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Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax (t». Ka<r<ronro(), who makes it 4 stadia, and of Pliny (iv. ]) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium is described by Strabo as "situated within the bay," while Actium makes "the mouth of the bay." (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. [For its exact site, see Anactorium.] The testimony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that "Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis." Cicero tells us {ad Earn, xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, which he could hardly have done, if it were so far out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the conclusion that tho promontory of Actium was the modern La runia (3), and that tho temple of Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5).

A few remarks are necessary respecting the site of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity upon Actium. Tho fleet of Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prevesa (P). His troops had built towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and they occupied the cliannel itself with their ships. Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped on the opposite coast of Kpirus, on the spot where Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the harbour of Mitika, to tlic N. of Nicopolis, in the Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival of Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But having experienced some misfortunes, lie subsequently re-crossed the strait and joined the main body of his army at Actium. By the advice of Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. Ue accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, who was followed by Antony, sailed through the middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. They succeeded in making their escape, but most of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La Punta and Prevesa (?£w Tuv artvay, Dion Cass. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated by somo writers. (Dion Cass. 1. 12, seq.; Eeake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, I. e.)

A'DADA ('A5o5a: Elk. 'A5u5ci/s, Ptol.; 'A5a5drTj in old edit, of Strabo; 'OSaSa, Hierocl.), a town in Pisidin of uncertain site. On coins of Valerian and Gallienus we find AAAAEfiN. Adada is mentioned in the Councils as the sec of a bishop. (Artemiod. ap. Strab. xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. §8; Hierocl. p. 674, with Wesscling's note.)

A'DANA (Ta'ASVwa: Eth. 'A8o»>i-$), a town of Cilkia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west side of the Saras, now the Syhoon or Syhan. It lay on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, in a fertile country. There are tic remains of a portico. Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates whom he had compelled to submit. (Appian, Mith. 96.) Dion Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus and Adana being always quarrelling. [C. L.]

ADANE ('ASavTj, Philostorg. II. E. iii. 4), called ATHANA by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32), and ARABIA FELIX CApaSla (vfafuur). hi the Periplus of Arrian (p. 14), now Aden, the chief seaport in the country of Homeritae on the S. coast of Arabia. It became at a very early period the great mart for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India; and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by Aelius Callus in his expedition against Arabia, ill the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and lias ever since remained a place of note. It has revived conspicuously within the last few years, having fallen into the possession of the English, and become one of the stations for the steamers which navigate the Red Sea. [W.R.]

A'DDUA (4 'ASoiioi: Adda), a river of Gallia Cisalpina, one of the largest of the tributaries which bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises in the Khactian Alps near Bormio, and flows through the ValUlline, into the Lacus Larius or Logo di Como, from which it again issues at its south- eastern extremity near Lecco, and from thence has a course of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of its course it seems to have formed the lirm't between the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and rapid stream: the clearness of its blue waters, resulting from their passage through a deep lake, is alluded to by Claudian (De VI. Cons. Hon. 196). Strabo erroneously places its sources in Mt. Adula, where, according to him, the Rhine also rises; it is probable that he was imperfectly acquainted with this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which descends from the Splugen to the head of the lake of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the much larger river which enters it from the Valtelline. (Strab. iv. pp. 192,204; v. p. 213; Plin. iii. 16. s.20; Pol.ii. 32, xxxiv. 10; Tic. Hist, ii. 40.) [E. H. B.]

ADIABE'NE ('Aoiofirji^). [assyria.]

ADIS or ADES ('a5ii,'asj)i: prob. Rhodes), a considerable city of Africa, on the Gulf of Tunis, in the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged and took, and before which he defeated the Carthaginians, in the 10th year of the first Pnnic War, D. c. 255. (Pol. i. 30.) As there is no subsequent mention of the place, it is supposed to have been supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by the later town of Maxula. [P. S.]

ADO'NIS CAoawu: Nahr el Ibrahim), a small river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanns enters the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblus. Maundrell records the fact which he himself witnessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river descending in floods is tinged of a deep red by tho soil of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, de Dea Syr. 6; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. iii. 80, xx. 144.) [W.R.]

