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A DICTIONARY

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GREEK AND ROMAN GEOGRAPHY.

ABACAENUM.

ABACAENUM ('Aginum?, Diod., Steph Byz.: ASaxaira, Ptol.: Eth. 'ASaKatva'os; nr. Tripi, Ru.), & city of Sicily, situated about 4 miles from the N. coast, between Tyndaris and Mylae, and 8 from the former city. It was a city of the Sicnli, and does not appear to have ever received a Greek colony, though it partook largely of the influence of Greek art and civilisation. Its territory originally included that of Tyndaris, which was separated from it by the elder Dionysius when he founded that city in B. c. 396 (Diod. xiv. 78). From the way in which it is mentioned in the wars of Dionysios, Agafhocles, and liieron (Diod. xir. 90, xix. 65, 110, xxii. Exc. Hoeschel. p. 499), it is clear that it was a place of power and importance : but from the time of Hieron it disappears from history, and no. mention is found of it m the Verrine orations of Cicero. Its name is, however, found in Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 12), so that it appears to have still continued to exist in his day. Its decline was probably owing to the increasing prosperity of the neighbouring city of Tyndaris.

There can be little doubt that the ruins visible in the time of Fazello, at the foot of the hill on which the modern town of Tripi is situated, were those of Abacaenum. He speaks of fragments of masonry, prostrate columns, and the vestiges of walls, indicating the site of a large city, but which had been destroyed to its foundations. The locality does not seem to have been examined by any more recent traveller. (Fazellus, da Reb. Sic. ix. 7; Cluver. Sicil. Ant. p. 386.)

There are found coins of Abacaenum, both in silver and copper. The boar and acorn, which are the common type of the former, evidently refer to the great forests of oak which still cover the neighbouring mountains, and afford pasture to large herds of swine. [E.H.B.]

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ABALUS.

temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence derived the surname of Abacus. So celebrated was this oracle, that it was consulted both by Croesus and by Mardonius. Before the Persian invasion the temple was richly adorned with treasuries and votive offerings. It was twice destroyed by fire; the first time by the Persians in their march through Phocis (b. C. 480), and a second time by the Boeotians in the Sacred or Phocian war (b. C. 346). Hadrian caused -a smaller temple to be built near the ruins of the former one. In the new temple there were three ancient statues in brass of Apollo, Lite, and Artemis, which had been dedicated by the Abaci, and had perhaps been saved from the former temple. The ancient agora and the ancient theatre still existed in the town in the time of Pausanias. According to the statement of Aristotle, as preserved by Strabo, Thracians from the Phocian town of Abae emigrated to Euboea, and gave to the inhabitants the name of Abantes. The ruins of Abae are on a peaked hill to the W. of Exarkho. There are now no remains on the summit of the peak; but the walls and some of the gates may still be traced on the SW. side. There are also remains of the walls, which formed the inclosnre of the temple. (Paus. x.35; Herod, i. 46, Tin. 134, 33; Diod. xvi. 530; Strab. pp. 423, 445; Steph. Byz. ». v.; Gell, Itinerary, p. 226; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 163, seq.)

ABA'LLABA, a Roman castle in Britannia Inferior, whose site is unknown. It is mentioned in the Notitia Imperii as the quarters of a troop of Numidian horse (Mauri Aureliani) in the 3rd century A. D. Antiquaries refer it to Appleby on the Eden, and its name, containing the Celtic word Avon, water, indicates its position near a stream. Watchcrott in Cumberland also claims to bo the ancient Aballaba. It was certainly, however, one of the forts upon the rampart erected by Hadrian in A.D. 120, between the rivers Esk and Tyne, to protect the province of Britain from the incursions of the Caledonians. [W. B. D.]

ABALUS, was said by Pytheas to be an island in the northern ocean, upon which amber was washed by the waves, distant a day's sail from the aestuary called Mentonomon, on which the Gothones dwelt. This island was called Basilia by Timaeus, and Baltia by Xenophon of Lampsacus. It was probably a portion of the Prussian coast upon the Baltic. (Plin. xxxvii. 7. s. II; Diod. v. 23; Ukert, Geographic, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 33, seq.)

ABANTES, ABANTIS. [eudoka.j

ABA'NTIA. [amantia.]

A'BARIS, the fortified camp of the Hyksos during their occupation of Egypt. For details see Aeoyptus.

