صور الصفحة

Strabo (p. 194) mentions a division of the Belgae, whom he calls ITafWicfwiTai; and he particularly names the Veneti and Osismii. They are therefore the Armorici. [G. L.~|

ARMO'SOTA or ARSAMO'SOTA ('AppJaora, Polyb. viii. 25; 'Apiro/ioVoro, Ptol. v. 13; Armosota, Plin. vi. 9; Arsamosata, Tac. AnnaL xv. 10 j Spanheim, de Urn Numm. p. 903, has a coin of H. Aorelins, with the epigraph APMACAITTHNnN), a town of Armenia, situated near the Euphrates. (Plin./.c.) In the times of the emperors of the East, it formed the thema or military district of Asmosat, which was in the neighbourhood of Uandsith or Chauzith. (Const. Porph. de Admin. Imp. c. 50, p. 182, ed. Meurs.) Ritter (Erdhmde, vol. xi. p. 107) places it in Sophcne (Kharpdt'), and considers that it may be represented by the modern Se'rt,—the Tigranocerta of D'Anville. (Lieut. Col. Sheil, London Geog. Soc. vol. viii. p. 77; St. Martin, Mem. eur TArmenia, vol. L p. 106.) [E. B. J.]

ARMOZON PBOM. [harmozon.] ARNA ('Apra: Eth. Arnas-atis), a city of Umbria, mentioned both by Silius Italicus and Ptolemy, as well as by Pliny, who enumerates the Amates among the inland towns of that province. (Sil. Ital. viii. 458; Ptol. iii. 1. § 54; Plin. iii. 14. s. 19.) Both Silius and Ptolemy associate it with Hispellum, Mevania, and other cities in the western part of Umbria; and tho inscriptions discovered at CivUella dArno, a small town on a hill about 5 miles E. of Perugia, but on the opposite side of the Tiber, leave no doubt that this occupies the site of Ama. Some remains of a temple still exist there, and besides inscriptions, some of which attest its municipal rank, numerous minor objects of antiquity have been discovered on the spot. (Cluver. Ital. p 626; Vermiglioli, Dell antica Citta oT Ama Umbro-Elrueca, 8vo., Perugia, 1800; Orell. Inter. 90, 91.) Cluverius and others have supposed the Aharna, or Adharna of Livy (x. 25), to be the same with Ama, but this is probably a mistake. .[aharna.] [E. H. B.]

ARNA. [xasthus.]

ARNAE (Aprai), a town in the Macedonian Chalcidice, a day's march from Anion and B rami sens; but its site is uncertain. (Thnc. iv. 103.) Leake supposes Arnac to be the same as the place called Calaroa by Stephanus (>. r. KtUapva), the existence of which near this part of the coast is shown by the name Tunis Calamaea, which Mela (ii. 3) mentions as between the Strymon and the harbour Caprus. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 170.)

ARNE Q'Apm: Eth. 'Apvcuos). 1. The chief town of the Aeolian Boeotians in Thessaly, which was said to have derived its name from Ame, a daughter of Aeolus. (Paus. ix. 40. § 5.) The town was said to have been founded three generations before the Trojan war. (Diod. iv. 67.) According to Thucydides (i. 12) the Aeolian Boeotians were expelled from Arne by the Thessalians sixty years after the Trojan war, and settled in tho country called Boeotia after them; but other writers, inverting the order of events, represent the Thcssnlian Ame as founded by Boeotians, who had been expelled from their country by the Pelasgians. (Strab. ix. pp. 401, 411, 413; Steph. B. «. v.) K. 0. Muller has brought forward many reasons for believing that the Aeolian Boeotians occupied the centre of Thessaly, and nearly the same district as the Thessaliotis of later times; and his views arc confirmed by

Leake's discovery of the site of Cierium (Kifptov), which, according to Stephanus B. («. v. 'hpvri) was identical with Ame, and which must be placed at Matardnga, between the Epineus or Apidanus, and a tributary of that river, probably the ancient Curalius. For details see Cierium. (Muller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 475, seq. transl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 500, seq.)

