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The Achelous was regarded as the ruler and the surrounding district bore according to Thucyrepresentative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence dides the name of Elaeatis ('Elaitis). The he is called by Homer (Il. xx. 194) Kpelwv 'AXE- Acheron is the modern Gurla or river of Suli, the Awios, and was worshipped as a mighty god through- Cocytus is the Vuvó, and the great marsh or lake out Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on below Kastri the Acherusia. The water of the account of his combat with Heracles for the posses Vuvó is reported to be bad, which agrees with the sion of Deïaneira. The river-god first attacked account of Pausanias (i. 17. $ 5) in relation to the Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being water of the Cocytus (üdwp åteptÉOTATOV). The worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched Glycys Limen is called Port Fanári, and its water is off one of his horns, which forthwith became a still fresh ; and in the lower part of the plain the cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Trach. 9; Ov. river is commonly called the river of Fanári. The Met. ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. ii. 7. 5.) This legend upper part of the plain is called Glyky; and thus alludes apparently to some efforts made at an early the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred period to check the ravages, which the inundations from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron of the river caused in this district; and if the river Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have was confined within its bed by embankments, the reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a region would be converted in modern times into a prisoner ; and on its banks was an oracle called land of plenty. For further details respecting the vekvouartelov (Herod. v. 92. $ 7), which was conmythological character of the Achelous, see Dict. of sulted by evoking the spirits of the dead. (Thuc. Biogr. and Myth. s. v.

i. 46; Liv, viii. 24; Strab. p. 324; Steph. B. s. v. ; In the Roman poets we find Acheloïdes, i. e. the Paus. i. 17. $ 5; Dion Cass. 1. 12; Scylax, p. 11; Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met. v. Ptolem. ii. 14. 5; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. 552): Acheloia Callirhoë, because Callirhoë was p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.) the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): 2. A river of Elis, a tributary of the Alpheius. pocula Acheloïa, i. e. water in general (Virg. | (Strab. p. 344; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 89.) Georg. i. 9): Acheloïus heros, that is, Tydeus, A'CHERON ('Axépwr), a small river in Brutson of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Acheloius here tium, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Theb. i. conjunction with that city both by Strabo and 142.)

Justin, from whom we learn that it was on its 2. A river of Thessaly, in the district of Malis, banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle flowing near Lamia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.) against the Lucanians and Bruttians, B. C. 326.

3. A mountain torrent in Arcadia, flowing into (Strab. p. 256 ; Justin. xii. 2.) Pliny also menthe Alpheus, from the north of Mount Lycaeus. tions it as a river of Bruttium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but (Paus. viii. 38. & 9.)

appears erroneously to connect it with the town of . 4. Also called PEIRUS, a river in Achaia, flowing Acherontia in Lucania. It has been supposed to near Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.)

be a small stream, still called the Arconti, which ACHERDUS ('Axepdoüs, -nŮVTOS: Eth. 'Axep- falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia ; doúolos), a demus of Attica of uncertain site, be- but its identification must depend upon that of longing to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes Pandosia. (PANDOSLA.]

[E. H. B.] (Eccl. 362) in joke, uses the form 'Axpadovo ios ACHERO'NTIA ('Axepovtis or Axepovtía), instead of 'Axepdovo ios. (Steph. B. 8. vv. 'Axep- a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, dows, 'Axpadoüs ; Aeschin. in T'im. $ 110, ed. Bek- situated about 14 miles S. of Venusia, and 6 SE. of ker; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 185.)

Ferentum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to ACHERI'NI, the inhabitants of a small town in by Horace in a well-known passage (celsae nidum Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero among the victims | Acherontiae, Carm. iii. 4. 14; and Acron ad loc.), of the oppressions of Verres. Its position is quite and the modern town of Acerenza retains the site as uncertain; whence modern scholars propose to read well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a either Scherini, or Achetini from ACHETUM, a town hill of considerable elevation, precipitous on three supposed to be mentioned by Silius Italicus (xiv. sides, and affording only a very steep approach on 268); but the "pubes liquentis Acheti(or Achaeti, the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems as the name stands in the best MSS.) of that author to have been always but a small town, and is not menwould seem to indicate a river rather than a town. tioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength There is, however, no authority for either emendation. of its position gave it importance in a military point (Cic. Verr. č. 43; Zumpt ad loc.; Orell. Onomast. of view; and during the wars of the Goths against p. 6; Cluver. Sicil. p. 381.)

