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The Achelous was regarded as the roler and representative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence he is called by Homer (II. xx. 194) Kpefox 'Ax*\dlos, and was worshipped as a mighty god throughout Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on account of his combat with Heracles for the possession of DeTaneira. The river-god first attacked Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched off one of his horns, which forthwith became a cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Track. 9; Ov. Met. ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 5.) This legend alludes apparently to some efforts made at an early period to check the ravages, which the inundations of the river caused in this district; and if the river was confined within its bed by embankments, the region would be converted in modern times into a land of plenty. For further details respecting the mythological character of the Achelous, see Diet, of Biogr. and Myth. s. v.

In the Roman poets we find Achelotdes, i. e. the Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met. v. 552): Achelota CaUirhoe, because Callirhoe was the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): pocula Achelota, i. e. water in general (Virg. Gtorg. i. 9): Acheloius keros, that is, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Acheloius hero being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Theb. ii. 142.)

2. A river of Thessaly, in the district of Malis, flowing near Lamia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.)

3. A mountain torrent in Arcadia, flowing into the Alpheus, from the north of Mount Lycacus. (Paus. viii. 38. § 9.)

4. Also called Peibus, a river in Achaia, flowing near Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.)

ACHERDUS ('AxepooCs, -osktos: Eth. 'Ax«pSowrios), a demus of Attica of uncertain site, belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes (Eccl 362) in joke, uses the form 'Axpa&ov<nos instead of 'Ax'pooiio-iot. (Steph. B. «. w. 'Ax«p!o5t, 'Axpa'oCs; Aeschin. in Tim. § 110, ed. Bekker; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 185.)

ACHERIUI, the inhabitants of a small town in Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero among the victims of the oppressions of Verres. Its position is quite uncertain; whence modem scholars propose to read either Schcrini, or Achetini from Achetcm, a town supposed to be mentioned by Silius Italicus (xiv. 268); but the " pubes liquentis Achett" (or Achaeti, as the name stands in the best MSS.) of that author would seem to indicate a river rather than a town. There is, however, no authority for either emendation. (Cic Verr. iii. 43; Zumpt ad he.; Orcll. Onomast. p. 6; Cluver. SicU. p. 381.) [E. H. B.]

A'CHERON (Ax'pw), the name of several rivers, all of which were, at least at one time, believed to be connected with the lower world. The Acheron as a river of the lower world, is described in the Diet, of Biogr. and Myth.

1. A river of Epeirus in Thesprotia, which passed through the lake Acherusia (^Kxffouaia A(/wij), and after receiving the river Cocytus (Kmrnnos), flowed into the Ionian sea, S. of the promontory Cheimerium. Pliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the river flowed into the Ambraciot gulf. The bay of the sea into which it flowed was usually called Glycys Limen (TKvitbs Aip.V) or Sweet-Harbour, because the water was fresh on account of the quantity poured into it from the lake and river. Scylax and Ptolemy call the harbour Elaca ("EAoio), and

the surrounding district bore according to Thucydides the name of Elaeatis ('EAatans). The Acheron is the modern Gurla or river of Suit, the Cocytus is the Vuvo, and the great marsh or lake below Kattrl tie Acherusia. The water of the Vuvi is reported to be bad, which agrees with the account of Pausanias (i. 17. § 5) in relation to the water of the Cocytus (BBwp artprktrraTov'). The Glycys Limen is called Port Fandri, and its water is still fresh; and in the lower part of the plain the river is commonly called the river of Fandri. Tho upper part of the plain is called Glyky; and thus the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a prisoner; and on its banks was an oracle called viKVOfxavruov (Herod, v. 92. § 7), which was consulted by evoking the spirits of the dead. (Thuc. i. 46; Liv. viii. 24; Strab. p. 324; Steph. B. t. r.; Paus. i. 17. § 5; Dion Cass. L 12; Scylax, p. 11; Ptolem. iii. 14. § 5 ; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.)

2. A river of Elis, a tributary of the Alpheius. (Strab. p. 344; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 89.)

A'CHERON ('Axf>i»<'), a small river in Brut, tium, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in conjunction with that city both by Strabo and Justin, from whom we learn that it was on its banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle against the Lucanians and Bruttians, n. c. 326. (Strab. p. 256; Justin, xii. 2.) Pliny also mentions it as a river of Bruttium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but appears erroneously to connect it with the town of Acherontia in Lucania. It has been supposed to be a small stream, still called the Arconti, which falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia; but its identification must depend upon that of Pandosia. [pandosia.] [E. H.B.]

