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MSS.). 1. ASTIGITANA COLONIA AUGUSTA FIR- | causeway, and it thus became, as it now remains, a MA (Ecija), was, under the Romans, one of the peninsula projecting into the sea. It is surmounted chief cities of Hispania Baetica, and the seat of a by a fortified tower, called the Torre di Astura, a conventus juridicus. It stood in the plain of the picturesque object, conspicuous both from Antium Baetis, some distance S. of the river, on its tributary and the Circeian headland, and the only one which the Singulis (Genil), which began here to be navi breaks the monotony of the low and sandy coast begable. It was at the junction of the roads from tween them. The Tab. Peut, reckons Astura 7 miles Corduba (Cordova) and Emerita (Merida) to His- from Antium, which is rather less than the true palis (Seville), at the respective distances of 36 M.P., distance. 105 M. P., and 58 M. P. (Itin. Ant. pp. 413, 414; There is no doubt that the Stors of Strabo is Mela, ii. 6. $ 4; Plin. ii. 1. s. 3; Florez, Esp. S. x. the same with the Astura, which Festus also tells p. 72.)

us was often called Stura (p. 317, ed. Müll.); but 2. ASTIGI VETUS (Alameda), a free city of His- | there is no ground for supposing the “Saturae palus" pania Baetica, N. of Antiquaria (Antequera), be- of Virgil (Aen. vii. 801) to refer to the same lolonging to the Conventus Astigitanus (see No. 1]. cality.

[E. H. B.] (Plin. ii. 1. s. 3; Florez, Esp. S. x. p. 74.)

2. (Ezla or Estola), a river of Hispania Tarra3. JULIENSES. ARTIGI.]

[P. S.] conensis, in the NW., which, rising in the mountains ASTRAEUM (Liv. xl. 24; 'Aotpala, Steph. B. of the Cantabri, the prolongation of the Pyrences, $. v.; Atotpalov, Ptol. iii. 13. $ 27), a town of flows S. through the country of the ASTURES; and, Paeonia in Macedonia, which Leake identifies with after receiving several other rivers that drain the Strúmitza. Aelian (H. An. xv. 1) speaks of a river great plain of Leon, it falls into the Durius (Douro) Astraeus, flowing between Thessalonica and Berrhoea, on its N. side. (Florus, iv. 12; Oros. vi. 21; Isiwhich Leake supposes to be the same as the Vis- | dor. Etym. ix. 2.)

[P. S.] tritza. Tafel, however, conjectures that Astraeus A'STURES (sing. Astur, in poets ; Artupes, in Aelian is a false reading for Axius. (Leake, Strab. iii. pp. 153, 155, 167; Dion Cass. lü. 25; Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 293, 466, seq.; Tafel, Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Flor. iv. 12; Gruter, Inscript. Thessalonica, p. 312, seq.)

| p. 193, No. 3, p. 426, No. 5, &c.: Adj. Astur and ASTRUM (Aotpor: Astro). 1. A townin Cynuria Asturicus; Asturica gens, Sil. Ital. xvi. 584; 'Aoon the coast, and the first town in Argolis towards Toúploi, Strab. p. 162; 'Aoroupoi, Ptol. ii. 6. § 28; the frontiers of Laconia. It is mentioned by Pto- i. e. Highlanders, see Asta), a people in the NW. of lemy alone (üi. 16. $ 11), but is conjectured by Hispania Tarraconensis, extending from the N. coast Leake to have been the maritime fortress in the to the river Durius (Douro), between the Gallaeci building of which the Aeginetae were interrupted by on the W. and the Cantabri and Celtiberi on the the Athenians in the eighth year of the Peloponne- E., in the mountains N. and W, of the great plain sian war. (Thuc. iv. 57.) The place was situated of Leon and partly in the plain itself. They were on a promontory, which retains its ancient name. divided into two parts by the Cantabrian mountains Here there are still considerable remains of an ancient (M. Vinnius); those between the mountains and the wall. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 484, seq.; Ross, | coast (in the Asturias) being called TRANSMONPeloponnes, p. 162.)