[E. H. B.] the generals of Justinian, it was occupied by Totila A'CHERON ('Axépwr), the name of several with a garrison, and became one of the chief strongrivers, all of which were, at least at one time, be- holds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. ieved to be connected with the lower world. The (Procop. de B. G. iii. 23, 26, iv. 26, 33.) The readAcheron as a river of the lower world, is described ing Acherunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been in the Dict. of Biogr. and Myth.

adopted by Romanelli and Cramer, and considered to 1. A river of Epeirus in Thesprotia, which passed refer to the same place, is wholly unsupported by through the lake Acherusia ('Axepovoia Niurn), and authority. (Alschefski, ad loc.) The coins assigned after receiving the river Cocytus (KÚKUTOS), flowed to this city belong to AQUILONIA. [E. H. B.] into the Ionian sea, S. of the promontory Cheime- ACHERU'SIA PALUS ('Axepovola alurn), the rium. Pliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the name of several lakes, which, like the various river flowed into the Ambraciot gulf. The bay of | rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time the sea into which it flowed was usually called | believed to be connected with the lower world, until Glycys Limen (TAUKÙs neuhv) or Sweet-Harbour, | at last the Acherusia came to be considered in the because the water was fresh on account of the quan- | lower world itself. The most important of these was tity poured into it from the lake and river. Scylax | the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron and Ptolemy call the harbour Elaea (Enaia), and flowed. [ACHERON.] There was a small lake of

this name near Hermione in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 35. shades of the blest, where Achilles and other heroes § 10.)

were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify ACHERU'SIA PALUS (Axepovola riuvn), the it with the little island of Zmievos, or Oulan Adassi name given to a sinal] lake or saltwater pool in Cam- (i. e. Serpents' Island) in 30° 10' E long., 45° 15' pania separated from the sea only by a bar of sand, N. lat. (Herod. iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. in Taur. between Cumae and Cape Misenum, now called Lago di 438; Pind. Olymp. ii. 85; Paus. ii. 19. § 11; Fusaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on Strab. pp. 306-308, foll.; and other passages colit (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence lected by Ukert, vol. iii. p. 2, pp. 442, foll., and Forof its proximity to Avernus, when the legends con- biger, vol. iii. pp. 1121-1122.) ŚP.S.) necting that lake with the entrance to the infernal / ACHILLE'UM ('AXIMELOV), a small town near regions had become established. [AVERNUS.] On the promontory Sigeum in the Troad (Herod. v. 94), this account the name was by some applied to the where, according to tradition, the tomb of Achilles Lucrine lake, while Artemidorus maintained that the was. (Strab. p. 594.) When Alexander visited Acherusian lake and Avernus were the same. (Strab. the place on his Asiatic expedition, B. c. 334, he v.pp. 243, 245; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) The Lago di Fusaro placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arrian, could never have had any direct connection with the i. 12.)

[G. L.] volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have ACHILLIS INSULA. [ACHILLEOS DROMOS.] partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of ACHOLLA. [ACHILLA.] Lake Avernus. The expressions applied to it by ACHRADU'S.“ [ACHERDUS.] Lycophron (Alex. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [LYCHNIDUS.) and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus A'CILA ('Akira), which seems to be identical Acheronte refuso (Aen. vi. 107), would seem to re- with OCE'LIS (Oknlıs), now Zee Hill or Ghela, fer to Avernus itself rather than to the lake in ques- a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, & tion. In later times, its banks were adorned, in com- short distance to the S. of Mocha, and to the N. of mon with the neighbouring shores of Baiae, with the the opening of the strait of Babel Mandeb. (Strab. villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which be- p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol, vi. 7. longed to Servilius Vatia, is particularly described $ 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the by Seneca (Ep. 55).

[E. H. B.] | Bovarnás of the Homeritae mentioned by Procopius ACHE'TUM. CACHERINI.]

(B. P. i. 19).