2. A town of Boeotia, mentioned by Homer (//. ii. 507), and probably founded by the Boeotians after their expulsion from Thessaly. Some of the ancients identified this Boeotian Ame with Chaeroneia (Paus. ix. 40. § 5), others with Acraephium (Strab. ix. p. 413); and others again supposed that it had been swallowed up by the waters of the lake Copais. (Strab. i. p. 59, ix. p. 413.)

ARNEAE (Apirtai: Eth. 'Apwdrnt), a small city of Lycia mentioned by Capito in his Itaurica. (Steph. ». v. 'Apv(ai') It is supposed to be at a place called Erness, in the interior of Lycia, about 36° 26' N. lat. There are said to be remains there. (Spran's Lycia, vol. i. p. 101, and the Map.) [G.L.]

ARNISSA CApwo-ffo), a town of Macedonia in the province Eordaea, probably in the vale of Cstrovo, at the entrance of the pass over the mountains which separated Lyncestis from Eordaea. (Thuc. It. 108; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 315, seq.)

ARNON CAP""". LXX.: Wady-eUMojib), a river which separates Trans-Jordanic Palestine from Moab. (Ar«m.xxi. 13, 26; Deut. ii. 24, iii. 8,16; Josh. xii. 1; Isa. xvi. 2; Jer. xlviii. 20.) Its principal source is a little to the NE. of Katrane (Burkhardt, p. 373; comp. Joseph. Ant. iv. 5. § 1),whence it pursues a circuitous course into the Dead Sea, flowing in a rocky bed, which in summer is almost dried up, but huge masses of rock torn from the banks mark its impetuosity during the rainy season. (Robinson, Palestine, vol. ii. pp.206, 213, 569; Irby and Mangles, p. 461.) [E. B. J.]

ARNUS ("Apvor: Arno"), the principal river of Tuscany, and next to the Tiber the most considerable river of Central Italy. Strabo describes it as flowing from Arretium, and seems to have regarded it as rising near that city; but its real sources are nearly 30 miles further to the N., in one of the loftiest groups of the Tuscan Apennines, now called Monte Falterona. From thence it has a course nearly due S. till it approaches within a few miles of Artzzo (Arretium), when it turns abruptly to the NW., and pursues this direction for about 30 miles, as far as Pontattieve, where it again makes a sudden turn, and from thence holds its course nearly due W. to the Tyrrhenian Sea. In this latter part of its course it flowed under the walls of Florentia, and the more ancient city of Pisa; immediately below which it received, in ancient times, the waters of the Auser, or Serchio, which now pursue their own separate course to the sea. [acser.] Strabo gives an exaggerated account of the violent agitation produced by the confluence of the two streams, which may, however, have been at times very considerable, when they were both swoln by floods. (Strab. v. p. 222; Plin. iii. 5. s.8; Pseud. Arist. de Mirab. § 92; Rutil. Itin. i. 566.) Still more extraordinary is his statement that the stream of the Amus was divided into three, in the upper part of its course; though some writers have maintained that a part of its waters formerly turned off near Arretium, and flowed through tho Val di Chiana into the Tiber. [clasis. 1 Its mouth was distant, according to Strabo, only 20 stadia from Pisa; an estimate, probably, below the truth, but the coast line has certainly receded considerably, from the constant accumulation of sand. The present mouth of the Arno, which is above six miles below Pisa, is an artificial channel, cut at the beginning of the 17th century. (Targioni-Tozzetti, Viaggi inToscana, vol. ii. pp.96, 97.) The whole length of its course is about 140 Italian, or 175 Roman, miles.

The Arno receives in its course numerous tributary streams, but of none of these have the ancient names been preserved to us. It has always been subject to violent floods, and inundates the flat country on its banks throughout the lower part of its course. This must have been the case in ancient times to a still greater extent, and thus were formed the marshes through which Hannibal found so much difficulty in forcing his way on his march to Arretium. (Pol. iii. 78, 79; Liv. xxii. 2, 3.) Strabo, indeed, supposes these marshes to have been on the N. side of the Apennines, and in the valley of the Padns (v. p. 217); but this seems to be certainly a mistake; Livy expressly refers them to the Anius, and this position is at least equally consistent with the narrative of Polybius, who affords no distinct statement on the point. (Niebuhr, Lect. on Rom. Hist, vol. i. p. 181; Vaudoncourt, Hilt, det Campagnet dAnnibal, vol. i. pp. 136,156.) The marshy lakes, called the Paduli di Fucecchio and di Bkntlna, still existing between the Apennines and the N. bank of the Arno, are evidently the remains of a state of things formerly much more extensively developed. At a still earlier period it is probable that the basin or valley at the foot of the hill of Faesulae, in the centre of which now stands the city of Florence, was likewise a marsh, and that the narrow rocky gorge through which the river now escapes (just below the village of Signa, 10 miles from Florence) was formed, or at least widened, by artificial means. (Niebuhr, Vortrage ub. Volker «. Lander, p.339.) [E.H.B.]