ABAS ("ASos), a river of Iberia in Asia, mentioned by Plutarch {Pomp. 35) and Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 3) as crossed by Pompcy, on his expedition into the Caucasian regions. Its courso was E. of the Cambyscs; and it seems to be tho same as the Alazonius or Alazon of Strabo and Pliny (Alasan, Alacks) which fell into the Cambyses just above its continence with the Cyrus. [P. S.]

ABASCI, ABASGI ('A&urW, 'Agaoyol), a Scythian people in the N. of Colchis, on the confines of Sarmatia Asiatica (within which they are sometimes included), on the Abascus or Abasgus, one of the small rivers flowing from the Caucasus into the NE. part of the Euxine. They carried on a considerable slave-trade, especially in beautiful boys, whom they sold to Constantinople for eunuchs. These practices were suspended for a time, on their nominal conversion to Christianity, during the reign of Justinian; but tho slave-trade in these regions was at least as old as the time of Herodotus (iii. 97), and has continued to the present tunc. (Arrian. I'cripl. Pont. Eux. p. 12; Procop. B. Goth. iv. 3, B. Pen. ii. 29; Stcph. B. t. v. iiryiyu.) [P.S.]

ABASCUS, ABASGUS. [abasci.]

A'BATOS, a rocky island in tho Nile, near Philae, which tho priests alone were permitted to enter. (Senec. Q. N. iv. 2; Lucan, x. 323.)

ABBASSUS or AMBASUM (Abbassus, Liv.; "A/iGao-ov, Stcph. B. s. v.: Eth. 'AjiS<nr(Ti)f), a town of Vhrygia, on tho frontiers of the Tolistoboii, in Galatia. (Liv. xxxviii. 15.) It is, perhaps, the same as the Alamassus of Hieroclcs, and the AmADassb of the Councils. (Hieroclcs, p. 678, with Wesseling's note.)

ABDE'RA. 1. (to "Mtitpa, also "Agoitpov or -oi; Abdcra, -orum, Liv. xlv. 29; Abdcra, -ae, Plin. xxv. 53: Eth. 'asstjpitiji, Abderites or -ita; Adj. 'asotjpitik6s, Abderiticus, Abdcritanus), a town upon the southern coast of Thrace, at some distance to the E. of the river Nestus. Herodotus, indeed, in one passage (vii. 126), speaks of the river as flowing through Abdcra (o 6V 'AfiSfywK ftuv Netrroy, but cf. c. 109, Kara "asstjoci). According to mythology, it was founded by Heracles in honour of his favourite Abderus. (Strab. p. 331.) History, however, mentions Timesius or Timesias of Clazomenae as its first founder. (Herod, i. 168.) His colony was unsuccessful, and he was driven out by the Thracians. Its date is fixed by Eusebius, B.C. 656. In B.C. 541, the inhabitants of Teos, unable to resist Harpagus, who had been left by Cyrus, after his capture of Sardis, to complete the subjugation of Ionia, and unwilling to submit to him, took ship and sailed to Thrace, and there recolonised Abdera. (Herod. I. c.; Scymnus Chius, 665; Strab. p. 644.) Fifty years afterwards, when Xerxes invaded Greece, Abdcra seems to have become a place of considerable importance, and is mentioned as one of the cities which had the expensive honour of entertaining the great king on his march into Greece. (Herod, vii. 120.) On his flight after the battle of Salamis, Xerxes stopped at Abdera, and acknowledged the hospitality of its inhabitants by presenting them with a tiara and scymitar of gold. Thucydides (ii. 97) mentions Abdcra as the westernmost limit of the kingdom of

the Odrysac when at its height at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. In B. c 408 Abdera was reduced under the power of Athens by Thrasybulus, then one of tho Athenian generals in that quarter. (Diod. xiii. 72.) Diodorus speaks of it as being then in a very flourishing state. The first blow to its prosperity was given in a war in which it was engaged B. c. 376 with tho Triballi, who had at this time become one of the most powerful tribes of Thrace. After a partial success, the Abderitae were nearly cut to pieces in a second engagement, but were rescued by Chabrias with an Athenian force. (Diod. xv. 36.) But little mention of Abdcra occurs after this. Pliny speaks of it as being in his time a free city (iv. 18). In later times it seems to have sunk into a place of small repute. It is said in the middle ages to have had the name of Polystylus. Dr. Clarke (Traveh, vol. iii. p. 422) mentions his having searched in vain on the cast bank; of the Nestus for any traces of Abdera, probably from imagining it to have stood close to the river.