[W.R.] ACHILLA, ACĦOLLA, or ACHULLA ('AxbX-ACIMINCUM, ACUMINCUM ('AKOÚUlykov, da: Eth. 'Ayollaios, Achillitānus: El Aliah, large Ptol. ii. 16. $ 5: Alt-Salankemen), a station or perRu.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria manent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Amm. Marc, (Byzacena), a little above the N. extremity of the xix. 11. $7; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. (iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name It was a colony from the island of Melita (Malta), is written ACUNUM,

FW. B. D.) the people of which were colonists from Carthage. / ACINCUM, AQUINCUM ('Akoúrykov, Ptol. i. Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the 16. $ 4; Tab. Peut.; Orelli, Inscript. 506, 959, African war, B. C. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for 963, 3924; Amm. Marc. XX3. 5; Itin. Anton.), a whoin it was held by Messius; and it was in vain Roman colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, besieged by the Pompeian commander Considius. where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garrison Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, I (Dion. Cass. lv. 24), and where also there was a there has been found an interesting bilingual in- large manufactory of bucklers. Acincum, being scription, in Phoenician and Latin, in which the the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier name is spelt Achulla (Steph. B. $. v.; Strab. p. against the neighbouring lazyges (Slovács), was 831; Liv. xxxiii. 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, occasionally the head-quarters of the emperors. It Bell. Afric. 33–43; Plin. v. 4; Ptol.; Tab. Peut., / answers to the present Alt-Buda, where Roman basename corrupted into Anolla; Shaw's Travels, p. 193; ments and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. Barth, Wanderungen, fc. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within Monum. Phoenic. p. 139.)

[P.S.] the territory of the lazyges, stood a Roman fort or ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (Apóuos 'Axiños, or outpost called, from its relative position, Contra'Axim éws, or ’AXÍMELOS, or 'Axinios), a long Acincum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with narrow strip of land in the Euxine, NW, of the Acincum by a bridge. Contra-Acincum is named Chersonesus Taurica (Crimea) and S. of the mouth lleoglov by Ptolemy (üi. 7. $2). [W.B. D.] of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), running W. and E., ACI'NIPO ('AKIVATW: Ronda la Vieja, Ru. with a slight inclination N. and S., for about 80 2 leagues N. of Ronda), a town of Hispania Baetica, miles, including that portion of the coast from which on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the it is a prolongation both ways. It is now divided Celtici (ii. 4. & 15.) Its site is marked by the ruins by a narrow gap, which insulates its W. portion, of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many into two parts, called Kosa (i. e. tongue) Tendra on coins are found inscribed with the name of the the W., and Kosa Djarilgatch on the E. In the place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. ix. pp. 16–60; ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the Eckhel, vol. i. p. 14.)

** [P. S.] NW. shores of the Enxine, this strip of land was pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which Homer sings; and he was supposed to bave instituted cames there. Further to the W., off the mouth of the Ister, lay a small island, also sacred to the hero, who had a temple there. This island, called Achillis Insula, or Leuce ('Axwéws Nevan vñoos), was said to be the place to which Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the




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ACIRIS ("Akipes), a river of Lucania, mentioned ACO'NTIA or ACU'TIA ('Akovala, Strab. p. both by Pliny and Strabo, as flowing near to He- | 152; 'Akoútela, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in raclea on the N. side, as the Siris did on the S. | Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (Douro), It is still called the Acri or Agri, and has a course which had a ford here. Its site is unknown. (P. s. of above 50 miles, rising in the Apennines near ACONTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the Marsico Nuovo, and flowing into the Gulf of Ta- coast and on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastward rentum, a little to the N. of Policoro, the site of of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of the the ancient Heraclea (Plin. iï. 11. s. 15; Strab. passes of the Sapaei, which were formed by the p. 264.) The ACIDios of the Itinerary is supposed mountainous coast stretching eastward from Kavála. by Cluverius to be a corruption of this name, but it | Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis would appear to be that of a town, rather than a and the modern Kavála. (Amm. Marc. xxvii. 4; It. river. (Itin. Ant. p. 104.)

[E. H. B.] Ant. and Hierocl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. ACIS ("Axis), a river of Sicily, on the eastern p. 180; Tafel, De Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient. coast of the island, and immediately at the foot of p. 13, seq.) Aetna. It is celebrated on account of the mytho- A'CORIS ('Akopís), a town of Egypt, on the east logical fable connected with its origin, which was bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 miles ascribed to the blood of the youthful Acis, crushed N. of Antinoopolis. (Ptol. iv. 5. $ 59; Tab. Peut.) under an enormous rock by his rival Polyphemus. ' ACRA LEUCE ("Akpa Aevki), a great city of (Ovid. Met. xiii. 750, &c.; Sil. Ital. xiv. 221-226; | Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas Anth. Lat. i. 148 ; Serv. ad Virg. Ecl. ix. 39, who (Diod. Sic. xxv. 2), and probably identical with the erroneously writes the name Acinius.) It is evi- Castrum Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). Its position dently in allusion to the same story that Theocritus seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Ilicispeaks of the “sacred waters of Acis." ("Akidos tanus, N. of Ilici, near the modern Alicante (Ukert, iepov údwp, Idyll. i. 69.) From this fable itself we vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 403).