AROA'NIUS ('ApooVioi), the name of three rivers in Arcadia. 1. Or Olbius ('oxsios), called Anias ('Arias) by Strabo, a river rising in the mountains to the north of Pheneus, and falling into some caverns called katavothra, near the latter city. When these caverns happened to be blocked up, the waters of the river overflowed the whole plain, and communicated with the Ladon and the Alpheius. (Strab. viii. p. 389; Paus. viii. 14. §3, 15. §6.)

2. (Katzana), a tributary of the Ladon, and flowing past the western side of Cleitor. (Paus. viii. 19. § 4, 21. § 1.) Polybiua (iv. 70), without mentioning the name of the river, properly describes it as an impetuous torrent from the neighbouring mountains. The trout in the Aroanius are said to have sung like thrushes. (Paus. viii. 21. §2; Athen. viii. p. 331, e.; Plin. ix. 19; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. pp. 241,263, seq.) This river rose in the Aroanian mountains (&pi\ 'Apodvia, Paus. viii. 18. § 7), now called Kltelmos, which is 7726 feet in height (Leake, Pcloponnetiaca, p. 203.)

3. A tributary of the Erymanthus, flowing on ono side of Psophis. (Paus. viii. 24. § 3.)

AKOE. [patrae.]

AKOEK, a city of the Amorites on the north side of tho valley of tie Arnon ( Wady-el-M6jib) (Deut. ii. 36, iii. 12), occupied by the tribe of Gad {Numb. xxxii. 34). Eusebius says that the site of the city existed in his day on the top of a hill (Onomast

*. v.). And Burckhardt was shown, on the top of the precipice which forms the northern brink of the Wady-el-M6jib, the ruins of Araayr, which he concludes to be the Aroer of the Scriptures. {Trarelt, p. 372.) [G. W.]

AROTKATA PROMONTO'RIUM CApipm. tLKOovKal ifivtytor, Ptol. iv. 7. § 10; "Apwfjta, Steph. B. t. v.; Arrian, Perip. Mar. Eryth. 7, 8, 17, 33: Eth. 'Apaptis: the modern Cap Quardafw), was the easternmost headland of Africa, in lat 11° N. The promontory was a continuation of Mount Elephas, and the town Aromata was the principal city in the Regio Cinnamonifera (i) Kiwa+Lo<p6pos x<"P*i Strab. xvi. p. 774.) Ptolemy, indeed (iv. 7. § 34), places the region of cinnamon and spices further to the west and nearer to the White Nile. The district of which Aromata was the capital bounded Africa Barbaria to the north, and the Long-lived Aethiopians (Macrobii) are placed by some geographers immediately south of it The quantity of spaces employed by the Egyptians in the process of embalming rendered their trade with Aromata active and regular. Diodorus (i. 91) mentions cinnamon as one of the usual condiments of mummies. [ W. B. D.]

AROSAPES (Plin. vL 23; Arusaces, Mela, iii. 7), a river of Ariana, in the SE. part of Persia; conjectured by Forbiger {Alt. Geogr. vol. iL p. 537) to be the same as the modern Arghasan, one of the tributaries of the Helmend. From Mela it would seem to have been in the district of Pattalene. f V.]