ACHERO'NTIA ('Axepoi'Tk or "Ax'poxWa), a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, situated about 14 miles S. of Venusia, and 6 SE. of Ferontum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to by Horace in a well-known passage (celsae nidnm Acherontiae, Carm. iii. 4. 14; and Acron ad he."), and the modern town of Acerenza retains the site as well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a hill of considerable elevation, precipitous on three sides, and affording only a very steep approach on the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems to have been always but a small town, and is not mentioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength of its position gave it importance in a military point of view: and during the wars of the Goths against the generals of Justinian, it was occupied by Totila with a garrison, and became one of the chief strongholds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. (Procop. de B. G. iii. 23,26, iv. 26,33.) The reading Acherunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been adopted by Romanelli and Cramer, and considered to refer to the same place, is wholly unsupported by authority. (Alschefski, ad foe.) The coins assigned to this city belong to Acjuilonia. [E. H. B.]

ACHERU'SIA PALUS ('Axepoucrfa Ai|iuT|), the name of several lakes, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to bo connected with the lower world, until at last the Acherusia came to be considered t'n the lower world itself. The most important of these was the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron flowed. [acheros.] There was a small hike of this name near Hermione in Argolis. (Pans. ii. 35.


ACHERU'SIA PALUS CAXfpovaia fdfun}), flu name given to a small lake or saltwater pool in Campania separated from the sea only by a bar of sand, between Cuniae and Cape Misenum, now called Logo di Fusaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on it (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence of its proximity to Avernus, when the legends connecting that lake with the entrance to the infernal regions had become established. [avernus.] On this account the name was by some applied to the Luerine lake, while Artcmidorus maintained that the Acherusian lake and Avernus were the same. (Strab. v.pp. 243,245; Plin.iii. 5.s. 9.) The Lago di Fusaro could never have had any direct connection with the volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of Lake Avemus. The expressions applied to it by Lycophron (Alex. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso (Aen. vi. 107), would seem to refer to Avernus itself rather than to the lake in question. In later times, its banks were adomod, in common with the neighbouring shores of Baiae, with the villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which belonged to Scrvilius Vatia, is particularly described by Seneca (Ep. 55). [E. H. B.]


ACHILLA, ACHOLLA, or ACHULLA ('Ax«fAAo : Eth. 'AxoAAaTof, Achillitanus: ElAliafi, large Iiu.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria (Byz&cena), a little above the N. extremity of the Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. It was a colony from the island of Mclita (Malta), the people of which were colonists from Carthage. Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the African war, n. c. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for whom it was held by Messius; and it was in vain besieged by the Pompeian commander Considius. Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, there has been found an interesting bilingual inscription, in Phoenician and Latin, in which the name is spelt Achulla (Steph. B. *. v.; Strab. p. 831; Liv. xxxiii. 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, Bell. Afric. 33—43; Plin. v. 4; Ptol.; Tab. Peut., name corrupted into Anolla; Shaw's Travels, p. 193; Barth, Wanderungen, tfc. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, Monum. Pkoentc. p. 139.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (Ap6uos 'AxtAAijor, or 'AxiAAecuj, or 'AxfAA«ioy. or AxiAA^tos), a long narrow strip of land in the Euxine, NW. of the Chersonesus Taurica (Crimea) and S. of the mouth of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), running W. and E., with a slight inclination N. and S., for about 80 miles, including that portion of the coast from which it is a prolongation both ways. It is now divided by a narrow gap, which insulates its W. portion, into two parts, called Kosa (i. e. tongue) Tendra on the W., and Kosa Djarilgalch on the E. In the ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the NW. shores of the Euxine, this strip of land was pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which Homer sings; and he was supposed to have instituted games there. Further to the W., off the mouth of the Ister, lay a small island, also sacred to the hero, who had a temple there. This island, called Achillis Insula, or Leuce (Ax<AA<wj ^ AeuK?) vi)aos), was said to be the place to which Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By somo it was m;ulc the abode of tbe

sliades of the blest, where Achilles and other heroes were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify it with the little island of Zmievoi, or On Inn Adassi (i. e. Serpents' Island) in 30° 10' E long., 45° 15' N. lat. (Herod, iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. in Tour. 438; Pind. Olymp. ii. 85; Paus. iii. 19. § 11; Strab. pp. 306—308, foil.; and other passages collected by Ukert, vol. iii. p. 2, pp. 442, foil, and Forbiger, vol. iii. pp. 1121—1122.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'UM ('ax/aa«iok), a small town near the promontory Sigeum in the Troad (Herod, v. 94), where, according to tradition, the tomb of Achilles was. (Strab. p. 594.) When Alexander visited the place on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arriari, i. 12.) [G. L.]

