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Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Seylax | ADANE ('A8ávn, Philostorg. H. E. iii. 4), called (v. KaoowTol), who makes it 4 stadia, and of ATHANA by Pliny (vi. 28. 8. 32), and ARABIA Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium FELIX ('Apasia Eubaiuwv), in the Periplus of is described by Strabo as “situated within the bay," Arrian (p. 14), now Aden, the chief seaport in the while Actium makes “the mouth of the bay." country of Homeritae on the S. coast of Arabia. (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, It became at a very early period the great mart must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India;

For its exact site, see ANACTORIUM.] The testi- and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by mony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Aelius Gallus in his expedition against Arabia, in Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and has “ Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated ever since remained a place of note. It has revived before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot conspicuously within the last few years, having gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis." | fallen into the possession of the English, and become Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting one of the stations for the steamers which navigate from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, the Red Sea.

[W.R.] which he could hardly have done, if it were so far A'DDUA (d'Adovas: Adda), a river of Gallia out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Cisalpina, one of the largest of the tributaries which Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the | in the Rhaetian Alps near Bormio, and flows through modern La Punta (3), and that the temple of the Valtelline, into the Lacus Larius or Lago di Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the Como, from which it again issues at its south-eastern strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5). extremity near Lecco, and from thence has a course

A few remarks are necessary respecting the site of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed | its course it seems to have formed the limit between in the Bay of Prevesa (P). His troops had built the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and rapid stream: the clearness of its blue waters, rethey occupied the channel itself with their ships. sulting from their passage through a deep lake, is Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a alluded to by Claudian (De VI. Cons. Ilon. 196). level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped Strabo erroneously places its sources in Mt. ADULA, on t

the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where where, according to him, the Rhine also rises: it is Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have probable that he was imperfectly acquainted with been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the descends from the Splügen to the head of the lake Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival much larger river which enters it from the Valof Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after telline. (Strab. iv. pp. 192, 204; v. p. 213; Plin. a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, ii. 16. s. 20; Pol. ii. 32, xxxiv. 10; Tac. Hist. ii. and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But 40.)

[E. H. B.] having experienced some misfortunes, he subse- ADIABE'NE ('Adiaenuh). [Assyria.] quently re-crossed the strait and joined the main ADIS or ADES ('Adis, "Aồns: prob. Rhades), a body of his army at Actium. By the advice of considerable city of Africa, on the Gulf of Tunis, in Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was and took, and before which he defeated the Carthacompelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. ginians, in the 10th year of the first Punic War, After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, B. c. 255. (Pol. i. 30.) As there is no subsequent who was followed by Antony, sailed through the mention of the place, it is supposed to have been middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by They succeeded in making their escape, but most the later town of MAXULA.

(P.S.] of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, ADO'NIS ("Adwvis: Nahr el Ibrahim), a small therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanus enters Punta and Prevesa (EW TW OTEVwv, Dion Cass. the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblus. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated Maundrell records the fact which he himself witby some writers. (Dion Cass. I. 12, seq.; Leake, nessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, l. c.) descending in foods is tinged of a deep red by the

A'DADA ("Adada: Eth. 'Abadeus, Ptol.; 'Ada- | soil of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts dárn in old edit. of Strabo; 'Odáða, Hierocl.), a this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. town in Pisidia of uncertain site. On coins of Va- | Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the lerian and Gallienus we find AAAAENN. Adada beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on is mentioned in the Councils as the see of a bishop. Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, de Dea (Artemiod. ap. Strab. xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. & 8; Syr. 6; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. üi. 80, XX. Hierocl. p. 674, with Wesseling's note.)

144.)