ADOREUS, tho name of a mountain of Galatia, now Elmah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it contains the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.]

ADORSI. [aorsi.]

ADRAA QAlpia, Euseb. Onomast.: 'ASpa. Ptol. v. 15. § 23: LXX. 'ESpatly, 'ESpcuy : Eng. Vers. Edrki: and probably the 'ASpaaaos of Hieroclcs, p. 273: Draa), a town in Palestine, near the sources of the river Hieromax, and deeply embayed in the spurs of the mountain chain of llermoiu Before the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, it was one of the chief cities of Og, king of Bashan. After his defeat and death it was assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh, which settled on the eastern side of Jordan. It was the seat of a Christian bishop at an early time, and a bishop of Adraa sat in the council of Seleucia (a. D. 381), and of Chalcedon (a. D. 451). By the Greeks it was called Adraa, and by the Crusaders Adratum. Its ruins cover a circuit of about 2 miles, of which the most important is a large rectangular building, surrounded by a double covered colonnade, and with a cistern in the middle. (Numbers, xxi. 33; Deuteron. i. 4, iii. 10; Joshua xii. 4, xiii. 12, 31; Joseph. Antiq. iv. 5. § 42; Buckingham, Travels, vol. ii. p. 146 ; Burckhardt, id. p.241.) [W.B.D.]

ADRAISTAE (AJooiYrTat), a people of N. India (the Punjab), with a capital city Fimprama (I7iVTrpafxa), which Alexander reached in a day's journey from the Uydraotes (Ravee), on his march to Sangala. (Arrian. Anab. v. 22. § 3.) Lassen identifies them with the modem Arattat (Pentapotamia, p. 25). [P.S.]

ADRAMI'TAE or ATBAMI'TAE (Plin, vi. 28. s. 32; 'ASpaiiirai, Ptol.; Arrian, Perip. p. 15), an Arabian tribe in the district Chatramotitis of Arabia Felix. They were situated on the coast of the Red Sea eastward of Aden, and their name is still preserved in the modern Hadramaut. Like their immediate neighbours in Arabia Felix, the Adramitae were actively engaged in the drug and spice trade, of which their capital Sabbatha was the emporium. They were governed by a race of kings, who bore the family or official title of Eleazar. [chatraMotitae.] [W. B. D.]

ADRAMYE'NTTUS SINUS. [adramyttium; Aeous.]

ADRAMY'TTIUMorADRAMYTE'UH CASpa/ivrrioy, 'AtpafivTTeiov, 'ArpanvTTioy, 'ATpafivrrtiov. EtJt. 'AtipafxvTTtiv6s, Adramyttenus : Adramiii or Edremii), a town situated at the head of the bay, called from it Adramyttenus, and on the river Catena, in Mysia, and on the road from the Uellespontus to Pergamum. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, a brother of Croesus, king of Lydia; but a colony of Athenians is said to have subsequently settled there. (Strab. p. 606.) The place certainly became a Greek town. Thucydides (v. 1; viii. 108) also mentions a settlement here from Delos, made by the Delians whom the Athenians removed from the island B. C. 422. After the establishment of the dynasty of the kings of Pergamum, it was a seaport of some note; and that it had some shipping, appears from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles (xxvii. 2). Under the Bomans it was a Conventus Juridicus in the province of Asia, or place to which the inhabitants of the district resorted as the court town. There are no traces of ancient remains. [G. L.]

ADRANA (Eder), a river of Germany in the territory of the Chatti,near Cosset. (Tac. Ann. i.56.)

ADRANS, ADRA'NA, ADRA'NTE(To"AJpai/o, Zos. ii. 45; Hadrans, Itiner. Hieros. p. 560: St. Oswald on the Drauberg), a town in Noricum, situated between the towns Aemona and Celeia, in the valley separating Mt. Cetius from Mt. Carvancas. A vestige of its Roman origin or occupation still survives in its local appellation of Trajaner-dorf or Trajan's-thorpe. (Itin. Anton.) [W. B. D.]