Abdcra was the birthplace of several famous persons: among others, of the philosophers Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus. In spite of this, its inhabitants passed into a proverb for dullness and stupidity. (Juv. x. 50; Martial, x. 25. 4; Cic. ad Att. iv. 16, vii. 7.)

Mullets from Abdera were considered especial dainties (Athcn. p. 118). It was also famous for producing the cuttle-fish {Id. p. 324). [H. W.]

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COrN OF ABDEBA.

2. (rd "ACSupo, AtSripa, Strab.; "AgSopa, Ptol.; To "AiSrjpoVj Ephor. ap. Steph. B.: Eth. 'a€otjpirTjs: Adra or, according to some, Ahieria), a city of Hispania Baetica, on the S. coast, between Malaca and Carthago Nova, founded by the Carthaginians. (Strab. pp. 157, 8; Stcph. B. t.v.; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.) There are coins of the city, some of a very ancient period, with Phoenician characters, and others of the reign of Tiberius, from which the place appears to have been either a colony or a municipium. (Kasche,».r.;Eckhel,vol.i.p.l3.) [P S.]

ABELLA ('ASi'AAn, Strab., Ptol.: Eth. Abellanus, Inscr. ap. Orell. 3316, Avellanus, Plin.: AveUa Vecchia), a city in the interior of Campania, about 5 miles NE. of Nola. According to Justin (xx. 1), it was a Greek city of Chalcidic origin, which would lead us to suppose that it was a colony of Cumae: but at a later period it had certaiidy become an Oscan town, as well as the neighbouring city of Nola. No mention of it is found in history, though it must have been at one tune a place of importance. Strabo and Pliny both notice it among the inland towns of Campania; and though wo learn from the Liber de Cohniis, that Vespasian settled a number of liis freedmen and dependants there, yet it appears, both from that treatise and from Pliny, that it had not then attained the rank of a colony, a dignity which we find it enjoying in the time of Trajan. It pro

bably became snch in the reign of that emperor. (Strab. p. 249; Plin. iii. 5. § 9; Ptol. iii. 1. § 68; Lib. Colon, p. 230; Grater. Inter, p. 1096, 1; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 400.) We learn from Virgil and Silius Italicus that its territory was not fertile in corn, bat rich in fruit-trees (maliferae Abellae): the neighbourhood also abounded in filberts or hazelnuts of a very choice quality, which were called from thenco nuces AveUanae (Virg. A en. vii. 740; SO. Ital. viii. 545; Plin. xv. 22; Serv. ad Georg. ii. 65). The modern town of Avella is situated in the plain near the foot of the Apennines; but the remains of the ancient city, still called Avella Vecckia, occupy a hill of considerable height, forming one of the undcrfalls of the mountains, and command an extensive view of the plain beneath; hence Virgil's expression " despectant moenia Abellae." The ruins aro described as extensive, including the vestiges of an amphitheatre, a temple, and other edifices, as well as a portion of the ancient walls. (Pratilli, Via Appia, p. 445; Lupuli, Iter Venusin. p. 19; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 597; Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. p. 105.) Of the numerous relics of antiquity discovered here, the most interesting is a long inscription in the Oscan language, which records a treaty of alliance between the citizens of Abella and those of Nola. It dates (according to Mommsen) from a period shortly after the Second Punic War, and is not only curious on account of details concerning the municipal magistrates, but is one of the most important auxiliaries we possess for a study of the Oscan language. This curious monument still remains in the museum of the Seminary at Nola: it has been repeatedly published, among others by Passeri (Linguae Oscae Specimen Singulare, fol. Romae, 1774), but in the most complete and satisfactory manner by Lepsius (Inscr. Untbr. et Osc. tab. xxi.) and Mommsen (Die Unter-Italischen DiaUkte, p. 119). [E. H.B.]