[W.R.) A'DAÑA (á Aðava: Eth. 'Adaveus), a town of ADOREUS, the name of a mountain of Galatin, Cilicia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west now Elmah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, side of the Sarus, now the Syhoon or Syhan. It | in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it contains lay on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, in a the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.) fertile country. There are the remains of a portico. ADORSI. [AORSI.] Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates ADRAA (Adpda, Euseb. Onomast. : "Adoa. Ptol. whoin he had compelled to subinit. (Appian, Mith. v. 15. § 23: LXX. 'Edpaeiv, 'E8paiv : Eng. Vers. 96.) Dion Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus EDREI : and probably the 'Aöpasoós of Hierocles. and Adana being always quarrelling. [G. L.] p. 273: Draa), a town in Palestine, ncar the sources

of the river Hieromas, and deeply embayed in the Steph. B. HADRANUM, Sil. Ital.: Eth. 'Adpavirns, spurs of the mountain chain of Hermon. Before Hadranitanus: Aderno), a city of the interior of Sicily, the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, it was one of the situated at the foot of the western slope of Mt. Aetna chief cities of Og, king of Bashan. After his defeat above the valley of the Simeto, and about 7 miles from and death it was assigned to the half tribe of Ma- Centuripi. We learn from Diodorus (xiv. 37) that nasseh, which settled on the eastern side of Jordan. there existed here from very ancient times a temple It was the seat of a Christian bishop at an early time, of a local deity named Adranus, whose worship was and a bishop of Adraa sat in the council of Seleucia extensively spread through Sicily, and appears to have (A. D. 381), and of Chalcedon (A. D. 451). By the been connected with that of the Palici. (Hesych. s.v. Greeks it was called Adraa, and by the Crusaders Tlalikoi.) But there was no city of the name until Adratum. Its ruins cover a circuit of about 2 miles, the year 400 B. C. when it was founded by the elder of which the most important is a large rectangular Dionysius, with a view to extend his power and inbuilding, surrounded by a double covered colonnade, fluence in the interior of the island. (Diod. I. c.) and with a cistern in the middle. (Numbers, xxi. 33; It probably continued to be a dependency of SyraDeuteron. i. 4, iii. 10; Joshua xii. 4, xüi. 12, 31; cuse; but in 345 B. c. it fell into the hands of TiJoseph. Antiq. iv. 5. § 42; Buckingham, Travels, moleon. (Id. xvi. 68; Plut. Timol. 12.) It was vol. ii. p. 146; Burckhardt, id. p. 241.) [W.B.D.] one of the cities taken by the Romans at the com

ADRAISTAE ('Adpažotal), a people of N. India mencement of the First Punic War (Diod. xxiii. (the Panjab), with a capital city Pimprama (Ilípa Exc. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account īpaua), which Alexander reached in a day's journey continued afterwards in a relation to Rome inferior from the Hydraotes (Ravee), on his march to to that of most other Sicilian cities. This may per. Sangala. (Arrian. Anab. v. 22. & 3.) Lassen iden- haps account for the circumstance that its name is tifies them with the modern Arattas (Pentapotamia, not once mentioned by Cicero (see Zumpt ad Cic. p. 25).

: [P.S.] | Verr. iii. 6, p. 437); but we learn from Pliny that ADRAMI'TAE or ATRAMI'TAE (Plin. vi. 28. it was in his time included in the class of the “ sti8. 32; 'Adpapirai, Ptol.; Arrian, Perip. p. 15), an pendiariae civitates ” of Sicily. (H. N. iii. 8.) Arabian tribe in the district Chatramotitis of Arabia Both Diodorus and Plutarch speak of it as a small Felix. They were situated on the coast of the Red Sea | town owing its importance chiefly to the sanctity of eastward of Aden, and their name is still preserved | its temple; but existing remains prove that it must in the modern Hadramaut. Like their immediate have been at one time a place of some consideration. neighbours in Arabia Felix, the Adramitae were | These consist of portions of the ancient walls and actively engaged in the drug and spice trade, of towers, built in a massive style of large squared blocks which their capital Sabbatha was the emporium. of lava; of massive substructions, supposed to have They were governed by a race of kings, who bore been those of the temple of Adranus; and the ruins the family or official title of Eleazar. (CHATRA- of a large building which appears to have belonged ΔΙΟΤΙΤΑΕ.