TAXI, and those S. of the mountains (in Leon and A STURA ("Agrupa). 1. A small islet on the coast | Valladolid) AUGUSTANI, names, which clearly of Latium, between Antium and Circeii, at the mouth indicate the difference between the Roman subjects of a river of the same name, which rises at the of the plain and the unsubdued tribes of the mounsouthern foot of the Alban hills, and has a course of tains and the coast. They comprised a population about 20 miles to the sea. It is called Storas (ETÓ- of 240,000 free persons, divided into 22 tribes (Plin. pas) by Strabo, who tells us that it had a place of I. c.), of which Ptolemy mentions the following anchorage at its mouth (v. p. 232). It was on the names : Lanciati (Lancienses, Plin.), Brigaecini banks of this obscure stream that was fought, in (Trigaecini, Flor.), Bedunenses, Orniaci, Lungones, B. C. 338, the last great battle between the Romans | Saelini, Superatii, Amaci, Tibures, Egurri or Giand the Latins, in which the consul C. Maenius to gurri (Cigurri, Plin.), and the Paesici, on the petally defeated the combined forces of Antium, Lanu- ninsula of C. de Peñas (Plin. iv. 20. . 34), to vium, Aricia and Velitrae. (Liv. viii. 13.) At a which Pliny adds the Zoelae, near the coast, celemuch later period the little island at its mouth, and brated for their flax. (Plin. iii. 4, xix. 2.) the whole adjacent coast, became occupied with Ro

The country of the Astures (Asturia, Plin.: 'Aoman villas; among which the most celebrated is that

Tovpía, Ptol.), was for the most part mountainous of Cicero, to which he repeatedly alludes in his and abounded in mines More gold was found in letters, and which he describes as “locus amoenus Asturia than in any other part of Spain, and the et in mari ipso," commanding a view both of Antium supply was regarded as more lasting than in any and Circeii (ad Att. xii. 19, 40, ad Fam. vi. 19). other part of the world. (Plin. xxxii. 4. s. 21.) It was from thence that, on learning his proscription | To this the poets make frequent allusions : e. . by the triumvirs, he embarked, with the intention of Sil. Ital. i. 231: escaping to join Brutus in Macedonia; a resolution

Astur avarus, which he afterwards unfortunately abandoned. (Plut.

Comp. vii. 755. Cic. 47.) We learn from Suetonius also that Astura was the occasional resort both of Augustus and Ti

Callaicis quidquid fodit Astur in arvis,

Mart. x. 16. berius (Suet. Aug. 97, Tib. 72), and existing remains prove that many of the Roman nobility must have

Merserit Asturii scrutator pallidus auri, had villas there. (See Nibby, Dintorni di Roma,

Lucan. iv. 298. vol. i. pp. 267–277.) But it does not appear that (according to Oudendorp's emendation: comp. Stat. there ever was a toun of the name, as asserted by | Silv. iv. 7. 13, Pallidus fossor ...... concolor Servius (ad Aen. vii. 801). The island was at some auro, and Claudian. Cons. Prob. et Olybr. 50.) time or other joined to the mainland by a bridge or Asturia was also famous for its breed of horses,

the small ambling Spanish jennet, described by tion of LEGIO VII. GEMINA (Leon), NE. of AstuPliny (viii. 42. s. 67), Silius Italicus (ii. 335— rica (It. Ant. p. 395): between Legio VII, and 337: in the preceding lines the poet derives the Lacobriga were LANCE or Lancia, 9 M. P.(Sollanco or name of the people from Astur the son of Memnon), Mansilla ?), and Camala (Cea?); (4) A lower road and Martial (xiv. 199):

to Caesaraugusta (It. Ant. pp. 439, 440): Bedunia, “ Hic brevis, ad numerum rapidos qui colligit ungues,

20 M. P. (prob, La Bañeza), city of the Bedunenses ;

Brigaecium, 20 M. P. (prob. Benavente), the capital Venit ab auriferis gentibus, Astur equus."

of the Brigaecini. In the district between the mounThe species of horse was called Asturco, and the tains and the coast, the chief cities were Lucus Asname was applied to horses of a similar character turum (Ptol.; prob, Oviedo), perhaps the Ovetum bred elsewhere, as Asturco Macedonicus. (Petron. of Pliny (xxxiv. 17. s. 49); NOEGA, and FlavioSat, 86: comp. Senec. Ep. 87.)

navia (Ptol.: Aviles), on the coast. To these may The Asturians were a wild, rugged, and warlike be added, in the S. district, Intercatia, the city of race. (Strab. l. c.; Sil. Ital. i. 252, exercitus Astur; the Orniaci; Pelontium, city of the Lungones; Nar. xii. 748, belliger Astur; Flor. iv. 12, Cantabri et, dinium, city of the Saelini (coins, Sestini, Med. Isp. Astures validissimae gentes.) Their mountains have p. 172); Petavonium, city of the Superatii; and two always been the stronghold of Spanish independence. or three more, too insignificant to name. (Ukert, In the war of Augustus against the Cantabri, B. c. vol. i. pt. i. pp. 440_-443; Forbiger, vol. ii, pp. 25, the Asturians, anticipating the attack of the 83–85.)

