist (though the site is still called by the peasants Civita Vecchia); but on the NE., where it is again joined to the table-land beyond, by a narrow isthmus, is a vast mound or Agger, extending across from valley to valley, and traversed by a gateway in its centre; while about half a mile further is another similar mound of equal dimensions. These ramparts were probably the only regular fortifications of the city itself; the precipitous banks of tufo rock towards the valleys on each side needing no additional defence. The citadel was fortified on the side towards the city by a double fosse or ditch, hewn in the rock, as well as by massive walls, large portions of which are still preserved, as well as of those which crowned the crest of the cliffs towards the valleys. They are built of irregular square blocks of tufo: but some portions appear to have been rebuilt in later times. (Gell, Top. of Some, pp. 97—100; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 233—240.) There exist no other remains of any importance: nor can the sites be traced of the ancient temples, which continued to be objects of veneration to the Romans when Ardea had already fallen into decay. Among these Pliny particularly mentions a temple of Juno, which was adorned with ancient paintings of great merit; for the execution of which the painter (a Greek artist) was rewarded with the freedom of the city* In another passage he speaks of paintings in temples at Ardea (probably different from the above), which were believed to be more ancient than the foundation of Rome. (Plin. xxxv. 3. s. 6, 10. s. 37.) Besides these temples in the city itself, Strabo tells us that there was in the neighbourhood a temple of Venus ('A^>poSfo-u>i'), where the Latins annually assembled for a great festival This is evidently the spot mentioned by Pliny and Mela in a manner that would have led us to suppose it a town of the name of Afubodisiuh; its exact site is unknown, but it appears to have been between Ardea and Antinm,

* Concerning the name and origin of the painter, which are written in the common editions of Pliny

"Marcus Ludius Elotas Actolia oriundus," for which Sillig would substitute

"I'lantius Marcus CIcoetas Alalia exoriundus,'' see the art. Ludius, in Biogr. Diet., and Sillig's note on the passage, in his new edition of Pliny. But his emendation Alalia is scarcely tenable.

and not far from the sea-coast (Strab. v. p. 232; Plin. iii. 5, 9; Mela, ii. 4.)

The Via Abdeattna, which led direct from Rome to Ardea, is mentioned in the Cwioswn Vrbis (p. 28, ed. Preller) among the roads which issued from the gates of Rome, as well as by Festus (v Retricibut, p. 282, M. ; Inscr. op. Crater, p. 1139. 12). It quitted the Via Appia at a short distance from Rome, and passed by the farms now called Tor Narancia, Cicckignola, and Tor di Nona (so called from its position at the ninth mile from Rome) to the Solfarata, 15 R. miles from the city: a spot where there is a pool of cold sulphureous water, partly surrounded by a rocky ridge. There is no doubt that this is the source mentioned by Vitruvius (' Fons in Ardeatino/ viii. 3) as analogous to the Aquae Albulae; and it is highly probable that it is the site also of the Oracle of Faunus, so picturesquely described by Virgil (Aen. vii. 81). This has been transferred by many writers to the source of the Albula, but the locality in question agrees much better with the description in Virgil, though it has lost much of its gloomy character, since the wood has been cleared away; and there is no reason why Albunea may not have had a shrine here as well as at Tibur. (See Gell. /. c. p. 102; Nibby, j vol. ii. p. 102.) From the Solfarata to Ardea the ancient road coincides with the mndern one: at the church of Sta Procula, 4 J miles from Ardea, it crosses the Rio Torto, probably the ancient Nuraicius. [numicius.] No ancient name is preserved for the stream which flows by Ardea itself, now called the Fosto dell Incastro. The actual distance from Rome to Ardea by this road is nearly 24 miles; it is erroneously stated by Strabo at 160 stadia (20 R miles), while Eutropius (i. 8) calls it only 18 miles. [E. H. B.]

ATtDEA ("ApSta), a town in the interior of Persis, S.W. of Persepolis. (Ptoh xi. 4. § 5; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.) [V-]

ARDELICA, a town of Gallia Transpadana, which occupied the site of the modern Peschiera, at the SE. angle of the Lacus Benacus {Logo di Gordo), just where the Mincius issued from the lake. The name is found under the corrupted form Ariolica in the Tab. Peat.,, which correctly places it between Brixia and Verona; the true form is preserved by inscriptions, from one of which we leant that it was a trading place, with a corporation of ship-owners, "collegium naviculariorum Ardelicensium." (Orell. Inter. 4108.) [E. H. B.]