[W. B. D.] to Roman Therinae. Numerous sepulchres also ADRAMYE'NTTUS SINUS. [ADRAMYTTIUM; have been discovered and excavated in the immediate AEOLIS.]

neighbourhood. The modern town of Adernò reADRĀMY'TTIUM or ADRAMYTE'UM ('Adpa- tains the ancient site as well as name: it is a consiMÚTTIOV, ASpauÚTTELOV, 'At pauúttlov, 'Atpauút-derable place, with above 6000 inhabitants. (BisTELOV: Eth. 'Agpaputtnvós, Adramyttenus : Adra- cari, Viaggio in Sicilia, pp. 57—60; Ortolani, Diz. miti or Edremit), a town situated at the head of the Geogr. della Sicilia, p. 13; Bull. dell. Inst. Arch. bay, called from it Adramyttenus, and on the river | 1843, p. 129.) Caicus, in Mysia, and on the road from the Helles- Stephanus Byzantinus speaks of the city as situated pontus to Pergamum. According to tradition it was on a river of the same name: this was evidently no founded by Adramys, a brother of Croesus, king of other than the northern branch of the Simeto (SyLydia; but a colony of Athenians is said to have sub- maethus) which is still often called the Fiume d' sequently settled there. (Strab. p. 606.) The place Aderno.

[E. H. B.] certainly became a Greek town. Thucydides (v. 1; viii. 108) also mentions a settlement here from Delos, made by the Delians whom the Athenians removed from the island B. C. 422. After the establishment of the dynasty of the kings of Pergamum, it was a seaport of some note; and that it had some shipping, appears from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles (xxvii. 2). Under the Romans it was a Conventus Juridicus in the province of Asia, or place to which the inhabitants of the district resorted as the court town. There are no traces of ancient remains.

[G. L.]

COIN OF ADRANUM. ADRANA (Eder), a river of Germany in the A'DRIA, APTRIA, HA’DRIA, or HA’TRIA territory of the Chatti, near Cassel. (Tac. Ann. i.56.) ('Adpla or 'Atpla). It is impossible to establish any

ADRANS, ADRANA, ADRANTE(Tà"Adpava, | distinction between these forms, or to assign the one Zos. ii. 45; HADRANS, Itiner. Hieros. p. 560: St. (as has been done by several authors) to one city, Oswald on the Drauberg), a town in Noricum, situ- and another to the other. The oldest form appears ated between the towns Aemona and Celeia, in the to have been HATRIA, which we find on coins, while valley separating Mt. Cetius from Mt. Carvancas. | HADRIA is that used in all inscriptions: some MSS. A vestige of its Roman origin or occupation still of Livy have ADRIA, and others ATRIA. Pliny survives in its local appellation of Trajaner-dorf or tells us that ATRIA was the more ancient form, Trajan's-thorpe. (Itin. Anton.) ČW. B. D.] which was afterwards changed into Adria, but the

ADRA'NUM, or HADRANUM ('Adpavóv, Diod. | Greeks seem to have early used ’A8pia for the city