[P.S.] may infer that it was a small stream gushing forth ACRAE ("Akpai, Thuc. et alii; "Arpa, Steph. from under a rock; the extreme coldness of its B.; "Akpalai, Ptol.; 'Akparol, Steph. B.; Acrenwaters noticed by Solinus (Solin. 5. § 17) also ses, Plin.; Palazzolo), a city of Sicily, situated in points to the same conclusion. The last circum- the southern portion of the island, on a lofty hill, stance might lead us to identify it with the stream nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, now called Fiume Freddo, but there is every ap- according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. pearance that the town of Acium derived its name Ant. p. 87; Tab. Peut.). It was a colony of Syrafrom the river, and this was certainly further south.cuse, founded, as we learn from Thucydides, 70 years There can be no doubt that Cluverius is right in after its parent city, i. e. 663 B. c. (Thuc. vi. 5), identifying it with the little river still called Fiume but it did not rise to any great importance, and condi Jaci, known also by the name of the Acque tinued almost always in a state of dependence on Grandi, which rises under a rock of lava, and has Syracuse. Its position must, however, have always a very short course to the sea, passing by the given it some consequence in a military point of modern town of Aci Reale (Acium). The Acis view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syrawas certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or cuse, halting at Acrae to watch the effect of his proAsines, with which it has been confounded by ceedings. (Plut. Dion, 27, where we should certainly several writers. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 115; Smyth's read "Aspas for Makpás.) By the treaty concluded Sicily, p. 132; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9; Ferrara, by the Romans with Hieron, king of Syracuse, Acrae Descriz. dell' Etna, p. 32.)

[E. H. B.] was included in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. A'CIUM, a small town on the E. coast of Sicily, xxiii. Exc. p. 502), and this was probably the period mentioned only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant. p 87), of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Punic which places it on the high road from Catana to War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded Tauromenium, at the distance of 9 M. P. from the a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defcat by former city. It evidently derived its name from Marcellus at Acrillae. B. c. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) the little river Acis, and is probably identical with This is the last mention of it in history, and its name the modern Aci Reale, a considerable town, about a is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in inile from the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, his time a mere dependeney of Syracuse, though it is on the road to Catania, are extensive remains of found in Pliny's list of the “ stipendiariae civitates," Roman Thermae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, so that it must then have possessed a separate munip. 22; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.] cipal existence. (Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. ïi. 4. $ 14.)

ACMONIA ('Axuovla: Eth. 'Akuovieús, 'Akuó- The site of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at VIOS, Acmonensis), a city of Phrygia, mentioned by the modern Palazzolo, the lofty and bleak situation Cicero (Pro Flacc. 15.) It was on the road from of which corresponds with the description of Silius Dorylaeum to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles SW. of Italicus (“tumulis glacialibus Acrae,” xiv. 206), and Cotyaeum; and under the Romans belonged to the its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the Conventus Juridicus of Apamea. The site has been Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the fixed at Ahatkoi; but it still seems doubtful. (Ha. modern town is said to be still called Acremonte. milton, Researches, gc, vol. i. p. 115.) [G. L.] Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as “egregium

urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excavations carried on by the Baron Judica have brought to light ancient remains of much interest. The most considerable of these are two theatres, both in very fair preservation, of which the largest is turned towards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great

part from the rock, and supposed from some pecuCOIX OF ACMONIA. | liarities in its construction to have been intended to

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serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music. Numerous many fragments of antiquity. In this church Leake other architectural fragments, attesting the existence discovered the great inscription alluded to above, of temples and other buildings, have also been brought which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place to light, as well as statues, pedestals, inscriptions, called Epaminondas. The ruins near the fountain, and other minor relics. On an adjoining hill are which is now called Perdikóbrysis, probably belong great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet on the hill of Acremonte itself are some monuments Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet tpiráof a singular character; figures as large as life, hewn pavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now in relief in shallow niches on the surface of the native bear the names of Paleá, Strutzina, and Skroponeri rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures respectively. These form the central part of Mt. appears to be that of the goddess Isis, they must be- Ptoum, which in a wider signification extended from long to a late period. (Fazell. de Reb. Sic. vol. i. p. the Tenerian plain as far as Larymna and the Eu452; Serra di Falco, Antichità di Sicilia, vol. iv. p. boean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the E. from 158, seq.; Judica, Antichità di Acre.) [E.H.B.] the lakes of Hylae and Harma. (Leake, Northern

ACRAE ("Anpai), a town in Aetolia of uncer Greece, vol. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, Reisen in tain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Griechenland, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhammer, Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acarnanian town. Hellenika, p. 182.) (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. 8. v. 'Akpa.)