ARDETTUS. [athehae.] ARDERICCA ('ApJepucxo), a small place in Assyria on the Euphrates abovo Babylon (Herod, i. 185), about which the course of the Euphrates was made very tortuous by artificial cuts. The passage of Herodotus is unintelligible to us, and the site of Ardericca unknown.

Herodotus (vi. 119) gives the same name to another place in Cissia to which Darius, the son of Hystaspes, removed the captives of Eretria. It was, according to Herodotus, 210 stadia from Susa (Sus), and 40 stadia from the spring from which were got asphalt, salt, and oil. [G. L.]

ARDIAEI ('Ap8ra«>i), an Illyrian people mentioned by Strabo, probably inhabited Mt. Ardion, which the same geographer describes as a chain of mountains running through the centre of Dulmatia. (Strab. vii. p. 315.)

ARDOBRI'CA (Coruiia), a sea-port town of the Artabri, in the NW. of Spain, on the great gulf called Port us Artabrorum (.Bay of Cortina and Ferrol). The above is probably the right form of the name, bat the HSS. differ greatly. (Mela, iii. 1. § 9.) [P. S.1

AKDUENNA ('ApJoiWu t\n: Ardennes), the largest forest in Gallia in Caesar's time. (B. 0. v. 3, vi. 29, 33.) He describes it in one passage as extending from the Rhine, through the midst of the territory of the Treviri, to the borders of the territory of the Bemi; and in another passage as extending from the banks of the Rhine and the borders of the Treviri more than 500 Roman miles to the Nervii. From a third passage we may collect that he supposed it to extend to the Scaldis, Schelde. Accordingly it was included in the country of the Belgae D'Anville conjectures that the reading of Caesar, instead of "millibusque amplius 10 in longitudinem," should be CL. Orosius (vi. 10), who is here copying Caesar, has " plus quam quingenta millia passuum" (cd. Haverkamp); but the old editions, according to D'Anville, have L instead of ID. Strabo (p. 194) says that the Arduenna is a forest, not of lofty trees; an extensive forest, but not so large as those describe it who make it 4,000 stadia, that is, 500 Roman miles, or exactly what the text of Caesar has. (See Groskurd's Translation, vol. i. p. 335, and his note.) It seems, then, that Strabo must then be referring to what he found in Caesar's Commentaries. He makes the Arduenna include the country of the Morini, Atrebates, and Eburones, and consequently to extend to the North Sea on the west, and into the Belgian province of Liege on the north.

The dimensions of 500 Roman miles is a great error, and it is hardly possible that Caesar made the -mistake. The error is probably due to his copyists. The direct distance from Coblenz, the most eastern limit that we can give to the Arduenna, to the source of the Sambre, is not above 200 Roman miles; and the whole distance from Coblenz to the North Sea, measured past the sources of the Sambre, is not much more than 300 miles. The Arduenna comprehended part of the Prussian territory west of the Rhine, of the duchy of Luxembourg, of the French department of Ardennes, to which it gives name, and a small part of the south of Belgium. It is a rugged country, hilly, but not mountainous.

The name Arduenna appears to be descriptive, and may mean " forest." A woodland tract in Warwickshire is still called Arden. It was once a large forest, extending from the Trent to the Severn. [G. L.]

ARDYES ("Allies), a tribe of Celtae, whom Polybius (iii. 47) places in the upper or northern valley of the Rhone, as he colls it. His description clearly applies to the Valais, down which the Rhone flows to the Lake of Geneva. In the canton of Valais there is a village still called Ardon in the division of the Valais, named Gontey. [G. L.]

AREA, or ARIA. [aretias.]

AREBRIGIUM, a town or village of the Salassi, mentioned only in the Itineraries, which place it on the road from Augusta Praetoria to the pass of the Graian Alps, 25 M. P. from the former city. (Itin. Ant. pp. 345, 347; Tab. Pent.) This distance coincides with the position of Pri St. Didier, a considerable village in an opening of the upper valley of Aotta, just where the great streams from the southern flank of Mont Blanc join the Dora, which descends from the Petit St. Bernard. As the first tolerably open space in the valley, it is supposed to have been the first halting-place of Hannibal after

his passage of the Graian Alps. (Wickham and Cramer, Pottage of Hannibal, p. 113, seq.) It is immediately at the foot of the Cramont, a mountain whose name is probably connected with CkeMonis Juoum. (Liv. xxL 38.) [E. H. B.]