as well as 'Aðplas for the sea. 1. A city of Cis- | mulations of alluvial soil. Of the numerous minor alpine Gaul, situated between the Padus and the antiquities discovered there, the most interesting are Athesis, not far from their mouths, and still called the vases already alluded to. (See Müller, Etrusker, Adria. It is now distant more than 14 miles from i. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The coins the sea, but was originally a sea-port of great cele- ascribed to this city certainly belong to Adria in brity. Its foundation is ascribed to Diomed by Picenum. Stephanus Byzantinus, and some other late writers: A river of the same name (d 'Aðplas) is menJustin also (xx, 1), probably following Theopompus, tioned by Hecataeus (ap. Steph. Byz. 8. v.), and by calls it a city of Greek origin; but these testimonies Theopompus (ap. Strab. vii. p. 317); it is called are far outweighed by those of the Roman writers, by Ptoleiny 'Aspravds ToTamós, and must prowho agree in describing it as an Etruscan colony. bably be the same called by the Romans Tartarus It was probably established at the same period with (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the upper their other settlements on the north side of the part of its course as the Tartaro. It rises in the Apennines, and became, from its position, the prin | hills to the SE. of the Lago di Garda, and flows cipal emporium for their trade with the Adriatic; by the modern Adria, but is known by the name of by which means it attained to so flourishing a con Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; it dition, as to have given name to the gulf, or portion communicates, by canals, with the Po and the Adige. of the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from 2. A city of Picenum, still called Atri, situated whence the appellation was gradually extended to about 5 miles from the Adriatic Sea, between the the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. / rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the To this period may also be ascribed the great canals Itinerary it was distant 15 Roinan miles from Casand works which facilitated its communications with trum Novum, and 14 from Teate. (Itin. Ant. pp. the adjoining rivers, and through them with the 308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Peut.) It has been interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan they drained the marshes which would otherwise origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city of have rendered it uninhabitable. (Liv. v. 33; Plin. iii. the name (Mazocchi, Tab. Heracl. p. 532; Müller, 16. s. 20; Strab. v. p. 214; Varro de L. L. v. 161; | Etrusker, vol. i. p. 145), though we have no hisFestus, p. 13, ed. Müller; Plut. Camill. 16.) torical evidence of the fact. It has also been Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded any information concerning its history; but the de- there by Dionysius the Elder, at the time that he cline of its power and prosperity may reasonably be was seeking to establish his power in the Adriatic, ascribed to the conquest of the neighbouring countries about B. c. 385; but this statement rests on very by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. 'Agplas), and canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The in- no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in creasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic history. The first certain historical notice we find of probably contributed to the same result. It has Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there been supposed by some writers that it received, at about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi.; Madvig, de Coloniis, different periods, Greek colonies, one from Epidamnus p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Punic and the other from Syracuse; but both statements War (B.c. 217) its territory was ravaged by Hana appear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages nibal; but notwithstanding this calamity, it was one of Diodorus, from which they are derived. (Diod, ix. of the 18 Latin colonies which, in B. c. 209, were Exc. Vat. p. 17, xv. 13; in both of which passages faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to conthe words tov 'Aðplay certainly refer to the Adriatic tinue their contributions both of men and money. sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is (Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a later always feminine.) The abundance of vases of period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloniis, it Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar must have received a fresh colony, probably under character with those of Nola and Vulci, sufficiently Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and Pliny and in inscriptions. One of these gives it the influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a | titles of " Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it would Greek colony, any more than in the parallel case of appear that it had been re-established by the emVulci. (R. Rochette in the Annali dell Inst. Arch. peror Hadrian, whose family was originally derived vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vasi di Adria in the from hence, though he was himself a native of Bullettino dell'Inst. 1834, p. 134.). Under the Spain. (Lib. Colon. p. 227; Plin. H. N. ii. 13. Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of s. 18; Orell. Inscr. no. 148, 3018; Gruter, p. 1022; inuch consequence. Strabo (l.c.) speaks of it as a Zumpt de Colon. p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. 1.; small town, communicating by a short navigation Victor, Epit. 14.) The territory of Adria (ager with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus (Hist. iii. Adrianus), though subsequently included in Picenum, 12) that it was still accessible for the light Libur- appears to have originally formed a separate and innian ships of war as late as the time of Vitellius. dependent district, bonnded on the N. by the river After the fall of the Western Empire it was included | Vomanns (Vomano), and on the S. by the Matrinus in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into (la Piomba); at the mouth of this latter river was decay during the middle ages, though it never ceased a town bearing the name of MATRINUM, which to exist, and always continued an episcopal see. served as the port of Adria; the city itself stood on Since the opening of new canals it has considerably a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still revived, and has now a population of 10,000 souls. occupied by the modern Atri, a place of some conConsiderable remains of the ancient city have been sideration, with the title of a city, and the see of a discovered a little to the south of the modern town bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancient towards Ravegnano; they are all of Roman date, and walls may be still traced, and mosaic pavements comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pave and other remains of buildings are also preserved. ments, and part of the ancient walls, all which have (Strab. v. p. 241; Sil. Ital. viii. 439; Ptol. ii. 1. been buried to a considerable depth under the accu- 1 $ 52; Mela, ii. 4; Romanelli, vol. iii. p 307.) AC

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cording to the Itin. Ant. (pp. 308, 310) Adria was sea or gulf so called, but a region or district about the point of junction of the Via Salaria and Valeria, the head of it. But in this case it seems highly a circumstance which probably contributed to its improbable that precisely the same expression should importance and flourishing condition under the have come into general use, as we certainly find it Roman empire.