ADRA'NUM, or HADRA'NUM ('ASpoxoV, Diod.

Steph. B. Hadbanum, Sil. Ital.: Eth. 'Alpayl-rw, Hadranitanus: jl(iern«),acityof the interior of Sicily, situated at the foot of the western slope of Mt. Aetna above the valley of the Simtto, and about 7 miles from Centuripi. We learn from Diodorus (xiv. 37) that there existed here from very ancient times a temple of a local deity named Adranus, whose worship was extensively spread through Sicily, and appears to have been connected with that of the Palici. (Hesych. s. v. riaAiKol.) But there was no city of the name until tike year 400 n. c. when it was founded by the elder Dionysius, with a view to extend his power and influence in the interior of the island. (Diod. /. c.) It probably continued to be a dependency of Syracuse; but in 345 B. c. it fell into the hands of IV molcon. (Id. xvi. 68; Plut. Timol. 12.) It was one of the cities taken by the Romans at the commencement of the First Punic War (Diod. xxiii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account continued afterwards in a relation to Rome inferior to that of most other Sicilian cities. This may per. haps account for the circumstance tbat its name is not once mentioned by Cicero (see Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. iii. 6, p. 437); but wo lcam from Pliny that it was in his time included in the class of the " stipendiariac civitates " of Sicily. (H. N. iii. 8.)

Both Diodorus and Plutarch speak of it as a small town owing its importance chiefly to the sanctity of its temple; but existing remains prove that it must have been at one time a place of some consideration. These consist of portions of the ancient walls and towers, built in a massive style of large squared blocks of lava; of massive substructions, supposed to have been those of the temple of Adranus; and the ruins of a large building which appears to have belonged to Roman Thermae. Numerous sepulchres also have been discovered and excavated in the immediate neighbourhood. The modern town of Adernb retains the ancient site as well as name: it is a considerable place, with above 6000 inhabitants. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, pp. 57—60; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. deUa Sicilia, p. 13; Bull. dell. Inst. Arch. 1843, p. 129.)

Stcphanus Byzantinus speaks of the city as situated on a river of the same name: this was evidently no other than the northern branch of the Simt to (Symaethus) which is still often called the Fiume aV Adernb. [E. H. B.]

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COIK OP ADBANUM.

A'DRIA, A'TRIA, HA'DRIA, or HA'TRIA ('ASpIa or "Arpla). It is impossible to establish any distinction between these forms, or to assign the one (as has been done by several authors) to one city, and another to the other. The oldest form appears to have been Hatbia, which we find on coins, while Hadria is that used in all inscriptions: some MSS. of Livy have Adria, and others Atria. Pliny tells us that Atria was the more ancient form, which was afterwards changed into Adria, but the Greeks seem to have early used 'A5p!a for the city

as well as ASp/as for the sea. 1. A city of Cisalpino Gaul, situated between the Padus and the Atbesis, not far from their mouths, and still called Adria. It is now distant more than 14 miles from the sea, but was originally a sea-port of great celebrity. Its foundation is ascribed to Diomcd by Stephanus Byzantinus, and some other late writers: Justin also (xx. 1), probably following Theopompus, calls it a city of Greek origin; but these testimonies are far outweighed by those of the Roman writers, who agree in describing it as an Etruscan colony. It was probably established at the same period with their other settlements on the north side of the Apennines, and became, from its position, the principal emporium for their trade with the Adriatic; by which means it attained to so flourishing a condition, as to have given name to the gulf, or portion of the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from whence the appellation was gradually extended to the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. To this period may also be ascribed the great canals and works which facilitated its communications with the adjoining rivers, and through them with the interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that they drained the marshes which would otherwise have rendered it uninhabitable. (Liv. v. 33; Plin. iii. 16. s.20j Strab. v. p. 214; Varro deL.L.v. 161; Festus, p. 13, ed. Miiller; Plut. Camill. 16.) Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely any information concerning its history; but the decline of its power and prosperity may reasonably be ascribed to the conquest of tho neighbouring countries by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The increasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic probably contributed to the same result. It has been supposed by some writers that it received, at different periods, Greek colonies, one from Kpidamnus and the other from Syracuse; but both statements appear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages of Diodorus, from which they are derived. (Diod. ix. Exc. Vat. p. 17, xv. 13; in both of which passages the words rbv 'ASplav certainly refer to the Adriatic sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is always feminine.') The abundance of vases of Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar character with those of Nola and Vulci, sufficiently attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a Greek colony, any more than in the parallel case of Vvlci. (R.Rochctte in the Annali dell Inst. Arch. vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vast di Adria in the BuUeUino del? Inst. 1834, p. 134.) . Under the Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of much consequence. Strabo (i. c.) speaks of it as a small town, communicating by a short navigation with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus (Hist, iii. 12) that it was still accessible for the light Liburnian ships of war as late as the time of Vitellius. After tho fall of the Western Empire it was included in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into decay during the middle ages, though it never ceased to exist, and always continued an episcopal see. Since the opening of new canals it has considerably revived, and has now a population of 10,000 souls. Considerable remains of the ancient city have been discovered a little to the south of the modern town towards Ravegnano; they are all of Roman date, and comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pavements, and part of the ancient walls, all which have been buried to a considerable depth under the accu