ARECO'MICI. [volcae.]

AREtO'PAGUS. [athehae.]

ARELA'TE (also Arelatum, Arelas, 'AptXirai: Eth. Arelatensis: Arlei), a city of the Provincia or Gallia Narbonensis, first mentioned by Caesar (B. C. L 36, ii. 5), who had some ships built there for the siege of Massilia. The place is situated on the left bank of the Rhone, where the river divides into two branches. It was connected by roads with Valentia (Faience), with Massilia (Marseille); with Forum Julii (Frijus), with Barcino in Spain (Barcelona); and with other places. This city is supposed to be the place called Theline in the Ora Marilima (v. 679) of Festus Avicnns; and as Theline appears to be a significant Greek term (dn*^), D'Anville (tTotice, &c, Arelate), and others found a confirmation of the name of Avienus in a stone discovered near Aries, with the inscription Mammillaria; but the stone is a mile-stone, and the true reading on it is "Mossil. Milliar. I.", that is, the first mile stone on the way from Arelate to Massilia; a signal instance of the blunders which may be made by trusting to careless copies of inscriptions, and to false etymologies (Walckenaer, Geog. da Gaulcs). Arelate was in the country of the Salyes, after whoee conquest by the Romans (b. C. 123), wo may suppose that the place fell under their dominion. It became a Roman colony, apparently in the time of Augustus, with the name of Sextani attached to it, in consequence of some soldiers of the sixth legion being settled there (Plin. iii. 4); and this name is confirmed by an inscription. Another inscription gives it also the cognomen Julia. In Strabo's time (p. 181) it was the centre of considerable trade, and Mela (ii. 5) mentions Arelate as one of the chief cities of Gallia Narbonensis. The place was improved by Constantine, and a new town was built, probably by him, opposite to the old one, on the other side of the stream; and from this circumstance Arelate was afterwards called Constantino, as it is said. Ausonius ( Urb. NobiL viii.) accordingly calls Arelate duplex, and speaks of the bridge of boats on the river. The new city of Constantine was on the site of the present suburb of Trinqvetaille, in the island of La Camargue, which is formed by the bifurcation of the Rhone at Aries. Arelate was the residence of the praefect of Gallia in the time of Honorius; and there was a mint in the city.

The Roman remains of Arlet are very numerous. An obelisk of Egyptian granite was found buried with earth some centuries ago, and it was set up in 1675 in one of the squares. It seems that the obelisk had remained on the spot where it was originally landed, and had never been erected by the Romans. The amphitheatre of Aries is not so perfect as that of Nemausus (Nimes), but the dimensions are much larger. It is estimated that it was capable of containing at least 20,000 persons. The larger diameter of the amphitheatre is 466 feet. A part of the old cemetery, Campus Elysius, now Elitcampt, contains ancient tombs, both Pagan and Christian. [G. L.]

AREMORICA. [armorica.]

ARENACUM, is mentioned by Tacitu3 (Hist. v. 20) as the station of the tenth legion, when Civilis attacked the Romans at Arenacum, Batavodurura, and other places. Some geographers have identified Arenacum with Arnheim, but D'Anville and Walckenaer place it at Aert near Heraen. In the Antonine Itin., on the road from Lugdunum (Leiden), to Argentoratum (Strassburg), the fifth place from Lugdunum, not including Lngdunum, is Harenatio, which is the same as Arenacum. The next place on the route is Bnrginatio. Bnrginatio also follows Arenatio in the Table; but the place before Arenatio in the Table is Noviomagus (Nimegen); in the Itin. the station which precedes Harenatio is Carvo (Rhenen), as it is supposed. It is certain that Arenatio is not Arnheim. [G. L.] ARENAE MONTES, according to the common text of Pliny (iii. 1. s. 3), are the sand-hills (Arenas Gardas) along the coast of Hispania Baetica, NW. of the mouth of the Baetis. But Sillig adopts, from some of the best MSS., the reading Mariani Montes. [marianus.] [P. S.]

