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support it had afforded to his enemies. (Cic.pro Caec. 35': for the various explanations which have been given of this much disputed passage see Savigny, Vermuchte Schriften, vol. i. p. 18, &c and Marquardt, Handbnch der Rim. A Iterthumer, vol. iii. p. 39— 41.) But notwithstanding this, and the heavy calamity which it had previously suffered at his hands, it appears to have quickly revived, and is mentioned in B. c. 43 as one of the richest and most flourishing cities of Italy. (Appian, B. C. iv. 3.) At that period its lands were iwrtioned out among the soldiers of the Triumvirs: hut Augustus afterwards atoned for this injustice by adorning it with many splendid public works, some of which are still extant: and though we hear but little of it during the Koman empire, its continued importance throughout that period, as well as its colonial rank, is attested by innumerable inscriptions. (Orcll. Inter. 80, 3049, 3174, &c.; Plin. iii. 15. s. 20.) After tbe fall of the Western Empire it became one of the cities of the Pentapolis, which continued subject to the Exarchs of Kavenna until the invasion of the Lombards at the close of the 6th century.

Pliny tells us that Ariminum was situated between the two rivers Ariminus and Apritsa. The former, at the mouth of which was situated the port of Ariminum (Strab. v. p. 217) is now called the Marecchia, and flows under the walls of the town on the N. side. The Aprusa is probably the trifling stream now called A una, immediately S. of Rimini. In the new division of Italy under Augustus the limits of the 8th region (Gallia Cispadana) were extended as far as the Ariminns, but the city of Ariminum seems to have been also included in it, though situated on the S. side of that river. (Plin. L c; Ptol. iii. 1. § 22.) The modem city of Rimini still retains two striking monuments of its ancient gnmdeur. The first is the Roman bridge of five arches over the Ariminus by which the town is approached on the N.: this is built entirely of marble and in the best style of architecture: it was erected, as we learn from the inscription still remaining on it, by Augustus, but completed by Tiberius: and is still, both from its perfect preservation and the beatify of its construction, the most striking monument of its class which remains in Italy. On the opposite side of the town the gate leading to Petaro is a triumphal arch, erected in honour of Augustus: it is built like the bridge, of white marble, of the Corinthian order, and in a very pure style of architecture, though partially disfigured by some later additions.(Eustace, Classical Tour, vol. i. pp. 281, 282; Rampoldi,Diz. Corogr. vol. iii. p. 594. The inscriptions are given by Muratori, p. 2006; and Orelli, 604.) A kind of pedestal in the centre of the town, with a spurious inscription, pretends to be the Suggestvm from which Caesar harangued his troops at Ariminum, after the passage of the Rubicon.

Tbe coins of Ariminum wliich bear the Latin legend Aium belong to the period of the Roman colony. [E. H. B.]

ARIMPHAEI. [aroippafx]

AHIXCH1, a tribe of the Tauri, according to Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 8. s. 33). [P. S.]

ARIOLA, in Gallia, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road from Durocortorum (Rhcims), through Tullum (Tend), to Divodurum (Metz). liut geographers do not agree about the place. "Walekcnaer makes it to be Mont Garni; D'Anville fixes it a place called VroiL [G.L.]

AKIOLICA. 1. A station and village on the

road over the Graian Alps, immediately at the foot of the passage of the mountain itself. The Tabula, in which alone the name occurs, places it 6 M. P. from the station on the summit of the pass (in Alps Graia), and 16 from Arebrigium; but this last distance is greatly overstated, and should certainly be corrected into 6, as the distances in the Table wonld in this case coincide with those in the Itinerary, which gives 24 miles in all from Arebrigium (Pre St. Didier) to Bergintrum (Bourg SL Matiricr), and this is just about the truth. Ariolica probably occupied the same site as La TuUlc, in the first little plain or opening of the valley which occurs on the descent into Italy. The name is erroneously given as Artolica in the older editions of the Tabula, but the original has Ariolica. [E. H. B.]