mulations of alluvial soil. Gf the numerous minor antiquities discovered there, the most interesting are the vases already alluded to. (See Muller, Etrutker, i. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The coins ascribed to this city certainly belong to Adria in Picenum.

A river of the same name (<S ASptar) is mentioned by Hecataeus (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v.), and by Theopompus (ap. Strab. vii. p. 317); it is called by Ptolemy 'Arptavbs worafiSs, and must probably be the same called by the Romans Tartarus (Phn. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the upper part of its course as the Tartaro. It rises in the hills to the SE. of tho Logo di Garda, and flows by the modern Adria, but is known by the name of Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; it communicates, by canals, with the Po and the A dige.

2. A city of Picenum, still called Alri, situated about 5 miles from tho Adriatic Sea, between tho rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Itinerary it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum, and 14 from Tcate. (Itin. Ant. pp. 308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Peut.) It has been supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city of the name (Mazocchi, Tab. Heracl. p. 532; Miiller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 145), though we have no historical evidence of the fact. It has also been generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded there by Dionysius the Elder, at the timo that ho was seeking to establish his power in the Adriatic, about B. c. 385; bnt this statement rests on very doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. ASplas), and no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in history. The first certain historical notice we find of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi.; Madvig,<fe Colonic, p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Punic War (b.c. 217) its territory was ravaged by Hannibal; bnt notwithstanding this calamity, it was one of the 18 Latin colonies which, in B.C. 209, were faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to continue their contributions both of men and money. (Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a later period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloniis, it must have received a fresh colony, probably under Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by Pliny and in inscriptions. One of these gives it the titles of "Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it would appear that it had been re-established by the emperor Hadrian, whose family was originally derived from hence, though he was himself a native of Spain. (Lib. Colon, p. 227; Phn. II. If. iii. 13. s. 18; Orell. Inscr. no. 148, 3018; Gruter, p. 1022; Zumpt de Colon, p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. 1.; Victor, Epit. 14.) The territory of Adria (ager Adrianus), though subsequently included in Picenum, appears to have originally formed a separate and independent district, bounded on the N. by the river Vomanus ( Vomano), and on the S. by the Matrinus (la Piojnbay, at the mouth of this latter river was a town bearing the name of Matrinum, which served as the port of Adria; the city itself stood on a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still occupied by the modem Atri, a place of somo consideration, with the title of a city, and the see of a bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may be still traced, and mosaic pavements and other remains of buildings are also preserved. (Strab. v. p. 241; Sil. Ital. Tin. 439; Ptol. iii. 1. § 52; Mela,ii. 4; Romanelli, vol. iii. p 307.) According to the Itin. Ant. (pp. 308, 310) Adria was the point of junction of the Via Salaria and Valeria, a circumstance which probably contributed to its importance and flourishing condition under the Roman empire.