AT50SIS ('Aaoo-u, Arrian, Ind. 39), a river which flowed into the Persian Gulf, forming the boundary of Susiana and Persis. It is the same as the Oroatis ('Opodris; in Zend. Aurwat, "swift") of Strabo (xv. pp. 727, 729), and of Ptolemy (ri. 4. § 1). Arrian and Strabo both state that it was the chief river in those parts. It answers to the Zarotis of Pliny (vi. 23. s. 26), "ostio diflicilis nisi peritis." It is now called the Tab. {Geogr. Nub. p. 123; Otter, vol. ii. p. 49.) Ccllarius (iii c. 9) has conjectured that the Arosis of Arrian, the Rogomanis of Ptolemy (vi. 4. § 2), and Amm. Marc, (xxiii. 6), and the Persian Araxcs (Strab. xv. p. 729), are different names of one and the same river: but this does not seem to be the case. [V.J

ARO'TREBAE. [artabri.]

ARPI ('Apiroi, Ptol.: Eth.'Aprav6s, Arpanus, Plin., Arpinus, Liv.: Arpa), called also ARGVKIPA, or ARGYRIPPA (Argyripa, Virg. SiL Ital.; 'Apyipima, Strab. Pol.; 'Apyvplrrwayos, Steph. B.), one of the most ancient and important cities of Apulia, situated in the centre of the great Apulian plain, about 13 miles E. of Luceria, and 20 from the sea at Sipontum. (The Tab. Peut gives 21 M. P. to Sipontum.) Its foundation is generally attributed, both by Greek and Roman writers, to Diomedcs, who is said to have originally named it after his native city Argos Hippium ("Afv yos "l7nrioF), of which the name Argyrippa was supposed to be a corruption. (Strab. vi. p. 283; Plin. iii. 11. 8.16; Appian. Annib. 31; Lycophr. Alex. 592; Virg. Aen. xi. 246; Justin, xx. 1; Steph. B. I. v. 'Apyipnnra.) But this is probably a mere etymological fancy; and it is even doubtful whether the name of Argyrippa, though so constantly used by Greek authors, was known to the inhabitants themselves, in historical times. Their coins always bear 'Apxavot; and Dionysius expressly says that Argyrippa was in history called ArpL Nor is there any historical evidence of its having been a Greek colony: its name is not found in Scylax, or Scymnus Cliius, who notice all the cities to which they ascribe a Greek origin, and though we find both Arpi and Canusium called by Strabo irdAeis 'iTaAiarrlSes, by which he certainly means Italian-Greek, this probably refers merely to their reputed foundation by Diomedes. It is certain, however, from its coins, as well as other sources, that it had received, in common with the neighbouring city of Canusium, a great amount of Greek influence and cultivation. (Mommsen, U. I. XHalekte, pp. 89—92.) Its name first appears in history during*the wars between the Romans and the Samnites, when the Arpani are mentioned as on hostile terms with the latter, and in consequence supplied the Roman consul Papirius with provisions and other supplies for the siege of Luceria, B. c. 320. (Liv. ix. 13.) It is singular that its name does not occur again during these wars; probably it continued steadfast to the Roman illianee, as we find it giving a striking proof of fidelity in the war with Pyrrhus, on which occasion the Arpani furnished a contingent of 4000 foot and 400 horse, and rendered signal assistance to the Romans at the battle of Asculnm. (Dionys. xx. Fr. nov. ed. Didot.) In the Second Punic War it plays an important part. During the first invasion of Apulia by Hannibal (b. C. 217), its territory was laid waste by the Carthaginians; but after the battle of Cannae it was one of the first to open its gates to the conqueror, who took up his quarters in its fertile plain for the ensuing winter. It continued in his power till B.C. 213, when it was betrayed by the inhabitants into the hands of Fabius Maximus, though occupied at the time by a garrison of 5000 Carthaginian troops. (Pol.iiL 88,118; Liv.xxii. 9,12, xxiv. 3,45—47; Appian. Annib. 31.) So powerful was Arpi at this period that it furnished on one occasion 3000 fully armed troops, but it suffered severely from the effects of the war, and not only never appears to have regained its former importance, but we may date from this period the commencement of its total decline. (Mommsen, U. I. Dialekte, p. 86.) It is only once again mentioned in history, when Caesar halted there for a night on his march to Brundusium. (Cic. ad AU.ix. 3.) Strabo tells us (/. c), that the extensive circuit of the walls still remaining in his time, attested the former magnitude of the city, but it was then greatly decayed. Nor does any attempt seem to have been made under the Roman Empire to arrest its decline; but we find it continuing to exist as a town of small considera1 tion under Constantine, who erected it into a bishop's see. The period of its total destruction is unknown; there now remain only faint traces of its walls, besides sepulchres and other signs of ancient habitation at a spot still called Arpa, about 5 miles N. of the modem city of Foggia, The prosperity of this last city, one of the most populous and flourishing in the Neapolitan dominions, has probably accelerated the complete decay of Arpi.