ACHILLIS INSULA. [achuxeos Dkomos.]

ACHOLLA. [achilla.]

ACHRADU'S. [achkkdos.]

ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [lychxidus.]

A'CILA (AitiAa), which seems to be identical with OCE'LIS ("OmjXu), now Zee llill or Ghela, a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, a short distance to the S. of Mocha, and to the N. of the opening of the strait of Babel Mandeb. (Strab. p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol. vi. 7. § 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the BovAiKds of the Homeritae mentioned by Procopius (B.P.\.\9). [W.R.]

ACIMINCUM, ACUMINCUM Q\kovwkov, Ptol. ii. 16. § 5 : Alt-Salankemen), a station or permanent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Amm. Jlarc. six. 11. § 7; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna (iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name is written Acckcm. [W. B. D.]

ACINCUM, AQUINCUM ('\Ko<nyKov, Ptol. ii. 16. §4; Tab. Peat.; Orelli, Imcript. 506, 959, 963, 3924; Amm. Marc xxx. 5; ltin. Anton.), a Roman colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garrison (Dion. Cass. Iv. 24), and where also there was a largo manufactory of bucklers. Acincum, being the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier against the neighbouring Iazyges (Slovdci), was occasionally the head-quarters of tho emperors. It answers to the present A It-Buda, where Roman basements and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within the territory of the Iazyges, stood a Roman fort or outpost called, from its relative position, ContraAciucum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with Acincum by a bridge. Contra-Acincuin is named rifWiox by Ptolemy (iii 7. § 2). [W. B. 1).]

ACI'NIPO (AxiWinro): Honda la Vieja, Ko. 2 leagues N. of Honda), a town of Hispania Baetica, on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the Celtici (ii. 4. § 15.) Its site is marked by the rains of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many coins are found inscribed with the name of the place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. ix. pp. 16—60; Kckhel, vol. i. p. 14.) [P. S.]

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ACIKIS ("Axiptj), a river of Lucania, mentioned both by Pliny and Strabo, as flowing near to Heraclea on the N. ride, as the Siris did on the S. It is still called the Acri or Agri, and has a conrse of above 50 miles, rising in the Apennines near Martico Nvovo, and flowing into the Gulf of Tarentum, a little to the N. of Policoro, the site of the ancient Heraclea. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15; Strab. p. 264.) The Acroios of the Itinerary is supposed by Cluverius to be a corruption of this name, but it would appear to be that of a town, rather than a river. (Itin. Ant. p. 104.) [E. H. B.]

ACIS (*A<tis), a river of Sicily, on the eastern coast of the island, and immediately at the foot of Aetna. It is celebrated on account of the mythological fable connected with its origin, which was ascribed to the blood of the youthful Acis, crushed under an enormous rock by his rival Polyphemus. (Ovid. Met. xiii. 750, &c; Sil. Ital. xiv. 221—226; Anth. Lat. i. 148; Serf, ad Virg. Eel ix. 39, who erroneously writes the name Acinius.) It is evidently in allusion to the same story that Theocritus speaks of the "sacred waters of Acis." ("aki5os Upbv S5o>p, Idyll, i. 69.) From this fable itself we may infer that it was a small stream gushing forth from under a rock; the extreme coldness of its waters noticed by Solinus (Solin. 5. § 17) also joints to the same conclusion. The last circumstance might lead us to identify it with the stream now called Fiume Freddo, but there is every appearance that the town of Acium derived its name from the river, and this was certainly further south. There can be no doubt that Cluverius is right in identifying it with the little river still called Fiume di Jaci, known also by the name of the Acque Grandi, which rises under a rock of lava, and has a very short course to the sea, passing by the modem town of Aci Rea.lt (Acium). The Acis was certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or Asines, with which it has been confounded by several writers. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 115; Smyth*B Sicily, p. 132; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9 ; Ferrara, Detcriz. delt Etna, p. 32.) [E. H. B.]