2. A station in Gallia, is placed in tbe Tables on the road from Urba (Orbe), in the Pays de Vaud in Switzerland, to Vcsontio (Besancon) in France, and seems to represent Pontarlier on the Dottla; but the distances in the Antonine Itin. do not agree with the real distances, and D'Anville resorts to a trass* position of the numbers, as he does occasionally in other cases. The Theodosian Tab. names the place Abrolica,—possibly an error of transcription. [G.I..]

3. [ardelica.]

ARIS ("Apu: Pidhima), a tributary of the Tomisus in Messenia. (Paus. iv. 31. § 2; Leake, Morca, vol. i. p. 357, 4c.)

ARIS. [aria Civitas.]

ARISBA ('Aplo-Sv: Eth-'ApurSatot), a town of Mysia, mentioned by Homer (fL ii. 837), in the same line with Sextus and Abydus. It was (Steph. B. *. r. 'Apbrttj) between Percote and Abydos, a colony of Mytilene, founded by Scamandrins and Ascanius, son of Aeneas; and on the river Seilleis, supposed to be the Moutta-ckai; the villase of Mouaa may represent Arisba. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the Hellespont. (Arrian, Anab. i. 12.) When the wandering Galli passed over into Asia, on the invitation of Attains, they occupied Arisba, but were soon defeated (b.c. 216) by King Prusias. (Pol. v. 111 ) In Strain's time (p. 590) tbe place was almost forgotten. There are coins of Arisbe of Trajan's time,and also autonomous coins.

There was an Arisba in Lesbos, which Herodotus (i. 151) speaks of as being taken by the Methymnaei. (Comp. Steph. B. t.v. 'Aplfffiij.) Pliny (v.31) says it was destroyed by an earthquake. [G.L.]

ARl'STERAE ('ApioTtpoi), a small island off the coast of Troezenia, near the Scyllaeum promontory. (Paus. ii. 34. § 8; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19.)

ARISTONAUTAE. [pellexk.]

ARI'TIUM PRAETORIUM ('Aplnor, Ptol. ii. 5. § 7: Salvatierra or Benevente), a town of Lusitania, on the high road from Olisipo (Lisbon) to Emerita (Merida), 38 M. P. from the former. (/<. Ant p. 418; Gtog. Ram. iv. 44.) [P. S.]

ARIL'S (4 'Apitir, Strab. pp. 515, 518; "Apcior, Arrian, iv. 6; 'Apfioi, Ptol. vi. 17. § 2 ; 'Apbiar6i, Dionys. Pcrieg. v. 1098; Arius, Plin. vi. 23. s. 25; Arias, Ammian. xxiii. 6), the only river of Aria (now the Ueri Rud). It rises at Obeh in the Paropamisan mountains, and having run westerly by Herat, tarns to the NW., and is lost in the Sands. (Elphinslone, Kdbtd, i. p. 155.). Strabo and Arrian both stated that it was lost in "the Sands. Ptolemy, on the other hand, gave it two arms, of which the western flowed from the Sariphi mountains, and the eastern from the Paropamisua ; and made it terminate in a lake, confounding it (as Rcnnell, Kinneir and Mannert hare done) with the Ferrah Rvd, which does fall into the Lake Zarah. (Wilson, Aritma, p. 150; Kinneir, Mem. of Map of Portia, p. 172.) [V.]

AKIZANTI ('ApifoiToi', Her. i. 101), one of the sis tribes of ancient Media mentioned by Herodotus. The name is derived from the Sanscrit AryaZantu "of noble race." (Bopp, Vergl. Gr. i. p. 213.) Chrysantas (Xpvffdvras, Xen. Cyrop. ii. 3. § 5) is a name of similar origin and signification. [V.]

AR'MENE('Apjtenj or 'Apfitrn\Eth. 'Apfitvaioi). Stephanas (a. v. 'ApfUvn") observes that Xenophon in the Anabasis (vi. 1. § 15) writes it 'Ap/ii)rn (Sia Tos 5). The Ten Thousand on their return anchored their ships here, and stayed five days. The place belonged to the Sinopians. It was 50 stadia west of Sinope (Sinali), and had a port. (Strab. p. 545.) A small river, named Ochoshancs by Marcian (p. 72), and named also Ochthomanes in the Anonymous Periplus, and Ocheraenus by Scylax, falls into the harbour. "[G. L.]