[graphic][merged small]

(Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. p. 148; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. 219, 220; Holstcn. Not. in Cluver. p. 280.)

All the coins of Arpi bear Greek legends; the one annexed has the name of a magistrate AAZOT, evidently the same which the Latins wrote Dasius, as in the case of Dasius Altinius mentioned by Livy. (Mommsen. /. c. p. 72.) [E.H.B.]

ARPI'NTJM ("Apirii/o, Diod.; Eth. Arpinas, -Stis: Arpino), a very ancient and celebrated city of the Volscians, situated on a hill rising above the valley of the Liris, near its junction with the Fibrenus, and about 6 miles S. of Sora. (Sil. Ital. viii. 401.) The still extant remains of its ancient walls prove it to have been a city of importance at a very early period; Juvenal expressly tells us that it was it the Volscian territory (viii. 245), but no mention of it is found, any more than of the other Volscian cities in this part of Italy, during the wars of the Romans with that people, and it had been wrested from them by the Samnites before its name appears in history. In B.C. 305 it was conquered from the latter by the Romans, but from Livy's expression "recepta ab Samnitibus," it appears that it had already, as well as Sora, previously been in their hands. (Liv. ix. 44; Diod. xx. 90.) A few years later, B. C. 302, it obtained the Roman franchise, but without the right of suffrage, which was not bestowed upon its citizens until B. c. 188, when they were enrolled in the Cornelian tribe. (Liv. xxxviii. 36; Festus. *. v. Municipium.') During the latter period of the Roman republic, Arpinum was a flourishing municipal town, but its chief celebrity is derived from its having been the birth-place of two of the most illustrious men in Roman history, C. Marius and M. Tullius Cicero. The former was of ignoble birth, and is said to have failed in obtaining some local magistracy in his native place, but the family of Cicero was certainly one of the most ancient and considerable at Arpinum, and his father was of equestrian rank. (Cic. pro Plane. 8, de Leg. ii. 1, 3, Hi. 16; Sail. Jug. 67; Val. Max. ii. 2. § 3, vi. 9. § 14; Juv. viii. 237—248.) The writings of Cicero abound with allusions to his native place, the inhabitants of which, in common with those cf the neighbouring Volscian cities, he describes as rustic and simple in their manners, from the rugged and mountainous character of the country; but possessing many also of the virtues of mountaineers; and he applies to Arpinum the well-known lines in the Odyssey, concerning Ithaca;

T/nfX** ^AA' O7a0$7 Kovpbrpotpos, &c. (Cic. pro Plane. 9, adAtt. ii. 11, de Legg. ii. 1, 2, &c.) He inherited from his father an estate in the plain beneath the town, on the banks of the little river Fibrenus, where his favourite villa was situated, on an island surrounded by the waters of that beautiful stream. [fibrenus.] There is no authority for supposing that he had, besides this, a honse in the town of Arpinum, as has been assumed by local antiquarians: though the alleged remains of the Casa di Cicerone are still shown in the ancient citadel. (Dionigi, Viaggio nel Lazio, p. 51.)

Very little notice is found of Arpinum under the Roman empire. Its name is not mentioned either by Strabo or Ptolemy, though included by Pliny (iii. 5. s. 9) among the cities of the First Region: it was undoubtedly reckoned a city of Latium, in the later acceptation of that name. But few inscriptions of imperial times have been discovered here : but from two of these we learn that it already possessed, under the Romans, the woollen manufactures which are still one of its chief sources of prosperity. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 374.) It seems, however, to have declined during the later ages of the empire; but continued to subsist throughout the middle ages, and is still a considerable town with about 9000 inhabitants.