ACRAGAS. (AGRIGENTUM.] ACRAEA ('Akpzía), a mountain in Argolis, op A'CRIAE or ACRAEAE ('Axpiai, Paus. iii. 21, posite the Heraeum, or great temple of Hera. (Paus. $ 7, 22. SS 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. § 8; 'Arpaiai, Strab. ii. 17. & 2; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 393, Pelopon- pp. 343, 363; 'Axpela, Ptol, üï. 16. $ 9: Eth. 'Akpinesiaca, p. 263.)

árns), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the ACRAE'PHIA, ACRAEPHIAE, ACRAE- | Laconian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (I. c.) PHIUM, ACRAEPHNIUM ('Arpaipia, Steph. B. describes the Eurotas as flowing into the sea between 8. v.; Herod. viii. 135, Acraephia, Liv. xxxiii. 29; Acriae and Gythium. Acriae possessed a sanctuary Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; 'Akpaipiai, Strab. p. 410; 'Axpai. and a statue of the mother of the gods, which was plov, Strab. p. 413.; 'Akpaloviov, Paus. ix. 23. & 5: said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most ta 'Axpaíovia, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. 8. v. ; Eth. ancient in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to 'Akpapiaios, 'Axpaípios, 'Arpaiorios, 'Akpalovic discover any remains of Acriae; the French expeditos, 'Akpai vieús, Steph. B. 8. v.; 'Arpaidieus, tion place its ruins at the harbour of Kokinio. Böckh, Inscr. 1587: nr. Kardhitza), a town of (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, Recherches, Boeotia on the slope of Mt. Ptoum (IITov) and on p. 95.) the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here ACRIDO'PHAGI ('Axpidopároi), or "Locustcalled 'Axpa.pls riurn from the town. Acraephia eaters," the name given by Diodorus (iii. 29) and is said to have been founded by Athamas or Acrae- Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-savage tribes of pheus, son of Apoilo; and according to some writers Aethiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who received it was the same as the Homeric Arne. Here the their denomination from their mode of life or their Thebans took refuge, when their city was destroyed staple food.

(W.R.] by Alexander. It contained a temple of Dionysus. ACRILLA or ACRILLAE ("AKpa), a town of (Steph. B. 3. v.; Strab. p. 413; Paus. l. c.) At the Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantium distance of 15 stadia from the town, on the right (8. v.), who tells us that it was not far from Syraof the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated cuse. But there can be no doubt that it is sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptous. This oracle place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35 where the Syrawas consulted by Mardonius before the battle of cusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by MarPlataea, and is said to have answered his emissary, cellus. The old editions of Livy have ACCILLAE, who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has The name of the mountain was derived by some been received by all the recent editors. From this from Ptous, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by passage we learn that it was on the line of march others from Leto having been frightened (TTTOéw) by from Agrigentum to Syracuse, and not far from a boar, when she was about to bring forth in this Acrae; but the exact site is undetermined. Plutarch place. Both Acraephia and the oracle belonged to Marcell. 18), in relating the same event, writes the Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoan Apollo, name 'Aklas or 'Akitas.