not long after the time of Herodotus, for the sea It is now generally admitted, that the coins of itself.* Hecataeus also (if we can trust to the acAdria (with the legend Har.) belong to the city of curacy of Stephanus B. 8. v. 'ASplas) appears to have Picenum; but great difference of opinion has been used the full expression kóros 'Adpías. entertained as to their age. They belong to the The natural limits of the Adriatic are very clearly class commonly known as Aes Grave, and are even marked by the contraction of the opposite shores at among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in its entrance, so as to form a kind of strait, not exweight the most ancient Roman asses. On this ceeding 40 G. miles in breadth, between the Acroaccount they have been assigned to a very remote ceraunian promontory in Epirus, and the coast of antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, Calabria near Hydruntum, in Italy. This is accordothers to the Greek, settlers. But there seems much ingly correctly assumed both by Strabo and Pliny as reason to believe that they are not really so ancient, the southern limits of the Adriatic, as it was at an and belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, which was earlier period by Scylax and Polybius, the latter of founded previous to the general reduction of the whom expressly tells us that Oricus was the first city Italian brass coinage. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 98; Müller, on the right hand after entering the Adriatic. Etrusker, vol. i. p. 308, Böckh, Metrologie, p. 379; (Strab. vii. p. 317; Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Scylax, $ 14, Mommsen, Das Römische Münzwesen, p. 231; Mil- p. 5, $ 27, p. 11; Pol. vii. 19; Mela, ü. 4.) But lingen, Numismatique de l'Italie, p. 216.) [E.H.B.] it appears to have been some time before the appel

lation was received in this definite sense, and the use of the name both of the Adriatic and of the Ionian Gulf was for some time very vague and fluctuating. It is probable, that in the earliest times the name of 'Adplas was confined to the part of the sea in the immediate neighbourhood of Adria itself and the mouths of the Padus, or at least to the upper part near the head of the gulph, as in the passages of Herodotus and Hecataeus above cited; but it seems that Hecataeus himself in another passage (ap.

Steph. B. 8. v. 'lotpoi) described the Istrians as COIN OF ADRIA.

dwelling on the Ionian gulf, and Hellanicus (ap. ADRIA’TICUM MARE (S 'Adplas), is the name Dion. Hal. i. 28) spoke of the Padus as flowing into given both by Greek and Latin writers to the inland the Ionian gulf. In like manner Thucydides (i. 24) sea still called the Adriatic, which separates Italy from describes Epidamnus as a city on the right hand as Illyricum, Dalmatia and Epeirus, and is connected you enter the Ionian gulf. At this period, thereat its southern extremity with the Ionian Sea. It fore, the latter expression seems to have been at appears to have been at first regarded by the Greeks least the more common one, as applied to the whole as a mere gulf or inlet of the Ionian Sea, whence the sea. But very soon after we find the orators Lysias expression d'Adpías (KÓATOS sc.), which first came and Isocrates employing the term 'ASplas in its into use, became so firmly established that it always more extended sense: and Scylax (who must have maintained its ground among the Greek writers of been nearly contemporary with the latter) exthe best ages, and it is only at a later period or in pressly tells us that the Adriatic and Ionian gulfs exceptional cases that we find the expressions in were one and the same. (Lys. Or. c. Diog. $ 38, 'Adpiárn or 'Adpatik) Saraosa. (The former ex- p. 908; Isocr. Philipp. & 7; Scylax, § 27, p. 11.) pression is employed by Scymnus Chius, 368; and From this time no change appears to have taken the latter in one instance by Strabo, iv, p. 204.) place in the use of the name, d'Adpias being famiThe Latins frequently termed it MARE SUPERUM, liarly used by Greek writers for the modern Adriatic the Upper Sea, as opposed to the Tyrrhenian or (Theophr. iv. 5. &$ 2, 6; Psend. Aristot. de Mirab. Lower Sea (Mare Inferum); and the phrase is copied SS 80, 82; Scymn. Ch. 132, 193, &c.; Pol. ii. from them by Polybius and other Greek writers. It 17, iii. 86, 87, &c.) until after the Christian era. appears probable indeed that this was the common or But subsequently to that date a very singular change vernacular expression among the Romans, and that was introduced: for while the name of the Adriatic the name of the Adriatic was a mere geographical Gulf (d'Adpías, or 'Adpiatikos kóXTOS) became redesignation, perhaps borrowed in the first instance stricted to the upper portion of the inland sea now from the Greeks. The use of ADRLA or HADRIA known by the same name, and the lower portion nearer in Latin for the name of the sea, was certainly a the strait or entrance was commonly known as the mere Graecism, first introduced by the poets (Hor. Carm. i. 3. 15, iii. 3. 5, &c.; Catull. xxxvi. 15), * The expressions of Polybius (iv. 14, 16) cited by though it is sometimes used by prose writers also. Müller (Etrusker, i. p. 141) in support of this (Senec. Ep. 90; Mela, i. 2, &c.)