Arpinum contains scarcely any remains of Roman date, but its ancient walls,built in theCyclopean style, of large polygonal or irregular blocks of stone, are one of the most striking specimens of this style of construction in Italy. They extend along the northern brow of the hill, occupied by the present town, as far as the ancient citadel now called Cinita Vecchia on its highest summit. Nearly adjoining this is an ancient gate of very singular construction, being formed of roughly hewn stones, the successive courses of which project over each other till they meet, so as to form a kind of pointed arch. Some resemblance may certainly be traced between this gateway and those at Tiryns and Mycenae, but the agreement is by no means so close as maintained by Gell and other writers. Lower down the hill is a fine Roman arch, serving as one of the gates of the modern town; and near it are some massive remains of a monument, apparently sepulchral, which a local antiquary (Clavelli) maintains to be the tomb of king Saturnus (!), who, according to popular belief, was the founder of Arpinum. (Romanclli, vol. iii. pp. 371—375; Clavelli, Storia di Arpino, pp. 11, 12; Kelsall, Journey to Arpino, Geneva, 1820,pp.63—79; Craven, Abruzzi, vol. i. pp. 107—109; Dionigi, Viaggio ad alcune Citta del Lazio, pp. 47—53.)



Cicero repeatedly alludes to a villa belonging to his brother Quintus, between Arpinum and Aquinum, to which he gives the name of Arcanum (a<f Q. Er. iii. 1, 9, ad Att. v. 1). Hence it has lieen supposed that the modem village of Arce, about 7 miles S. of Arpinum, was in ancient times known as Aitx ; and indeed it is already mentioned under that name by P. Diaconus, in the seventh century. (Hist, vi. 27.) There is, however, no ground for connecting it (as has been done by Romanelli and others) with the AI? of Ptolemy (iii. 1. § 57), which is placed by that writer among the Marsi. It was probably only a village in the territory of Arpinum; though, if we can trust to tho inscriptions published by local writers in which Arkab and Akkanum arc found, it must have been a town with municipal privileges. (Romanelli,vol. iii.pp.361,375; but comp. Muratori, Inter, p. 1102. 4.) The villa of Q. Cicero was placed, like that of his brother, in the valley of tho Litis, beneath the hill now occupied by Arce: and some remains which have been found in that locality are regarded, with much plausibility, as those of the villa itself. The inscriptions alleged

to have been discovered there are, however, of very doubtful authenticity. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 376, Dionigi, I. c. p. 45; Orell. Inter. 571, 572.)

Plutarch {Mar. 3) mentions a village which he calls Cirrhaeaton (Ki(l/5<u<iTioi'), in the territory of Arpinum, at which he tells us that Marius was brought up. The name is probably a corruption of Cerkatae, but if so, he is certaiidy mistaken in assigning it to the immediate neighbourhood of Arpinum. [cereatae.] [K. H. B.]

AREA- 1 • (Marrah, J/aarra), a town of Chalcidice.in Syria, 20 M.P. S. of Chalcis (ft. Ant. p. 194). In Abulfeda (Tab. Syr. pp. 21, 111), it appears as a considerable place, under the name of Maarat.

2. ('A/507) Kti/xv, Ptol. vi. 7. § 30), an inland town of Arabia Felix, the same apparently which Pliny calls Arcni (vi. 28. s. 32). [P. S.]

ARRABO CApaSdy, Ptol.ii. 11. § 5, ii. 16. §§ 1, 2). 1. A river, one of the feeders of the Danube, and the boundary between Upper and Lower Tannonia. It entered the Danube just below the modern royal borough of Raab.

2. Ahrabone (in the ablative case, Georg. Ravenna, iv. 19), or Arrabona, in its later form, was a city of Pannonia situated near the junction of the river Arrabo with the Danube. It was a place of some importance under the lower empire, and was garrisoned by detachments of the tenth and fourteenth legions. It is probably tho Ahbon CApfiwf) of Polybius (ii. 11). The royal borough of Raab corresponds nearly with the ancient Arra'po. (ft. Anton, p. 246; Tab. Peutinger.; Notitia Imperii.) [W. B. D.]

A'RRABON, A'RRAGON. [abacus.]

ARRE'Cei ('A^xo'), a tribe of the llaeotae, on the E. side of the Palus Maeotis (Strab. xi. p. 495; Steph. B. t. v.; Plin. vi. 7); probably tie Arichi ('Ape*"') rf ptolemy (v. 9. § 18). [P. S.]