ARME'NIA QApfuvta: Eth. 'Apixevios, Annenius, Armeniacus). There is so much difficulty in fixing the natural limits of the country designated by this name, that its political boundaries have been exposed to continual changes.

If taken in the most comprehensive sense, the Euphrates may be considered as forming the central line of the country known to the ancients as Armenia. E. of this river it extended as far as the Caspian Sea, and again W., over a part of what is usually considered as Asia Minor. The former of these two great portions was almost universally known as Armenia Major, and the latter went under the title of Armenia Minor.

The native and Byzantine historians make use of many subdivisions, the names of which they mention; but the Greek and Roman geographers confine themselves to those two great divisions originally made, it would seem, by the successors of Alexander the Great. (Ptol. v. 7. § 13; Plin. vi. 9.)

In the Scriptures there is no allusion to Armenia by name, though we meet with the following Hebrew designations, referring to it either as a whole, or to particular districts. (1.) Tooarmah, a name which not only appears in the Ethnographic table in Genesis (x. 3; comp. I Chron. i. 6), but also in Ezckiel (xxviii. 6), where it is classed along with Gomer, and (xxvii. 14) by the side of Meshech and Tubal. It is curious enough that the national traditions speak of one common progenitor of this name. However little credit may be assigned to the Armenian Chronicles, as regards the remote period of their history, there can be littlequestion but that the Togarmah of Scripture belongs to this country. (2.) Ararat, the land upon tho mountains of which the Ark rested ((Ten. viii. 4); to which the sons of Senaccherib fled after murdering their father (2 Kings, xix. 37; Isa. xxxvii. 38); and one of the kingdoms summoned along with Minni and Ashkenas to arm against Babylon (Jer. li. 27). The province of Ararat lay in the centre of the kingdom, and was according to the native historian, Moses of Chorcne (Histor. Armen. ii c. 6, p. 90), divided into twenty provinces. (3.) Mmui, cited above {Jer. I. c), and probably the same as the Minyas, with regard to which and the accompanying traditions about the Deluge Josephus^Bfij.i. 1. §6)qnotes Nicholas of Damascus. (Rosenmuller, Btbl. Alt. vol. i. pt. i. p. 251).

Herodotus (v. 52) represents Armenia as having

Cilicia for its border on tho W., being separated from this country by the Euphrates. Towards the N. it included the sources of the same river (i. 180). The limits to the S. and E. were not distinctly defined, probably Mount Masius separated it from Mesopotamia, and Mount Ararat from the country of the Saspires, who occupied the valley traversed by the Anises. (Rcnnel, Geog. Herod. vol. i. p. 369.)

In Strabo (xi. p. 527) Armenia is bounded to the S. by Mesopotamia and the Taurus; on the E. by Great Media and Atropatene; on the N. by the Iberes and Albani, with Mounts Parachoatras and Caucasus; on the W. by the Tibareni, Mts. Paryadres and Skydises as far as the Lesser Armenia, and the country on the Euphrates which separated Armenia from Cappadocia and Commagene. Strabo (p. 530) quotes Theophanes for the statement that Armenia was 100 schoeni in breadth, and 200 schoeni in length; the schoenus here is reckoned at 40 stadia. He objects to this admeasurement, and assigning the same number of schoeni to its length, allows 50 for its breadth. Neither statement, it need hardly be said, is correct (see Groskurd's note); as at no period was its superficies so extended as Theophanes or Strabo would make it. The rough and inaccurate statements of Pliny (L c), and Justin (xlii. 2) are equally wide of the truth.