ARE'NE ('Ap^n)), a town mentioned by Homer as belonging to the dominions of Nestor, and situated near the spot where the Minyeins flows into the sea. (Horn. II. ii. 591, xi. 723.) Italso occurs in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (423), in conjunction with other towns on the western coast of Peloponnesus. According to Pausanias (iv. 2. § 4, 3. § 7), it was built by Aphareus, who called it after Arene, both his wife and his sister by the same mother. It was commonly supposed in later times that Arene occupied the site of Samos or Samia in Triphylia, near the month of the Anigrus, which was believed to be the same as the Minyeins. (Strab. viii. p. 346; Paus. v. 6. § 2.)

AREON CApfi*!"), a small stream in Persia. (Arrian, Indie. 38.) [V.]

AREOPOLIS, identical with Ar of Moab. 8. Jerome explains the name to be compounded of the Hebrew word (TJ? Ar or Ir) signifying "city " and its Greek equivalent (»<SAis), "non ut plerique existimant qnod 'Afxoi, i. e. Martis, civitas sit" (in Jos. xv.). He states that the walls of this city were shaken down by an earthquake in his infancy (circ A. T>. 315). It was situated on the south side of the River Arsox, and was not occupied by the Israelites (Devi. ii. 9, 29; Euseb. Onomast. sub voc. 'ApvtMiv'). Burkhardt suggests that its site may be marked by the ruined tank near Mthatct-el-Haj, a little to the south of the Arnon (p. 374). [G. W.J

ARETHU'SA. 1. ('Ao«flouo-a: Eth. 'Apteowrior, Arethusius, Plin. v. 23), a city of Syria, not far from Apamea, situated between Epiphania and Emesa. (Anton. Itin.; Hierocles.) Selencus Nicator, in pursuance of his usual policy, Hellenized the name. (Appian, Syr. 57.) It supported Caecilius Bassus in his revolt (Strab. p. 753), and is mentioned by Zosimus (i. 52) as receiving Auretian in his campaign against Zenobia. (For Marcus, the well-known bishop of Arethusa, see Diet, of Biog. s.».) It afterwards took the name of liastan (Abulf. Tab. Syr. p. 22), under which name it is mentioned by the same author (An. Mus. ii. 213, iv. 429). Irby and Mangles visited this place, and found some remains (p. 254).

2. (Nazuk), a lake of Armenia, through which the Tigris flows, according to Pliny (vi. 31). He describes the river as flowing through the lake without any intermixture of the waters. Ritter (ErdJcunde, vol. x. pp. 85, 90, 101; comp. Kinneir, Travels, p. 383) identifies it with the lake Naziik, which is about 13 miles in length, and 5 in breadth at the centre. The water is stated to be sweet and

wholesome, which does not correspond with the account of Pliny. [E. B. J.]

3. A fountain at Syracuse. [sybacusae.]

4. A fountain close to Chalcis in Euboea, which was sometimes disturbed by volcanic agency. Dicaearchus says that its water was so abundant as to be sufficient to supply the whole city with water. (Dicaearch. Blot T^j 'EAArftet, p. 146, ed. Fuhr; Strab. i. p. 58, x. p. 449; Eurip. Iphig. in AuL 170; Plin. iv. 12.) There were tame fish kept in this fountain. (Athen.viiL p. 331, e. f.) Leake says that this celebrated fountain has now totally disappeared. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 255.)

5. A fountain in Ithaca. [ithaca.]

6. A town of Bisaltia in Macedonia, in the pass of Anion, a little N. of Bromiscus, and celebrated for containing the sepulchre of Euripides. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4; Itin. Hierosol. p. 604; Leake, Northern Greece, voL iii. p. 170.) We learn from Scylax (c. 67) that it was an ancient Greek colony. It was probably founded by the Chalcidians of Euboea, who may have called it after the celebrated fountain in the neighbourhood of their city. Stephanas B. (s. v.) erroneously calls it a city of Thrace. It was either from this place or from Bromiscus that the fortified town of Rentinc arose, which is frequently mentioned by the Byzantine historians. (Tafel, Thessalonica, p. 68.)

ARE'TIAS ("ApwrHtt), a small island on the coast of Pontus, 30 stadia east of Fhamacia (Kerasuni), called "A/xos vrjaos by Scymnns (Stcph. B. s. v. "hpeos VTjaos) and Scylax. Here (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 384) the two queens of the Amazons, Otrere and Antiope, built a temple to Ares. Mela (ii. 7) mentions this place under the name of Area or Aria, an island dedicated to Mars, in the neighbourhood of Colchis. Aretias appears to be the rocky islet called by the Turks Kerasunt Ada, which is between 3 and 4 miles from Kerasunt. "The rock is a black volcanic breccia, with imbedded fragments of trap, and is covered in many places with broken oystershells brought by gulls and sea-birds." (Hamilton, Researches, i. 262.) This may explain the legend of the terrible birds that frequented this spot. Pliny (vi. 12) gives to the island also the name of Chalceritis. [G. L.]