ARRE'TIUM ('hff^rim: Eth. •Afi/rnrTvos, Aretinus, Plin.; but inscriptions have always Arretinus: Arezzo), one of the most ancient and powerful cities of Etruria, situated in the upper valley of the Amus, about 4 miles S. of that river. Strabo says that it was the most inland city of Etruria, near the foot of the Apennines, and reckons it 1,200 stadia from Rome, which rather exceeds the truth. The Itineraries place it on the Via Clodia, 50 M. P. from Florentia, and 37 from Clusium. (Strab. v. p. 226; Itin. Ant. p. 285; Tab. Peut.) All accounts agree in representing it as in early ages one of the most important and powerful cities of Etruria, and it was unquestionably one of the twelve which composed the Cflnfederation (Midler, Etrutker, vol. i. p. 345), though, in consequence of its remoteness from Rome, we hear comparatively little of it in history. It is first mentioned during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, when wo are told that five of the Etruscan cities, Arrctium, Clusium, Volatcrrae, Ruscllae, and Votulonia, united their arms with the Latins and Sabines against the growing power of the Roman king. (Dionys. iii. 51.) From this time we hear no more of it for more than two centuries, till the extension of the Roman arms again brought them into collision with the more distant cities of Etrnria; but among these Arretium seems to have been the least hostile in its disposition. In n. c. 309 we are told that it was the only one of the Etruscan cities which did not join in the war against Rome, and thourh it appears to have been subsequently drawn into tiie league, it hastened in the following year to conclude a peace with the Republic for 30 years. (Liv. is. 32, 37; Diod. xx. 35.) It would seem that the Arretines were again in arms with the other Etruscans in B. o. 294, bnt were compelled to sue for peace, and purchased a truce for 40 years with a large sum of money. (Id. x. 37.) Livy speaks of Arretium at this time as one of the chief cities of Etruria, " capita Etruriae populorum;" but we leam that they were agitated, and probably weakened by domestic dissensions, which in one instance involved them in open war. (Id. x. 3.) The occasion on which they passed into the condition of subjects or dependents of Rome is unknown, but it was apparently by a peaceful arrangement, as we hear of no triumph over the Arretines. In B. C. 283 they were besieged by the Senonian Gauls, and a Roman army which advanced to their relief was defeated, but the city did not fall into the hands of the enemy. (Pol. ii. 19.)

After the Romans had completed the conquest of Italy, Arretium was regarded as a military post of the highest importance, as commanding the western entrance into Etruria and the valley of the Tiber from Cisalpine Gaul. The high road across the Apennines from thence to Bononia was not constructed till B. c. 187 (Liv. xxxix. 2), but it is clear that this route was one previously frequented; hence, in the Second Punic War, Flaminius was posted at Arretium with his army in order to oppose the advance of Hannibal, while Servilius occupied Arirainum with the like object. (Pol. in. 77, 80; Liv. xxii. 2, 3.) During a later period of the same war suspicions were entertained of the fidelity of Arretium; but Marccllus, having been sent thither in haste, prevented an open defection, and severe precautions were taken for the future. (Liv. xxvii. 21, 22, 24.) But a few years afterwards (b. C. 205) the Arretines were among the foremost of the cities of Etruria to furnish arms and military stores of various kinds for the armament of Scipio. (Liv. xxviii. 45.) In the civil wars of Sulla and Marius they took part with the latter, for which they were severely punished by Sulla, who deprived them of the rights of Roman citizens, and confiscated their lands, but did not actually carry out their partition. Many of the inhabitants afterwards joined the cause of Catiline. (Cic. pro Caec. 33, pro Muren. 24, ad Alt. i. 19.) At the outbreak of the Civil War in B. c. 49, Arretium was one of the first places which Caesar hastened to occupy immediately after lie had passed the Rubicon. (Caes. B. C. i. 11; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 12.) From this time its name is scarcely mentioned in history; but we leam from the Liber Coloniarum that it received a colony under Augustus, apparently the same to which Pliny gives the title of Arretium Julium. (Lib. Colon, p. 215; Plin. in. 5. s. 8.) That author, indeed, describes the Arretines as divided in his time into the Aretini Vetcres, Aretini Fidentes, and Aretini Julienses. That these constituted separate municipal bodies or communities is certain from an inscription, in which we find the " Decuriones Arretinorum Veterum" (Orell. Inter. 100), but it is not clear that they inhabited altogether distinct towns. Strabo makes no allusion to any such distinction, and other inscriptions mention the " Ordo Arretinorum," without any further addition. (Ib. 1300; Mur. Inter, p. 1094. 2.) It is probable, therefore, that they were merely the names of distinct colonics or bodies of settlers which had for some reason received a separate municipal organisation. The Arrctini