In a natural division of the country Armenia takes its place as belonging to the N. Highlands of the gigantic plateau of Iran, extending in the form of a triangle between the angles of three seas, the Caspian, the Black Sea, and the Gulf of Scanderoon. This great separate mass forms an elevated plateau, from which the principal mountains, rivers and valleys of W. Asia diverge towards the four seas at the furthermost extremities. Its plains rise to 7,000 ft. above the level of the sea, and the highest summits of Mt. Ararat, which overtop the plains, attain the height of 17,260 English feet. If we look at the more striking objects, — the mountains, it will be seen that several great branches quit the high land about the springs of the Euphrates and Tigris, and take different directions; but chiefly E. S. and W. from the summits of Ararat. Ararat, the common root from which these branches spring, raises its snow-clad summits in a district nearly equidistant from the Black and Caspian Seas. The larger plain 10 miles in width at the base of the mountain, is covered with lava, and the formation of the mass itself indicates the presence of that volcanic agency which caused the great earthquake of 1840. Two vast conical peaks rising far above all others in the neighbourhood, form the great centre of the "Mountains of Ararat," the lower one is steeper and more pointed than the higher, from which it is separated by a sloping plain on the NW. side. The ascent of the greater one is easier, and tho summits have been, in effect, gained by the German traveller Parrot.

The difficulties of the ascent are considerable, and have given rise to the local and expressive name, of Aghri Tdgh, or painful mountain. Though a volcano, it has no crater, and bears no evidence of any recent eruption; it is, however, composed entirely of volcanic matter,—consisting of different varieties of igneous rocks. It seems to be a subaqueous volcano of extreme antiquity, retaining no traces of the movements by which its materials have been brought into their present position.

The first of the numerous chains which descend from this culminating point of the whole system, is the elevated range, forming the backbone of the Assyrian mountains, which, with its principal ramifications, is the seat of the valleys, containing a largo proportion of the inhabitants of the country. This ridge runs from the slopes of Mt. Ararat at its northern extremity, in a SSE. direction between the Lakes of Vdn and Urwniyah, along the W. side of Azerbaijan, the ancient Atropatene, to the extremity of the province. This main range of Kurdittdn is identified with the chain which Strabo (p. 522) says some called the Gordyaean Mountains, and to which Mt. Masins belongs, having on the S. the cities of Nisibis and Tigranoccrta. It is composed of red sandstone and basalt, terminating in needle points at a considerable elevation, while the irregular sides are frequently wooded, and form basins or amphitheatres. From this chain branches diverge towards the W. These assume the form of an acute triangle, which has its apex W. of the Euphrates, its base resting on the KurdUtdn range, while its sides are formed by portions of the ranges of Taurus and Antitaurus. The S. branches constitute what was properly called the Taurus, and those to the N. the Antitaurus. Antitaurus extends from the borders of Commagene (£7 Bostan), and Melitene (MalatiyaK) towards the N., enclosing Sophene in a valley between it and Taurus Proper. (Strab. xi. p. 591.) This statement corresponds with the description of the range running W. from Mt. Ararat in two parallel chains to Deyddin, where it separates into several branches, the upper one taking a general W. direction, having to the northward the great abutments of Aligej-Beg, Keban-Tiigh, Kat-Tdgh, with others, the Paryadrcs and mountains of the Mnschi of Strabo (Z. c). At Deyddin, the S. chain of the Antitaurus bifurcates; the N. branch taking the upper portion of the Murdd; and the lower range, enclosing the S. side of the valley. In these different ridges limestone and gypsum prevail, with basalt and other volcanic rocks. It separates Armenia from Mesopotamia, and also Acisilene from Sophene. (Strab. xi. pp. 521, 527.) Near the S. extremity of the main ridge of Kwdittdn, the range designated Taurus Proper diverges from the Zagros in two almost parallel lines, and divides Sophene and part of Armenia from Mesopotamia. (Strab. p. 522.) The formation is chiefly of limestone, with red sandstone, conglomerate, and occasionally jasper; conical bare summits, with irregular sides intersected by deep valleys, less or more peopled, are the characteristics of that portion of the range of Taurus which lies E. of the river Tigris. In crossing Upper Mesopotamia the Taurus is more rocky and less continuous than before,—and at Mdrdin the height of the limestone summit of Mount Masius scarcely exceeds 2,300 feet. It appears from the investigations of recent travellers, that the whole tract of country comprehended between the Euxine and Caspian Seas exhibits the phenomena of volcanic action. It has been conjectured that this region, at a period not very remote, geologically speaking, was at one time covered with water, which formed a vast inland sea, of which the Caspian and other large sheets of water are the remnants. The first movement belongs to the Jura limestone, or oolitic series; a subsequent deposition of schistose and arenaceous sands then took place, which, from the fossils they contain, are identified with the cretaceous and green sandstone formations. This country must have then presented the picture of a narrow sea, bounded on