A'CIUM, a small town on the E. coast of Sicily, mentioned only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant. p 87), which places it on the high road from Catana to Tauromeniujn, at the distance of 9 M. P. from the former city. It evidently derived its name from the little river Acis, and is probably identical with the modem Aci Reale, a considerable town, about a mile from the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, on the road to Catania, are extensive remains of Roman Thexmae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, p. 22; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.]

ACMO'NIA ('ajc/u«»(o: Eth. 'Axpoyieis, 'ak/jloMoi, Acmonensis), a city of Phrygia, mentioned by Cicero (Pro Flacc. 15.) It was on the road from Dorylaeum to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles SW. of Cotyacum; and under the Romans belonged to the Conventus Juridicus of Apamea. The site has been fixed at Ahatkoi; but it still seems doubtful. (Hamilton, Researches, 4c. vol. i. p. 115.) [G. L.]

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ACO'NTIA or ACUTIA ('Aicon-fa, Strab. p. 152; 'AKooVf Io, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (Douro), which had a ford here. Its site is unknown. [P. S.]

ACONTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the coast and on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastward of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of tlio passes of the Sapaei, which were formed by the mountainous coast stretching eastward from Kardla. Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopnlis and the modem Kavdla. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4; It. Ant. and Hicrocl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 180; Tafel, De Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient. p. 13, seq.)

A'CORIS ('A«opi'!),a town of Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 miles N. of Antinoopolis. (Ptol. iv. 5. § 59; Tab. Pcut.)

ACRA LEUCE ('Aitpo Anne}), a great city of Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas (Diod. Sic. xxv. 2), and probably identical with the Castrum Album of Lity (xxiv. 41). Its position seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Ilicitanus, N. of Ilici, near the modem Alicante (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 403). [I'-S.]

ACRAE CAxpoi, Thuc. et alii; 'A*po, Steph. B.; "akdoioi, Ptol.; 'Afcpaiol, Steph. B.; Acrenses, Plin.; Palazzolo), a city of Sicily, situated in the southern portion of the island, on a lofty hill, nearly due \V. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. Ant. p. 87; Tab. Pent.). It was a colony of Syracuse, founded, as we learn from Thucydidcs, 70 years after its parent city, ». e. 663 B. c. (Thuc. vi. 5), but it did not rise to any great importance, and continued almost always in a state of dependence on Syracuse. Its position must, however, have always given it some consequence in a military point of view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syracuse, baiting at Acrae to watch the effect of his proceedings. (Plut, Dion, 27, where we should certainly read "Awpoj for MaKpds.) By the treat)- concluded by the Romans with Hieron, king of Syracuse, Acrae was included in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. xxiii. Exc. p. 502), and this was probably the period of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Punic War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defeat by Marccllus at Acrillae, B.C. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) This is the last mention of it in history, and its name is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in his time a mere dependency of Syracuse, though it is found in Pliny's Hst of the " stipendiariae civitates,"1 so that it must then have possessed a separate municipal existence. (Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. iii. 4. § 14.) The site of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at the modem Palazzolo, the lofty and bleak situation of which corresponds with the description of Silius Italicus ("tumulis glacialibus Acrae," xiv. 206), and its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the modem town is said to be still called Acremonte. Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as "egregium urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excavations carried on by the Baron Judica have brought to light ancient remains of much interest. The most considerable of these are two theatres, both in very fair preservation, of which the largest is fumed towards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great part from the rock, and supposed from some peculiarities in its construction to have been intended to serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music. Numerous other architectural fragments, attesting the existence of temples and other buildings, have also been brought to light, as well as statues, pedestals, inscriptions, and other minor relics. On an adjoining hill are great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while on the hill of Acremonte itself are some monuments of a singular character; figures as large as life, hewn in relief in shallow niches on the surface of the native rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures appears to be that of the goddess Isis, they must belong to a late period. (Fazell. de Rtb. Sic. vol. i. p. 452; Serra di F'aleo, Antichita di Sicilia, vol. iv. p. 158,set).; Judica, Antichita di Acre.) [E.H.B.]