Julienses were evidently the colonists settled by Augustus: the Arretini Fidentes probably dated from the time of Sulla, or perhaps from a still earlier period. But there seems reason to believe that Arretium Vetus, the ancient Etruscan city, did in fact occupy a site ditTerent from the modem Artzzo, which has probably succeeded to the Roman city. The ruins of the former have been pointed out on a height called Poggio di S. Cornelia, two or three miles to the SE. of Arezzo, where there are some remains of ancient walls, apparently of Etruscan construction. The only ruins visible in the modem city are some small portions of an amphitheatre, decidedly of Roman date. (Repetti, Diz. Geogr. di 7'oscana, vol. i. p. 585; Micali, Mon.Ined. p. 410; Denuis's Etruria, vol. ii. pp. 421—431.)

The other relics of antiqnity discovered at Arezzo are far more interesting and valuable. Among these are numerous works in bronze, especially the Chimaera and the statue of Minerva, both of which are now preserved in the Gallery at Florence, and are among the most interesting specimens of Etruscan art. Much pottery has also been found, of a peculiar style of bright red ware with ornaments in relief, wholly different from the painted vases so numerous in Southern Etruria. The Roman inscriptions on them confirm the statement of Pliny (xxxv. 46), who speaks of Arretium as still celebrated in his time for its pottery; which was, however, regarded with contempt by the wealthy Romans, and used only for ordinary purposes. (Mart. i. 54. 6, xiv. 98; Pers. i. 130.) Vitruvius and Pliny both speak of the walls of Arretium (meaning apparently the ancient Etruscan city) as built of brick, and remarkable for the excellence of their construction. (Vitruv. ii. 8. § 9; Plin. xxxv. 14. s. 49.) No remains of these are now visible.

Maecenas is commonly regarded as a native of Arretium. There is not, indeed, any proof that he was himself bora there, but it is certain that the family of the Cilnii to which he belonged was at an early period the most powerful and conspicuous of the nobility of that city (Liv. x. 3, 5; compare Hor. Carm. iii. 29. 1, Sat. i. 6.1) ; and the jesting epithets applied to his favourite by Augustus leave little doubt of his Arretian origin. (Macrob. ii. 4.)

The territory of Arretium was very extensive, and included not only the upper valley of the Arnus, but a part of that of the Tiber also (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9), as well as the adjacent valley of the Clanis. The latter appears to have been, in ancient as well as modern times, marshy, and subject to inundations; and the "Arretinum Stagnum," mentioned by Julius Obscqnens (§ 100), must have been a marshy lake in the Vol di Chiana. Great part of the Arretine territory was extremely fertile: it produced wheat of the finest quality, and several choice varieties of vines. (Plin. xiv. 2. s. 4, xviii. 9, s. 20.) [E.H.B.]

ARRHAPACHI'TIS CA?fia*<*XTM, Ptol. vi. 1. § 2), a district of Assyria Proper, adjoining Armenia, named probably from a town which Ptol. (vi. 1. § 6) calls Arrhapa ('A^airo). The name is, perhaps, connected with Arphaxad, as Bochart (Geog. Sacr. ii. c. 4) has conjectured. [V.]

ARRHE'NE. [akzanenk.]

AKKHIA'NA (ja 'Atyiaya), a town in the Thracian Chersonesus on the Hellespont, near Cynossema. mentioned only by Thucydides (viii. 104.)

ARRI'ACA (It. Ant. pp. 436, 438) or CARACCA (KdpaKica, Ptol. ii. 6. § 57; Geog. Xav. iv. 44), a town of the Carpetani in Hispania Tarra

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