the N. by the chain belonging to the chalk formation, and to the S. by the Jura limestone range, the result of the previous upheaval. At this epoch the volcanic eruptions began which have so much modified the surface of the country. The eruption of these masses, besides filling up valleys, has in other parts of the chain formed great circular basins, or "amphitheatres,"—some of which now exist as lakes, while others have been filled up with tertiary deposits, showing the prior date of the volcanic rocks by which they are encircled. Belonging to these is the volcanic lake of Sevangha, supposed to be the Lychnitis (Awx""-"*) of Ptolemy (v. 13. § 8) 5,000 feet from the sea, surrounded by trap and porphyry formations. SW. of this lake is the great volcanic amphitheatre of Central Armenia, composing a circus of several conical mountains containing craters. As the lakes of Vdn and Urumiyah have no outlet it may be conjectured that they were produced in the same manner. In addition to this the basin of Central Armenia contains vast deposits of rock-salt, a further proof of the existence of a great salt lake. (Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 366.)

The high mountains, and the snows with which they are covered, arc the feeders of a considerable number of rivers. The elevated plateau, which extends from the base of Mt. Ararat into N, Armenia (Kwdittdn), and part of Asia Minor, contains the sources of these great channels of communication from Armenia to the several nations of Europe and Asia. 1. The Halts has its sources at two places, both of which are much further to the E. than generally represented on maps. Of these sources the most northern are on the sides of Gemot BdiTagh, but the others are on the W. slopes of the Paryadres or Kara-Bel group, which separates the springs of this river from thoso of the Euphrates. [hai-ys.]

2. The Aiiaxes, which rises nearly in the centre of the space between the E. and W. branches of the Euphrates, and takes a SE. course till it is joined by the Cyrus. [AnAxes; Cyko3.]

3. The Acampsis ("AKafoJuj; Jordk, Arrian, Periplus; Plin. vL 4), unites the waters on the N. and W. sides of the mountains, containing the sources of the Cyrus, A rases, Harpasus and W. Euphrates, which serve as drains to the valleys on the opposite sides of the chain. It bounds Colchis to the W., and is probably the Bathys, which, according to Pliny (vi. 4), is a river of Colchis.

4. The TiGKIS (Tlypts) has in Central Armenia two principal sources, both of which spring from the S. slope of the Antitaurus, near those of the Araxes and Euphrates, and not far from those of the Halys. [tigris.]

5. The Centrites (K«iTp(TT|f), mentioned by Xenophon (Anab. iv. 3. § 1), as dividing Armenia from the country of the Carduchi, is identified with the Buhldnchdi, a considerable affluent of the Tigris.

6. The Euphrates, which is, in fact, the confluence of the two great streams, the Mwddchui and the Kard Su, has two great sources in the Armenian mountains. [euphrates.]

Among the lakes of Armenia is that of Arsexe ('ApoTj>^: Vdn), situated in the S. of the country towards the Tigris. Ptolemy calls it Arsissa (I c.\ and it also went by the name of Thospites. Separated from it to the E. by a chain of hills lies the lake Mantiane (Mcuriay^: Urumiyah) of Strabo (p. 529), probably the same as the Lake of Spauta, of wljjch the same author speaks in his description of Atropatcne (p. 523). Near Erivan lies the Lake Goutcltka, or Sezangha, which has already been mentioned, and identified with the Lychnitis of Ptolemy (v. 13).