It is now generally admitted, that the coins of Adria (with the legend Hat.) belong to the city of Picenum; but great difference of opinion has been entertained as to their age. They belong to the class commonly known as Aes Grave, and are even among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in weight the most ancient Roman asses. On this account they have been assigned to a very remote antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, others to the Greek, settlers. But there seems much reason to believe that they are not really so ancient, and belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, which was founded previous to the general reduction of the Italian brass coinage. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 98; MUUer, Ktnaher, vol. i. p. 308; Bockh, lletrologie, p. 379; Mommscn, D<u jtomitclie Mumiceten, p. 231; Millingcn, Numismatique de I'ltalie, p. 216.) [E.H.B.]

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ADRIA'TICUM MARE (i 'ASplas), is the name given both by Greek and Latin writers to the inland sea still called the A driatic, which separates Italy from Illyricum, Dabnatia and Epeirus, and is connected at its southern extremity with the Ionian Sea. It appears to have been at first regarded by the Greeks as a mere gulf or inlet of the Ionian Sea, whence the expression d 'ASptas (k6\*os sc.), which first came into use, became so firmly established that it always maintained its ground among the Greek writers of the best ages, and it is only at a later period or in exceptional cases that we find the expressions $ 'ASpidvri or 'ASpiartidi ddXaoaa. (The former expression is employed by Scymnus Chins, 368; and the latter in one instance by Strabo, iv. p. 204.) The Latins frequently termed it Mare Superum, the Upper Sea, as opposed to the Tyrrhenian or Lower Sea (Mare Inferum); and the phrase is copied from them by Polybius and other Greek writers. It appears probable indeed that this was the common or vernacular expression among the Romans, and that the name of the Adriatic was a mere geographical designation, perhaps borrowed in the first instance from the Greeks. The use of Adria or Hadria in Latin for the name of the sea, was certainly a mere Graecism, first introduced by the poets (Hor. Cam. i. 3. 15, iii. 3. 5, &c; Catull. xxxvi. 15), though it is sometimes used by prose writers also. (Senec Bp. 90; Mela, ii. 2,&c.)

According to Herodotus (i. 163) the Phocaeans were the first of the Greeks who discovered the Adriatic, or at least the first to explore its recesses, but the Phoenicians must have been well acquainted with it long before, as they had traded with the Venetians for amber from a very early period. It has, indeed, been contended, that t 'asoitjj in Herodotus (both in this passage and in iv. 33, v. 9) means not tho

sea or gulf so called, but a region or district about the head of it. But in this case it seems highly improbable that precisely the same expression should have como into general use, as we certainly find it not long after the time of Herodotus, for tho sea itself.* Hecataeus also (if we can trust to the accuracy of Stephanus B. t. v. 'ASptas) appears to have used the full expression K&kiros 'ASptas.

The natural limits of the Adriatic are very clearly marked by the contraction of the opposite shores at its entrance, so as to form a kind of strait, not exceeding 40 G. miles in breadth, between the Acroceraunian promontory in Epirus, and the coast of Calabria near Hydruntum, in Italy. This is accordingly correctly assumed both by Strabo and Pliny as the southern limits of the Adriatic, as it was at an earlier period by Scylax and Polybius, the latter of whom expressly tells us that Oricus was the first city on the right hand after entering tho Adriatic. (Strab.vii. p.317; Plin.iii. 11. s. 16; Scylax,§14, p. 5, § 27, p. 11; Pol. vii. 19; Mela, ii. 4.) But it appears to have been some time before tho appellation was received in this definite sense, and the use of the name both of the Adriatic and of the Ionian Gulf was for some time very vague and fluctuating. It is probable, that in the earliest times the name of i 'ASptas was confined to the part of the sea in tho immediate neighbourhood of Adria itself and tho mouths of the Padus, or at least to the upper part near the head of the gulph, as in the passages of Herodotus and Hecataeus above cited; but it seems that Hecataeus himself in another passage («/». Steph. B. s. v. "IffTpoi) described the Istrians as dwelling on the Ionian gulf, and Hellanicus (up. Dion. Hal. i. 28) spoke of the Padus as flowing into the Ionian gulf. In like manner Thucydides (i. 24) describes Epidamnus as a city on the right hand as you enter the Ionian gulf. At this period, therefore, the latter expression seems to have been at least the more common one, as applied to the wholo sea. But very soon after we find the orators Lysias and Isocrates employing the term 6 'ASptas in its more extended sense: and Scylax (who must have been nearly contemporary with tho latter) expressly tells us that the Adriatic and Ionian gulfs were one and the same. (Lys. Or. c. Diog. § 38, p. 908; Isocr. Philipp. § 7; Scylax, § 27, p. 11.) From this time no change appears to have taken place in the use of the name, 6 'ASplos being familiarly used by Greek writers for the modern Adriatic (Theophr. iv. 5. §§ 2, 6; Pseud. Aristot. de Mirab. §§ 80, 82; Scymn. Ch. 132, 193, &c; Pol. ii. 17, iii. 86, 87, Sec.) until after the Christian era. But subsequently to that date a very singular change was introduced: for while the name of the Adriatic GvIf(J> 'ASptas, or 'Aopicrriicoi Koatoi) became restricted to the upper portion of the inland sea now known by tho same name, and the lower portion nearer the strait or entrance was commonly known as tho