ACRAE ("A/rpai), a town in Aetolia of uncertain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acarnanian town. (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. t. v.'Aitpa.)

ACRAEA ('Axpxfa), a mountain in Argolis, opposite the Heraeum, or great temple of Hera. (Paus. ii. 17. § 2; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 393, Peloponnesiaca, p. 263.)

ACRAE'PHIA, ACRAEPHIAE, ACRAEPHIUM, ACRAEPHNIUM (VUcfxwpia, Steph. B. t. v.; Herod, via. 135, Acraephia, Liv. xxxiii. 29; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; 'Axpaupdu, Strab. p. 410; 'Axpol<ptov, Strab. p. 413.; 'AnpaiQviov, Paus. ix. 23. § 5: rd 'Axpat'tppia, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. *. v. ; Eth. 'AKpiHptcuot, 'AKpal<pios, 'Axpaipi'ios, 'AKpcuipyuiT7)i, 'Axpaupvitit, Steph. B. t. v.; 'AKpaupievs, Bikkh, Inter. 1587: nr. Kardhitza), a town of Boeotia on the slope of Mt. Ptoum (nTwo») and on the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here called 'AxptuipU Afaivi) from the town. Acraephia is said to have been founded by Athamas or Acraepheus, son of Apoilo; and according to some writers it was the same as the Homeric Arne. Here the Thebans took refuge, when their city was destroyed by Alexander. It contained a temple of Dionysus. (Steph. B. t. v.; Strab. p. 413; Paus. /. c.) At the distance of 15 stadia from the town, on the right of the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptous. This oracle was consulted by Mardonius before the battle of Plataea, and is said to have answered lus emissary, who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. The name of the mountain was derived by some from Ptous, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by others from Leto having been frightened (uro&o) by a boar, when she was about to bring forth in this place. Both Acracplua and the oracle belonged to Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoau Apollo, properly so called; Plutarch (Gryllus, 7) mentions a AoKas, but other writers speak only of a ti^tvos, itpov, xfyriariipiov or liMrrtioy. (Steph. B. v.; Strab. /. c; Paus. I. a, iv. 32. § 5; Herod, viii.135; Pint. Pdop. 10.) According to Pausauias the oracle ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; but the sanctuary still continued to retain its celebrity, as we sec from the great Acraephian inscription, which Bikkh places in the time of M. Aurelius and his son Comrnodus after A.d. 177. It appears from this inscription that a festival was celebrated in honour of the Ptoan Apollo every four years. (Bikkh, Inter. No. 1025.) The ruins of Acraephia are situated at a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza. The remains of the acropolis are visible on an isolated hill, a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copaic sea, and at its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient town. Here stands the church of St. George built out of the stones of the old town, and containing

many fragments of antiquity. In this church Leake discovered the great inscription alluded to above, which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place called Epaminondas. The ruins near the fountain, which is now called Perdihdbrytit, probably belong to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet rpucdpavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now bear the names of Paled, Strittzina, and Skroponeri respectively. These form the central part of Mt. Ptoum, which in a wider signification extended from the Tenerian plain as far as Larymna and the Euboean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the E. from the lakes of Ilyhie and Harma. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, RtUen in Griechenland, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhammer, Hellenilca, p. 182.)

ACRAGAS. [aoriqestum.]

A'CRIAE or ACRAEAE ('Aitpio/, Paus. iii. 21, § 7, 22. §§ 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. § 8; 'Axpauu, Strab. pp. 343, 363; 'Axpcia, Ptol. iii. 16. § 9: Eth. 'Airpiarns), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the Laconian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (I c.) describes the Enrotas as flowing into the sea between Acriae and Gythium. Acriae possessed a sanctuary and a statue of the mother of the gods, which was said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most ancient in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to discover any remains of Acriae; the French expedition place its ruins at the harbour of Kokinio. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, Recherchet, p. 95.)

ACRIDOTHAGI ('AKp,So(pdyo,), or "Locustcaters," the name given by Diodorus (iii. 29) and Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-savage tribes of Aethiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who received their denomination from their mode of life or their staple food. [W. R.]