ABELLI'NUM('A6eAAuw, Eth. Abellinas-atis). 1. A considerable city of the Hirpini, situated in the upper valley of the Sabatus, near the frontier of Campania. Pliny, indeed, appears to have regarded it as included in that country, as he enumerates it among the cities of the first region of Augustus, but Ptolemy is probably correct in reckoning it among those of the Hirpini. It is placed by the Tabula rcutingeriana on the road from Beneventum to Salcrnum, at a distance of 16 Roman miles from the former city. No mention of it is found in history prior to the Roman conquest; and it appears to have first risen to bo a place of importance under the Roman Empire. The period at which it became a colony is uncertain: Pliny calls it only an "oppidum," but it appears from the Liber de Coloniis that it must have received a colony previous to his time, probably as early as the second Triumvirate; and we learn from various inscriptions of imperial times that it continued to enjoy this rank down to a l»te period. These mention numerous local magistrates, and prove that it must have been a place of considerable wealth and importance, at least as late as the time of Valentinian. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Ptol. iii. 1. § 68; Lib. de Colon, p. 229; Inscr. ap. Orell. Nos. 1180, 1181; Lupuli, Iter Venusin. pp. 34, 55, 56.)

The ancient city was destroyed during the wars between the Greeks and the Lombards, and the inhabitants established themselves on the site of the modem Avellino, which has thus retained the name, but not the situation, of the ancient Abellinum. The

ruins of the Latter are still visible about two miles from the modern city, near the Tillage of Atripaldi, and immediately above the river Sabbato. Some vestiges of an amphitheatre may be traced, as well as portions of the city walls, and other fragments of reticulated masonry. Great numbers of inscriptions, bas-reliefs, altars, and minor relics of antiquity, havo also been discovered on the site. (Lupuli, I.e. pp. 33, 34; Romanclli, vol. ii. p. 310; Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. p. 118; Craven, Abruzzi, vol. ii. p. 201.) The neighbourhood still abounds with filbert-trees, which are extensively cultivated, as they were in ancient times; on which account the name of the nuces AveUanae was frequently derived from Abellinum rather than Abella. (Harduin. ad Plin. xv. 22.)

2. Besides the Abellinum mentioned by Pliny in the first region of Italyl he enumerates also in tho second, which included tho Hirpini and Apulians, "Abellinates cognomine Protropi," and " Abellinates cognominati Marsi." The first have been generally supposed to be the inhabitants of the city already mentioned, but it would certainly appear tliat Pliny meant to distinguish them. No clue exists to the position of either of these two towns: the conjecture of the Italian topographers who have placed the Abellinates Marsi at Marsico Vetere, in Lucania, having nothing, except the slight similarity of name, to recommend it, as that site would have been in the third region. [E. H. B.]

A'BIA (h 'ASfo: nr. Zarnata), a town of Messenia, on the Messenian gulf, and a little above the woody dell, named Choerius, which formed tho boundary between Mcssenia and Laconia in the time of Pausanias. It is said to have been the same town as the Ira of the Iliad (ix. 292), one of the seven towns which Agamemnon offered to Achilles, and to have derived its later name from Abia, the nurse of Hyllus, the son of Hercules. Subsequently it belonged, with Thuria and Pharae, to the Achaean League. It continued to be a place of some importance down to the reign of Hadrian, as we learn from an extant inscription of that period. (Pans. iv. 30; Polyb. xxv. 1; Paciandi, Montm. Pelopon. ii. pp. 77, 145, cited by Hoffmann, Griechenland, p. 1020; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 325.)

ABIA'NUS ('AsWs), a river of Scythia (Sarmatia) falling into the Euxine, mentioned only in the work of Alexander on the Euxine, as giving name to the Abii, who dwelt on its banks. (Steph. Byz. s. v. "ASioi.) Stephanus elsewhere quotes Alexander as saying that the district of Hylea on the Euxine was called 'a€ikj, which he interprets by 'TA.0I0, woody (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'r\4a). [P. S.] A'BII ("A&oi), a Scythian people, placed by Ptolemy in the extreme N. of Scythia extra Imaum, near the Hippophagi; bnt there were very different opinions about them. Homer (//. xiii. 5, 6) represents Zens, on the summit of M. Ida, as turning away his eyes from the battle before the Greek camp, and "looking down upon the land of the Thracians familiar with horses," Mvaaiv T* ayxffidxaiyt Kal ayavuy lmrnfio\yuv, yXaicroipayuv, &@iW T«, biKaioriruy avOpwrwv. Ancient and modern commentators have doubted greatly which of these words to take as proper names, except tho first two, which nearly all agree to refer to the Mysians of Thrace. The fact would seem to be that the poet had heard accounts of tire great nomade peoples who inhabited the steppes NW. and N. of the Euxine, whose whole wealth lay in their herds, especially of horses, on the milk of which

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