Owing to the height of the table-land and the extreme elevation of the mountains the temperature of Armenia is much lower than that of other regions situated on the same parallel of latitude. The thousands of tributary streams which feed its large rivers carry fertility in every direction through its valleys. Its rich pasture lands were famous for their horses. "Horses from the house of Togarmah" are enumerated by Ezckiel (xxvii. 14), among other articles brought for sale, or exchanged at Tyre. Strabo (p. 529) praises the breed, and states that the Armenian satrap presented the king with 20,000 young horses at the annual feast of Mithra. Strabo (/. c), and Pliny (xxxvii. 23), notice the wealth of Armenia in the precious stones and metals; Strabo, in particular, speaks of gold mines at a place called Kamlala in the country of Hyspiratis, probably in the N. of Armenia, between the rivers Kur and Phasis, which were worked by the natives at the time of Alexander's expedition. The same author informs us that Pompeius demanded, as a contribution from Armenia, 6,000 talents of silver. And we are told that the Romans, on reducing this to one of their provinces, carried king Alavasdus to Rome in golden fetters. (Philost. Vita Apollon. ii. 4.) According to Pliny (/. c.) the whole region was divided into 120 praefectures, or orpaHryiai. Ptolemy gives the names of twenty-one of these subdivisions; Strabo and Tacitus also mention certain names. The native historian, Moses of Chorene, divides Armenia Major into fifteen provinces, and 187 subdivisions. St. Martin {Mem. sur VArmenie, vol. i. p. 64) enumerates and gives the names of the larger divisions. Malte-Brun (Geog. Univertelle, vol. iii. p. 120) has a table of these divisions and subdivisions, and compares them with those known to the Greeks and Romans. As may be supposed there is considerable uncertainty in making out and explaining the presumed correspondence. The difficulty is increased from the circumstance that at no period was the whole of this region comprised under one government; and in the course of its history we find its limits exposed to continual changes. At the present day Armenia is divided among Persia, Russia and Turkey, Mount Ararat forming, as it were, the central boundary stone to these three empires.

The Armenians belong to the Indo-European race; their dialect is allied to the most ancient language of the Arian family: while their early traditions connect them with the history of the Medes and Persians, they are a branch of the stock of the people of Iran, though separated from them at an early period. (Prichard, Nat. Hilt, of Man, p. 178; coinp. Rittcr, Erdktmde, vol. x. p 577.) Xenophon (Anab. iv. 5. § 25) describes the villages of Armenia, which are still built exactly in the same manner. (Kinneir, Trav. in Armenia, p. 487.) The houses were under ground; the mouth resembling that of a well, but spacious below; there was an entrance dug for the cattle, but the inhabitants descended by ladders. In these houses were goats, sheep, cows, and fowls, with their young. There was also wheat and barley, vegetables and beer in jars, in which the malt itself Boated even with the brims of the vessels, and with it reeds or straws, some large and others small,

without joints. These, when any one was thirsty, he was to take into his mouth, and suck; the liquor was strong, and exceedingly pleasant to those who were used to it. The same author speaks of the intense cold. Plutarch {Liicull. 32), in his account of the invasion of Armenia by Lucullus, states that before the close of the autumnal equinox the weather became as severe as in the midst of winter; tin whole country was covered with snow, the rivers were frozen; and at night the army was compelled to encamp in damp muddy spots, wet with melting snow. The religion of Armenia appears to have been made up of elements derived partly from the doctrine of Zoroaster, partly from Eastern Natureworship, with certain rites of Scythian origin. Their chief deity was Aramazt, the Ormuzd of the Magian system, but their temples were crowded with statues, and their altars reeked with animal sacrifices j usages revolting to the purer Magianism of Persia. The Babylonian impersonation of the passive principle of generation, Anaites or Anahid, was one of their most celebrated divinities; and at the funeral of their great king Artaces, many persons had immolated themselves, after the Scythian or Gctic custom, upon his body. (Milman, Bist. of Christ, vol. ii. p. 320; Chamich, Avdall's Trans. vol. i. p. 145.) It has now been satisfactorily shown that Armenia was the first nation which embraced Christianity as the religion of the king, the nobles, and the people; and the remark of Gibbon (Vindication, Misc. Works, vol. iv. p. 577), " that the renowned Tiridates, the hero of the East, may dispute with Constantine the honour of being tho first sovereign who embraced tho Christian religion," placed beyond all question. About A. D. 276, the king Tiridates, of the race of the Arsacidae, was converted by St. Gregory, sumamed the Illuminator (Diet, of Biog. s. ».), like himself of the race of the Arsacidae, but descended from a collateral branch of that family, which had long occupied the throne of Persia. (St. Martin, A dot to Le Beau, Hist, du Bas-Empire, vol. i. p. 76; Mem. sur VArmenie, vol. i. p. 305.) In A. D. 311 Tiridates had to sustain a war against the Emperor Maximums, in consequence of the hatred of the latter against Christianity. (Euseb. H. E. in. 8.) During the early ages of the Empire Armenia was always an object of open struggle or secret intrigue between the conflicting powers of Parthia and Rome. Every successful invasion, or other means by which Persian predominance in Armenia was established, was the signal for the most cruel and bloody persecutions, which were endured with the mo6t Christian and patriotic heroism by this unhappy people. The Vartobcd, or patriarch of Armenia, fell the first victim to the sword of the Persian, and was also the first to raise the standard of independence. The melancholy acknowledgment must, however, be made that the Gospel did not triumph unaccompanied by persecution on the part of the Christians. The province of Dara, the sacred region of the Armenians, crowded with their national temples, made a stern and resolute resistance. The priests fought for their ancient faith, and it was only by the sword that churches could be established in that district.