view. certainly cannot be relied on, as the name of According to Herodotus (i. 163) the Phocaeans & 'Adplas was fully established as that of the sea, were the first of the Greeks who discovered the Adri-long before his time, and is repeatedly used by himatic, or at least the first to explore its recesses, but self in this sense. But his expressions are singuthe Phoenicians must have been well acquainted with larly vague and fluctuating: thus we find within a it long before, as they had traded with the Venetians few pages, katà Tòv 'Adplay kóATOS, & TOÙ TAVTÒs for amber from a very early period. It has, indeed, 'Adplov uvxós, d'Adpatikos uvxós, ý katà tov been contended, that 'Adpins in Herodotus (both | 'Adplay Sálatta, etc. (See Schweighäuser's Indes to in this passage and in iv. 33, v. 9) means not the Polybius, p. 197.)

Ionian Gulf, the sea without that entrance, previously the same name, that some later writers have derived known as the Ionian or Sicilian, came to be called the appellation of the sea from Adria in Picenuin, the Adriatic Sea. The beginning of this altera- which was situated at some distance from the coast, tion may already be found in Strabo, who speaks of and is not known to have been a place of any inthe Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it portance in early times.

[E. H. B.] is found fully developed in Ptolemy, who makes the ADRUMEʻTUM. [HADRUMETUM.] promontory of Garganus the limit between the Adri- ADRUS (Albaragena), a river of Hispania Lusiatic Gulf (& 'ASpias kóATOS) and the Ionian Sea tanica, flowing from the N. into the Anas (Guadi('Iónov TÉAayos), while he calls the sea which ana) opposite to Badajoz (Itin. Ant. p. 418; Ukert, bathes the eastern shores of Bruttium and Sicily, vol. ii. pt. 1, pp. 289-392).

[P. S.] the Adriatic Sea (TÒ 'AôpatikÒy mélayos): and ADUA'TICA or ADUATUCA, a castellum or although the later geographers, Dionysius Periegetes fortified place mentioned by Caesar (B. G. vi. 32) and Agathemerus, apply the name of the Adriatic as situated about the centre of the country of the within the same limits as Strabo, the common usage | Eburones, the greater part of which country lay of historians and other writers under the Roman between the Mosa (Maas) and the Rhenus. There Empire is in conformity with that of Ptolemy. Thus is no further indication of its position in Caesar. we find them almost uniformly speaking of the Q. Cicero, who was posted here with a legion in Ionian Gulf for the lower part of the modern Adri- B. c. 53, sustained and repelled a sudden attack of atic: while the name of the latter had so completely the Sigambri (B. G. vi. 35, &c.), in the same camp superseded the original appellation of the Ionian Sea in which Titurius and Aurunculeius had wintered in for that which bathes the western shores of Greece, B.C. 54 (B. G. v. 26). If it be the same place as that Philostratus speaks of the isthmus of Corinth the Aduaca Tungrorum of the Antonine Itinerary, as separating the Aegaean Sea from the Adriatic. it is the modern Tongern, in the Belgian province And at a still later period we find Procopius and of Limburg, where there are remains of old walls, Orosius still further extending the appellation as far and many antiquities. Though only a castellum or as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the other. temporary fort in Caesar's time, the place is likely (Ptol. iii. 1. SS 1, 10, 14, 17, 26, 4. $$ 1, 8; enough to have been the site of a larger town at Dionys. Per. 92-94, 380, 481; Agathemer. i. 3, ii. ' a later date.