ARETIAS. [abias.]

ATtEVA, a tributary of the river Durius, in Hispania Tarraconensis, from which the Arevaci derived their name. It is probably the Ucero, which flows from N. to S., a little W. of 3° W. long., and falls into the Douro S. of Osma, the ancient Uxama. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4.) [P. S.]

ARE'VACI, ARETACAE ('AptouAcoi, Strab. iii. p. 162; Ptol. ii. 6. § 56; 'Apaueotol, Pol. xxxv. 2; 'ApovaKol, Appian. Bisp. 45, 46), the most powerful of the four tribes of the Celtdberi in Hispania Tarraconensis, S. of the Pelendones and Berimes, and N. of the Carpetani. They extended along the upper course of the Durius, from the Pistoraca, as far as the sources of the Tagus. Pliny (iii. 3. s. 4) assigns to them six towns, Segontia, Uxama, Segovia, Nova Augusta,Termes, and Clunia, on the borders of the Celtiberi. Numantia, which Pliny assigns to the Pelendones, is mentioned by other writers as the chief city of the Arevaci. [nuMantia.] Strabo, Ptolemy, and other writers also mention Lagni, Malia, Serguntia or Sargantha, Ccsada, Colenda, Miacnm, Pallantia, Segida, Arbace, Confluenta, Tncris, Veluca, and Setortialacta. The Arevaci were distinguished for their valour in tho Celtiberian or Numantine war (b. C. 143—133) and especially for the defence of Numantia. (Strab., Polyb., Appian., II. cc.) [P. S.]

ARGAEUS (^Apyaws; Argish, or Erjish Dagh), a lofty mountain in Cappadocia, at the foot of which was Mazaca. It is, says Strabo (p. 538), always covered with snow on the summit, and those who ascend it (and they are few) say that on a clear day they can see from the top both the Euxine and the hay of Issus. Cappadocia, he adds, is a woodless country, but there arc forests round the ba.se of Argaeus. It is mentioned by Claudian. (In Ruf. ii. 30.) It lias been doubted if the summit of the mountain can be reached; but Hamilton (Researches, ii. 274) reached the highest attainable point, above " which is a ma*s of rock with steep perpendicular sides, rising to a height of 20 or 25 feet above the ridge/' on which he stood. The state of the weather did not enable him to verify Strabo's remark about the two seas, but he doubts if they can be seen, on account of the high mountains which intervene to the N. and the S. He estimates the height above the sea-level at about 13,000 feet. Argaeus is a volcanic mountain. It is the culminating point in Asia Minor of the range of Taurus, or rather of that part which is called Antitaurus. [G. L.]

ARGANTHO'NIUS (7Apyav0t&yios, 'Apyat4Avf Steph.5.r. 'Apyavdwv. Adj. 'Apyaydwvaos), a mountain range in Bithynia, which forms a peninsula, and divides the gulfs of Cius and Astacus. The range terminates in a headland which Ptolemy calls Posidium; the modern name is Kaiirli, according to some authorities, and Bozburun according to others. The name is connected with the mythus of Hylas and the Argonautic expedition. (Strab. p. 564; "jtpoll. Rhod. i. 1176.) [G. L.]

AKGA'RICUS SINUS (Polk's Bag), a large bay of India intra Gangem, opposite to the island of Taprobane (Ceyloti), between the promontory of Cory on the S., and the city of Curula on the N., with a city upon it named Argara or Argari. (Ptol. i. 13. § 1, vii. 1. § 96; Arrian. Peripl.) [P. S.]

ARGEIA, ARGEH. [argos.]

ARGENNUM ('Apy*wovt 'Apyivov, Thucyd. viii. 34), a promontory of the territory of Erythrae, the nearest point of the mainland to Posidium in Chios, and distant 60 stadia from it. The modern name is said to be called Cap Blanc. [G. L.]

ARGENOMESCI or ORGENOMESCI, a tribe of the Cantabri, on the N. coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, with a city Argenomescum (prob. Argomedo), and a harbour Vereasueca (prob. P. S. Martin, Plin. iv. 20. s. 34; Ptol. ii. 6. § 51). [P.S.]