(E. H. B.] properly so called; Plutarch (Gryllus, 7) mentions a ACRITAS ('Axpiras: C. Gallo), the most southBóos, but other writers speak only of a réuevos, erly promontory in Messenia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. iepov, xpnothpoy or martelov. (Steph. B. 8. v.; | iv. 34. § 12 ; Ptol. ii. 16. $ 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7; Strab. I. c.; Paus. I. c., iv. 32. $ 5; Herod, viii. 135; | Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) Plut. Pelop. 16.) According to Pausanias the oracle ACROCERAU'NIA. [CERAUNII MONTES. ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; ACROCORINTHUS. I Corinthius.) but the sanctuary still continued to retain its cele- ACRONIUS LACUS. BRIGANTINUS Lacus.) brity, as we see from the great Acraephian inscription, ACROREIA ('Akpápeia), the mountainous diswhich Böckh places in the time of M. Aurelius and trict of Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the his son Commodus after a.d. 177. It appears from rivers Peneius and Ladon take their rise. The inthis inscription that a festival was celebrated in honour habitants of the district were called Acrocreii of the Ptoan Apollo every four years. (Böckh, Inscr. ('Akpwpciol), and their towns appear to have been No. 1625.) The ruins of Acraephia are situated at Thraustus, Alium, Opus, and Eupagium. The a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza. The re- name is used in opposition to Kolan or Hollow Elis. mains of the acropolis are visible on an isolated hill, Stephanus (s. v.), who is followed by many modern a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copaic sea, and at writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient Triphylia ; but this error appears to have arisen town. Here stands the church of St. George built from confounding the Acrocreii with the Paroreatae out of the stones of the old town, and containing in Triphylia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. Hell. iii. 2. &


30, vii. 4. $ 14; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 203; 1 Boblaye, Recherches, p. 123.)

ACROTHOʻUM, or ACROTHOʻI ('Axpówov Her, vii. 22; 'Axpodwoi, Thuc. iv. 109; Strab. p. 331; Scyl. p. 26 ; Steph. B. 8. v.; Acroathon, Mel. ii. 2; Acrothon, Plin. iv, 10. s. 17: Eth. 'Akpoowos, 'Akpo witns), a town in the peninsula of Acte, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated near the extremity of the peninsula, probably upon the site of the modern Lavra. Strabo, Pliny, and Mela seem to have supposed that Acrothoum stood upon the site of Mt. Athos; but this is an impossibility. [Athos.] It was stated by Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of Acrothoi lived longer than ordi

PLAN OF ACTIUM. nary men, Mannert and others erroneously suppose

1. Ruins of Prevesa. | 5. Temple of Apollo. Acrothoi to have been the same place as the later Uranopolis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p.

2. C. La Scara.

Fort La Punta. 3. Prom. Actium. La

6. Azio. 149.)

| 7. Anactorium. ACTE' ('Arth), signified a piece of land running | Punta.

8. Vonitza. into the sea, and attached to another larger piece of 4. C. Madonna. I P. Bay of Prevesa. land, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. Thus Herodotus gives the name of Acte to Asia Minor as The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between compared with the rest of Asia (iv. 38), and also to the low point off Acarnania, on which stands Fort Africa itself as jutting out from Asia (iv, 41). | La Punta (5), and the promontory of Epirus, on Attica also was originally called Acte. (Steph. B. which stands the modern town of Prevesa (1), $. v.) [Attica.] The name of Acte, however, near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narwas more specifically applied to the easternmost of rowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, the three promontories jutting out from Chalcidice but the average distance between the two shores is in Macedonia, on which Mt. Athos stands. It is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the spoken of under Athos.

coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., ACTIUM ("AKTIOV: Eth. 'AKTIOS, Actius: Adj. forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the 'AKTIAKÓs, Actiacus, also "AKTLOS, Actius), a pro- | Bay of Prevesa (P). A second entrance is then montory in Acarnania at the entrance of the Am- formed to the larger basin of the gulf by the two braciot Gulf (Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus | high capes of La Scara (2) in Epeirus, and of gained his celebrated victory over Antony and Madonna (4) in Acarnania, the width of this Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B. C. 31. There was second entrance being about one mile and a half. a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Now some modern writers, among others D'Anville, Thucydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the suppose Actium to have been situated on Cape territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great | Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: festival named Actia, celebrated here in honour of first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are somethe god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the times called Azio (6), which name is apparently a temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, henceforth celebrated once in four years (TEVTAE- because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to anpis, ludi quinquennales), with musical and gym- have stood on a height, which description answers nastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. li. 1; to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to Suet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons found on the site of Actium, and which is probably are not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For of the temple was called 'Ieparóxos, and that his it should be observed, first, that the name Azio name was employed in official documents, like that is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that (Böckh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage height, he does not say that this height was on the (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated out- sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little side of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of of his victory. [NICOPOLIS.] Actium was pro- | Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is perly not a town, though it is sometimes described one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a | it is clear that he considered the entrance of the few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.

he makes the breadth of the strait" a little more The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute. than four stadia," or half a mile, which is true The accompanying plan of the entrance of the when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by to the second. That the strait between Prevesa Lieut. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of the Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance the locality.

| assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of

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