* The expressions of Polybius (iv. 14,16) cited by Mflller (Etrasker, i. p. 141) in support of this view, certainly cannot be relied on, as the name of 6 'ASptas was fully established as that of the sea, long before his time, and is repeatedly used by himself in this sense. But his expressions are singularly vague and fluctuating: thus we find within a few pages, 6 Kara Tov 'ASptav K6\ttos, b rod vamos 'ASplov p-vxos, d 'ASpiariKds putxos, T\ /caret rbv 'ASptav 3dAaTTa,etc. (See Schweighauser's Index to Polybius, p. 197.)

Ionian Gulf, the sea without that entrance, previously known as the Ionian or Sicilian, came to be called the Adriatic Sea. The beginning of this alteration may already be found in Strabo, who speaks of the Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it is found fully developed in Ptolemy, who makes the promontory of Garganus the limit between the Adriatic Gulf (6 'Atplas KciAirot) and the Ionian Sea (to 'lumov ir«Acryos), while he calls the sea which bathes the eastern shores of Bruttium and Sicily, the Adriatic Sea (to 'ASpiaracdn Tr4\ayos): and although the later geographers, Dionysius Periegetes and Agathemerus, apply the name of the Adriatic within the same limits as Strabo, the common usage of historians and other writers under the Roman Empire is in conformity with that of Ptolemy. Thus we find them almost uniformly speaking of the Ionian Gulf for the lower part of the modern Adriatic: while the name of the latter had so completely superseded the original appellation of the Ionian Sea for that which bathes the western Bhores of Greece, tliat Philostratns speaks of the isthmus of Corinth as separating the Aegaean Sea from the Adriatic. And at a still later period we find Procopius and Orosius still further extending the appellation as far as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the other. (Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1, 10. 14, 17, 26, 4. §§ 1, 8; Dionys. Per. 92—94, 380, 481; Agathemer. i. 3, ii. 14: Appian, Syr. 63, B. C. ii. 39, iii. 9, v. 65; Dion Cass. xli. 44, xlv. 3; Herodian. viii. 1; Philostr. Imagg. ii. 16; Pausan. v. 25. § 3, viii. 54. § 3; Hieronym. Bp. 86; Procop. B. G. i. 15, iii. 40, iv. 6, B. V. i. 13, 14, 23; Oros. i. 2.) Concerning the various fluctuations and changes in the application and signification of the name, see Larcber's Notes on Herodotus (vol. i. p. 157, Eng. transl.), and Letronne(ii«cA«rcAej sur Dicuil. p. 170—218), who hai, however, carried to an extreme extent the distinctions he attempts to establish. The general form of the Adriatic Sea was well known to the ancients, at least in the time of Strabo, who correctly describes it as long and narrow, extending towards the N\V., and corresponding in its general dimensions with the part of Italy to which it is parallel, from the Iapygian promontory to the mouths of the Padus. He also gives its greatest breadth pretty correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much overstates its length at 6000 stadia. Agathemerus, on the contrary, while he agrees with Strabo as to the breadth, assigns it only 3000 stadia in length, which is as much below the truth, as Strabo exceeds it. (Strab. ii. p. 123, v. p. 211; Agathemer. 14.) The Greeks appear to have at first regarded the neighbourhood of Adria and the mouths of the Padus as the head or inmost recess of the gulf, but Strabo and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the gulf near Aquileia and the mouth of the Tilavemptus (TagUamento). (Strab. ii. p. 123, iv. p. 206; Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1, 26.)