An interesting picture of the religious wars which were waged in Armenia is given in the History of Vartan. (Trans, by C. F. Neumann.} The Armenian church adopted tho doctrines of Eutyches and the Monophysites, or Jacobites, as they were called, after the revival of their opinions in the 6lh century, under Jacob Baradoeus, bishop of Edcssa, to which it continues to adhere.

Little or no weight is to be attached to the accounts which the Greek and Roman writers give of the origin of the Armenians. Herodotus (vii. 73), in mentioning the fact that a body of this people served in the army of Xerxes, expresses his opinion that the Armenians were a colony of Phrygians. According to others they are to be considered of Thessalian origin. (Strab. pp. 503, 530; Justin, xlii. 3; Tac. Ann. vi. 34.) The history of the Armenian nation, though not so important or so interesting as that of other Eastern kingdoms, should be studied for the light it throws upon the great empires, which successively established themselves in this region.

This country has been the scene of almost continual wars, either when its kings defended their independence against Persians, Greeks, Arabs and others, or when they stood passive spectators of the great struggles which were to decide the fate of Asia. Passing over Tigranes, the national hero and friend of Cyrus the Elder (Diet, of Biog. voL iii. p. 1129), we find but little mention of Armenia till the death of Alexander the Great in the Greek historians, though from this period to that of the establishment of the dynasty of the Arsacidae, recourse must be had to them, as the national chroniclers are silent on the history of this epoch. A Persian, named Mithrenes, was appointed governor by the Macedonian conqueror. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 16.) Availing themselves of the dissensions between the generals of Alexander, the Armenians threw off the yoke under Ardoates (b.c. 317), but after his death were compelled to submit to the Seleucidne. Subsequently (b. C. 190), two Armenian nobles, Artaxias and Zariadris, taking advantage of the moment, when Antiochus the Great had been defeated by the Romans, freed their country from the dominion of the Syrian kings. And it was at this time that the country was divided into the two kingdoms of Armenia Major and Armenia Minor. Artaxias became king of Armenia Major, and Zariadris of Armenia Minor. The Sophenian Artanes, or Arsaces, a descendant of Zariadris, was conquered, and deposed by Tigranes, the king of Armenia Major, who thus became ruler of the two Armenias. (Strab. xi. pp. 528, 531.) The descendants of Artaxias reigned in Armenia till their conquest by the Arsacidae, and the establishment of the kings of that family. For the history of Armenia under the dynasty of the Arsacidae, from B. C. 149 to A. D. 428, full particulars are given in the Diet, of Biog. (vol. i. p. 361, seq.), with an account of the dynasties, which for a period of almost a thousand years reigned in this country after the fall of the Arsacidae. This later history, till the death of the last king of Armenia, at Paris, A.D. 1393, has been detailed by St. Martin, along with chronological tables and lists of the different kings and patriarchs.