[G. L.] 14; Appian, Syr. 63, B. C. ï. 39, iii. 9, v. 65; ADUA'TICI ('ATovarikol, Dion Cass.), a peoDion Cass. xli. 44, xiv. 3; Herodian. viii. l; Phi- ple of Belgic Gaul, the neighbours of the Eburones lostr. Imagg. ü. 16; Pausan. v. 25. § 3, viii. 54. § and Nervii. They were the descendants of 6000 3; Hieronym. Ep. 86; Procop. B. G. i. 15, iii. 40, Cimbri and Teutones, who were left behind by the iv. 6, B. V. i. 13, 14, 23; Ofos. i. 2.) Concerning rest of these barbarians on their march to Italy, the various fluctuations and changes in the applica for the purpose of looking after the baggage which tion and signification of the name, see Larcher's their comrades could not conveniently take with Notes on Herodotus (vol. i. p. 157, Eng. transl.), them. After the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones, and Letronne (Recherches sur Dicuil. p. 170—218), near Aix by C. Marius (B. c. 102), and again in who has, however, carried to an extreme extent the the north of Italy, these 6000 men maintained themdistinctions he attempts to establish. The general selves in the country. (Caes. B. G. ii. 29.) Their form of the Adriatic Sea was well known to the an- head quarters were a strong natural position on a cients, at least in the time of Strabo, who correctly steep elevation, to which there was only one apdescribes it as long and narrow, extending towards proach. Caesar does not give the place a name, the NW., and corresponding in its general dimen- and no indication of its site. D'Anville supposes sions with the part of Italy to which it is parallel, that it is Falais on the Mehaigne. The tract from the Iapygian promontory to the mouths of the occupied by the Aduatici appears to be in South Padus. He also gives its greatest breadth pretty Brabant. When their strong position was taken by correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much overstates Caesar, 4000 of the Aduatici perisbed, and 53,000 its length at 6000 stadia. Agathemerus, on the were sold for slaves. (B. G. ii. 33.) [G. L.] contrary, while he agrees with Strabo as to the ADU'LA MONS (O 'Adoúras), the name given breadth, assigns it only 3000 stadia in length, to a particular group of the Alps, in which, accordwhich is as much below the truth, as Strabo exceeds ing to the repeated statement of Strabo, both the it. (Strab. ii. p. 123, v. p. 211; Agathemer. 14.) Rhine and the Addua take their rise, the one flowing The Greeks appear to have at first regarded the neigh-northwards, the other southward into the Larian bourhood of Adria and the mouths of the Padus Lake. This view is not however correct, the real as the head or inmost recess of the gulf, but Strabo source of the Addua being in the glaciers of the and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the Rhaetian Alps, at the head of the Valtelline, while gulf near Aquileia and the mouth of the Tilavemptus both branches of the Rhine rise much farther to the (Tagliamento). (Strab. i. p. 123, iv. p. 206; Ptol. W. It is probable that Strabo considered the river ii. i. $$ 1, 26.)

which descends from the Splügen to the head of the The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded lake of Como (and which flows from N. to S.) as on account of the frequent and sudden storms to the true Addua, overlooking the greatly superior which it was subject : its evil character on this ac- magnitude of that which comes down from the Valcount is repeatedly alluded to by Horace. (Carm. telline. The sources of this river are in fact not far i. 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iii. 9. 23, &c.)

from those of the branch of the Rhine now called the There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic Hinter Rhein, and which, having the more direct was derived from the Etruscan city of Adria or course from S. to N., was probably regarded by the Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, ancients as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as would thus signify the lofty mountain group about in extolling the ancient power and commercial in the passes of the Splügen and S. Bernardino, and at fluence of that city [ADRIA, No. 1], and it is pro- the head of the valley of the Hinter Rhein, rather bably only by a confusion between the two cities of than the Mt. St. Gothard, as supposed by most

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