The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded on account of the frequent and sudden storms to which it was subject : its evil character on this account is repeatedly alluded to by Horace. (Carm. i. 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iii. 9. 23, &c)

There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic was derived from the Etruscan city of Adria or Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as in extolling the ancient power and commercial influence of that city [adiua, No. 1], and it is probably only by a confusion between the two cities of

the same name, that some later writers have derived the appellation of the sea from Adria in Picenum, which was situated at some distance from the coast, and is not known to have been a place of any importance in earlv times. [E. H. B.]

ADRUME'TUM. [hadrumethm.]

ADRUS (Albaragena), a river of Hispenia I.usitanica, flowing from the N. into the Anas (Gvadiana) opposite to Badajoz {Itin. Ant. p. 418; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1, pp. 289—392). [P. S.]

ADUA'TICA or ADUA'TUCA, a castellum or fortified place mentioned by Caesar (jb. G. vi. 32) as situated about the centre of the country of the Eburones, the greater part of which country lay between the Mosa (Maas) and the Rhenus. There is no further indication of its position in Caesar. Q. Cicero, who was posted here with a legion in B. c 53, sustained and repelled a sudden attack of the Sigambri (B. G. vi. 35, &c), in the same camp in which Titurius and Aumnculeius had wintered in n. c. 54 (B. G. v. 26). If it be the same place as the Aduaca Tungrorum of the Antonuie Itinerary, it is the modem Tongern, in the Belgian province of Liniburg, where there arc remains of old walls, and many antiquities. Though only a castellum or temporary fort in Caesar's time, the place is likely enough to have been the site of a larger town at a later date. [G. L.]

ADUA'TICI (atowot«o(, Dion Cass.), a people of Belgic Gaul, the neighbours of the Eburones and Nervii. They were the descendants of COOO Cimbri and Teutones, who were left behind by the rest of these barbarians on their march to Italy, for the purpose of looking after the baggage which their comrades could not conveniently take with them. After the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones, near Aix by C. Marius (b. C. 102), and again in the north of Italy, these 6000 men maintained themselves in the country. (Caes. B. G. ii. 29.) Their head quarters were a strong natural position on a steep elevation, to which there was only one approach. Caesar does not give the place a name, and no indication of its site. D'Anville supposes that it is Falaw on the Meliaigne. The tract occupied by the Aduatici appears to be in South Brabant. When their strong position was taken by Caesar, 4000 of the Aduatici perished, and 53,000 were sold for slaves. (B. G. ii. 33.) [G. L.]

ADU'LA MONS (6 ASouAas), the name given to a particular group of the Alps, in which, according to the repeated statement of Strabo, both the Rhine and the Addua take their rise, the one flowing northwards, the other southward into the Larian Lake. This view is not however correct, the real source of the Addua being in the glaciers of the Iihaotian Alps, at the head of the VaUelline, while both branches of the Rhine rise much farther to the W. It is probable that Strabo considered the river which descends from the Splugen to the head of the lake of Como (and which flows from N. to S.) as the true Addua, overlooking the greatly superior magnitude of that which comes down from the Valtelline. The sources of this river are in fact not far from those of the branch of the Rhine now called the Hinter Rhein, and which, having the more direct course from S. to N., was probably regarded by tho ancients as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula would thus signify the lofty mountain group about the passes of the Splugen and S. Bernardino, and at the head of tho valley of the Ilinter Khein, rather (ban the Mt. St. Gothard, as supposed by most

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