ARGENTARIA (Amra. Marc. xxxi. 10; Oros. vii. 33; Aur. Vict. Epil. c. 47), also called ARGENTOVARIA, may be ArtzenJieim in the old province of Alsace, between the Vosges and the Rhine. D'Anville (Notice, tfc), in an elaborate article on Argentovaria, founded on the Antonine Itin. and the Table, has come to this probable conclusion as to the site of Argentaria. Gmtiau defeated the Alemanni at Argentaria, A.D. 378. [G. L.]

ARGENTA'RIUS MONS, a remarkable mountain-promontory on the coast of Etruria, still called Monte Argentaro. It is formed by an isolated mass of mountains about 7 miles in length and 4 in breadth, which is connected with the mainland only by two narrow strips of sand, the space between which forms an extensive lagune. Its striking form and appearance are well described by Rutilius (Itin, L 315—324); but it is remarkable that no mention

of its name is found in any earlier writer, though it is certainly one of the most remarkable physics] features on the coast of Etruria. Strabo, however, notices the adjoining lagune (Ai/wMtarrr*), and the existence of a station for the tunny fishery by the promontory (v. p. 225), but without giving tlie name of the latter. At its south-eastern extremity was the small but well-sheltered port mentioned by ancient writers under the name of PoRTrs HercitLis ('HpofcAf'ow Mphv, Strab. I c; RutiL i. 293), and still known as Porto dErcole. Besides this, the Maritime Itinerary mentions another port to which it gives the name of Incitaria, which must probably be the one now known as Porto S. Stefano, formed by the northern extremity of the headland; but the distances given are corrupt. (Itin. Marit, p. 499.) The name of Mons Argentarius points to the existence here of silver mines, of which it is said that some remains may be still discovered. £E. H. B.]

ARGENTA'RIUS MONS (Avien. Or. Marit. 291; 'Apyvpovw Spot, Strab. iii. p. 148), that part of M. Orospeda in the S. of Spain in which the Baetis took its rise; so called from its silver mines. (Comp. Steph. B. *. v. Tapr-noo-6s; Pans. vi. 19.) Bochart {Phaleg. i. 34, p. 601) agrees with Strabo in supposing that the word Orospeda had the same sense as argentarius. [P. S.]

ARGENTEUS, a river of Gallia Narbonentis, mentioned by Aemilius Lepidus in a letter to Cicero, B. c. 43 (ad Fam. x. 34). Lepidus says that he had fixed his camp there to oppose the force of M. Antonius : he dates his letter from the camp at the Pons Argentcus. The Argenteus is the river Argents, which enters the sea a little west of Forum Julii (Frejus); and the Pons Argentcus lay on the Roman road between Forum Voconii (Canet)j as some suppose, and Forum Julii.

Pliny (iii. 4) seems to make the Argenteus flow past Forum Julii, which is not quite exact; or he may mean that it was within the territory of that Colonia. The earth brought down by the Argentcus has pushed the land out into the sea near 3,000 feet. Walckenaer (Geog. des Gaules}&c ii. 10) thinks that theArgentcus of Ptolemy cannot be the Argenteus of Cicero, because Ptolemy places it too near OHria. He concludes that the measures of Ptolemy carry us to the coast of Argentiere, and the small river of that name. But it is more likely that the error is in the measures of Ptolemy. A modern writer has conjectured that the name Argenteus was given to this river on account of the great quantity of mica in the bed of the stream, which has a silvery appearance. [G. L.] ARGENTEA REGIO. [india.] ARGENTE'OLUM (It, Ant. p. 423; 'Apy**Tf'oAo, Ptol. ii. 6. § 28: Toriemo or Torneraff), a town of the Astures in Hispania Tarraconen;i*s 14 M. P. south of Asturica. [P. S.]

ARGENTOMAGUS (Argenton), a place in Gaul, which seems to be identified by the modern name, and by the routes in tho Antonine Itin. ArgatUn is SW. of Bourges, and in the department of Sndre, The form Argantomagus does not appear to be correct. [G. L.]

ARGENTORATUM, or ARGENTORATUS (Amm. Marc. xv. 11: Strassburg on the Rhin*\ is first mentioned by Ptolemy. The position is well ascertained by the Itineraries. It has the name of Stratisburgium in the Geographer of Ravenna and Strataburgum in the Notitia, Kith»rd, who wrote in the ninth century (quoted by D'Anville

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