Ptolemy (/. c.) gives a list of Armenian towns, most of which are never met with in history, and their site remains unknown. The towns which are best known in connection with the writers of Greece and Rome are: Abtaxata, or Artaxiasata; Tl

GRANOCEBTA; TlIEODOSIOPOLIS; CARCATHIO

CEBTA; Akmosata; Artaoeira ; Naxuana; Mokuxda; Buasa; Bizabjja; Amida. (Rittcr, Erdhmde, vol. x.; St. Martin, Mem. sur lArmenie; Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. vol. i.; Kinneir, Memoirs of the Persian Empire, and Travels

in Armenia; Morier, Travels in Persia, yo\. i; Ker Porter, Travels; London Journal, Geog. vols.ui. vi. x.; Grote's Greece, ix. p. 157. [E. B. J.]

ARME'NIAE PYLAE ('ApfuyUev niXa<), the Armenian gates of Eratosthenes (Strab. ii. p. 80), are identified by modern geographers with Gergm Kal'ah-si, at the foot of the Taurus. The Euphrates, sweeping round through Mount Taurus, a few miles above JJiriskd, attains at that point its most easterly curve, rolls over rapids immediately above the village so named, and then turning again below the cliff of the castle of Gergm, passes through a very narrow gorge above 400 feet in depth. This is tlie second repulse the river meets with, as the first is placed at Tomisa (Tokhma-Su). (Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. x, p. 985.) The beds in the lower valley consist of red sandstone and sandstone conglomerate supporting limestone. (Ainsworth, London Geog. Journal, vol. x. p. 333; Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. vol. i. pp. 70,71,293,350.) [E. B.J.]

ARME'NIUM (Ap/ieVioF: Magula), a town of Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, situated between Pherae and Larissa, near the lake Boebei's, said to have been the birthplace of Armenus, who accompanied Jason to Asia, and gave his name to the country of Armenia. It is hardly necessary to remark, that this tale, like so many others, arose from the accidental similarity of the names. "The Magula is a circular eminence three quarters of a mile in circumference, which has some appearance of having been surrounded with walls; and where though little is observable at present except broken stones and fragments of ancient pottery, these are in such an abundance as leaves no doubt of its having been an Hellenic site." (Strab. xi. pp. 503, 530 j Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 451.)

ARMONI'ACUS (Tab. Pent.), A^UA (Piin. v. 3. s. 2: Mafrag), a river of Numidia, between Hippo Regius and the Tusca. [P. S.]

ARMO'RICI or AKMO'BICAE CIVITATES (Caes. B. G. v. 53), are those people of the Celtica of Caesar who occupied the coast between the Loire and the Seine. The name is derived from the Celtic ar, "on" or " near," and mor, " the sea." The same element appears in the term Morini, who occupied the coast about Calais. It is likely enough, therefore, that Armorica bad not a very definite geographical signification. In the great rising of the Galli (vii. 75) Caesar speaks of all the states which border on the ocean, and which are called, according to their custom, Armoricae: he enumerates the Curiosolites, Rhedoncs, Ambibari, Caletes, Osismii, Lemovices (as it stands in the texts), Veneti, and Unelli. For Lemovices we should read Lexovii, or omit the name. The Caletes were on the north side of the Seine, in the Pays de Caux. In this passage Caesar does not mention the Nannetes, who were on the cast side of the Loire, near the mouth. The Ambibari in Caesar's list are a doubtful name. We must add the Abrincatui, Viducasses, Baiocasses, and perhaps the Corisopitt, to the list of the Armoric states. These states seem to have formed a kind of confederation in Caesar's time, or at least to have been united by a common feeling of danger and interest. They were a maritime people, and commanded the seas and their ports. The moet powerful state was the Veneti. [veneti.] The name Armorica in the middle ages was limited to Bretagne.

Pliny (iv. 17) says "Aquitanica, Aremorica ante* dicta," and he says nothing of the Armoricae Civitates of Caesar. This looks very like a blunder

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