ACRILLA or ACRILLAE ("A<ViAAa),»town of Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantium (*. v.), who tells us that it was not far from Syracuse. But there can be no doubt that it is the same place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syracusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by Marcellus. The old editions of Livy have AccnxAK, for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has been received by all the recent editors. F'rom this passage we leam that it was on the line of march from Agrigentum to Syracuse, and not far from Acrae; but the exact site is undetermined. Plutarch (MarceU. 18), in relating the same event, writes the namo 'AiriAas or 'AxiXXas. [E. H. B.]

Acritas('ak|>(t<m: C. Gallo), the most southerly promontory in Messcnia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. iv. 34. § 12; Ptol. iii. 16. § 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) ACROCERAU'NIA. [ceraunii Months.] ACliOCORINTHUS. [corinthus.] ACRO'NIUS LACUS. [brigamhsus Lacits.] ACKOREIA ('A(cpw/«io), the mountainous district of Klis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the rivers Peneius and Ladon take their rise. The inhabitants of the district were called Acrocreii ('AKpajfuioi), and their towns appear to have been Thraustus, Ahum, Opus, and Eupagium. The namo is used in opposition to Ko/Afj or Hollow Elis. Stephanus (s. v.), who is followed by many modem writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in Triphylia; but this error appears to have arisen from confounding the Acrocreii with the Paroreatae in Triphylia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. Ileli. iii. 2. § 30, vii. 4. § 14; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 203; Boblave, Reckerches, p. 123.)

ACROTHOUM, or ACROTHO'I ('AKfxfflaoiHer. vii. 22; 'A.Kp66aot, Thuc. iv. 109; Strab. p. 331; Scyl. p. 26 ; Steph. B. «. ».; Acroathon, Mel. ii. 2; Acrothon, Plin. iv. 10. s. 17: £th. 'ako60<ios, 'ak/jo&bi'ttjs), a town in the peninsula of Acte, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated near the extremity of the peninsula, probably upon the site of the modem Lavra. Strabo, Pliny, and Mela 6cem to have supposed that Acrothoum stood upon the site of Mt. Athos; but this'is an impossibility. [athos.] It was stated by Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of Acrothoi lived longer than ordinary men. Mannert and others erroneously suppose Acrothoi to have been the same place as the later Uranopolis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 149.)

ACTE' ('A*rHj), signified a piece of land running into the sea, and attached to another larger piece of land, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. Thus Herodotus gives the name of Acte to Asia Minor as compared with the rest of Asia (iv. 38), and also to Africa itself as jutting out from Asia (iv. 41). Attica also was originally called Acte. (Steph. B. s. ».) [attica.] The name of Acte, however, was more specifically applied to the easternmost of the three promontories jutting out from Chalcidice in Macedonia, on which Mu Athos stands. It is spoken of under Athos.

A'CTIUM ('AKTwy: Eth. "aktioj, Actius: Adj. 'akticucss, Actiacus, also "aktioj, Actius), a promontory in Acamania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf (Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus gained his celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, on September 2nd, u. c. 31. There was a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Thucydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient festival named Act in, celebrated here in honour of the god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was henceforth celebrated once in four years (Treyratrnpts, ludi quinquennales), with musical and gymnastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. lL I; Snet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription found on the site of Actium, and which is probably prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest of the temple was called 'Upair6\os, and that his name was employed in official documents, like that of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated outside of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour of his victory. [nicopolis.] Actium was properly not a town, though it is sometimes described as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.

The sito of Actium has been a subject of dispute. The accompanying plan of the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by Lieut. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of the locality.

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The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between the low point off Acamania, on which stands Fort La Punta (5), and the promontory of Epirus, on which stands the modem town of Prevesa (1), near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narrowest part of this- entrance is only 700 yards, but the average distance between the two shores is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the Bay of Prevesa (P). A second entrance is then formed to the larger basin of the gulf by the two high capes of La Scara (2) in Epciras, and of Madonna (4) in Acamania, the width of this second entrance being about one mile and a half. Now some modem writers, among others DAnville, suppose Actium to have been situated on Cape Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: first, because the rains on C. Madonna are sometimes called Azio (6), which name is apparently a corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to have stood on a height, which description answers to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons arc not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For it should be observed, first, that the name Azio is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that the rains on C. Madonna were those of Actium, and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a height, he does not say that this height was on the sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and it is clear that he considered the entrance of the bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because he makes the breadth of the strait " a little more than four stadia," or half a mile, which is true when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not to the second. That the strait between Prevesa and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of tho Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of

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