[P. S.] Romans, were defeated with great slaughter on the ASTURIA. PASTURES, banks of the river Astura, and retreated into Lan- ASTURICA AUGUSTA (Aiyovora 'Astoupíka, cia, which was taken, after some resistance. (Dion Ptol.: 'AoToupikavoi, Asturicani: Astorga, Ru.), the Cass. l. c.; Flor. iv, 12. $ 56, ed. Duker; Oros. vi. chief city of the Astures, in Hispania Tarraco21; Clinton, s. a.) These actions ended the Can nensis, belonging to the tribe of the Amaci, stood in tabrian war, as the result of which the country a lateral valley of the NW. mountains of Asturia, on south of the mountains became subject to Rome; the upper course of one of the tributaries of the Asbut the highlands themselves, and the strip of land tura (Esla). Under the Romans, it was the seat of between the mountains and the coast (the modern the conventus Asturicanus, one of the seven contenAsturias), still furnished a retreat to the natives, tus juridici of Hispania Tarraconensis. Respecting and afterwards sheltered the remnants of the Goths the roads from it see ASTURES. It obtained the from the Arab invasion, and became the cradle of title Augusta, doubtless, after the Cantabrian war, the inodern Spanish inonarchy. In its retired po- when the southern Astures first became the subjects sition, its mountainous surface, and in a certain of Rome; and from it the people S. of the mountains resemblance of climate, the Asturias is the Wales of were called Augustani, Pliny calls it urbs magni. Spain; and, in imitation of our principality, it gives fica; and, even in its present wretched state, it to the heir apparent his title.

bears traces of high antiquity, and “ gives a perfect Under the Romans, Asturia possessed several flou- idea of a Roman fortified town." (Ford, p. 308.) rishing cities, nearly all of which were old Iberian " The walls are singularly curious, and there are towns; most of them were situated in the S. division, two Roman tombs and inscriptions, near the Puerta the valleys and plain watered by the ASTURA and its de Hierro." (Ibid.) The mythical tradition of the tributaries. The capital, ASTURICA AUGUSTA (As- descent of the Astures from Astur, son of Memnon torga), the city of the Amaci, was the centre of (Sil. Ital. iii. 334), is still cherished by the people several roads, which, with the towns upon them, of Astorga, who make the hero the founder of their were as follows (comp. Ptol. i. 6. & 29): -(1) On city. There are two coins ascribed to Asturica: the road SW.to BRACARA AUGUSTA (Braga, in Por- one, of uncertain application, inscribed col. AST. tugal; Itin. Ant. p. 423): ARGENTIOLUM, 14 M. P. AUGUSTA., which may belong to Asta or ASTIGI; (Torienzo or Torneras? La Medulas, Ford): Pe- the other, of doubtful genuineness, with the epigraph tavonium, 15 M. P. (Poybueno or Congosta?). (2) COL. ASTURICA, AMAKUR. AUGUSTA. NW. also to Bracara, branching out into three dif- ! Asturica is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical ferent roads through Gallaecia (It. Ant. pp. 423, observation, being 3 brs. 25 min. W. of Alexandria, 429, 431); Interamnium Flavium, 30 M. P. (Pon- and having 15 hrs. 25 min. for its longest day. ferrada or Bembibre?): Bergidum, 16 M.P. (prob. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Ptol. j. 6. $ 36, viii. 4. & 5; Il. Castro de la Ventosa, on a hill near Villa Franca, Ant.; Sestini, p. 104; Eckbel, vol. i. p. 35.) (P.S.] in a Swiss-like valley at the foot of the mountain ASTYCUS ('ACTUKÓS: Vrárnitza, or river of pass leading into Gallaecia), beyond which, the fol Istib), a river of Paeonia, flowing into the Axius, on lowing places on the same road, which would seem which was situated the residence of the Paeonian to belong properly to Gallaecia, are assigned by Pto- | kings. (Polvaen. Strat. iv. 12: Leake. Northern lemy to Asturia : Forum Cigurrorum (royoupowy, Greece, vol. iji. pp. 464, 475.) corrected from 'Eyoupowv), the Forum of the Itine-L ASTYPALAEA ('ATTUrdaia). 1. A promonrary, the chief city of the Cigurri (Plin.), now tory on the W. coast of Attica, between the promotiCigarrosa or S. Estevan de Val de Orres, with tories Zoster and Sunium and opposite the island of ruins and a Roman bridge, where the people preserve Eleussa. (Strab, ix. p. 398; Steph. B. 8. r.; Leake, a tradition that an old town once stood there, named / Demi, p. 59.) Guigurra: Nemetobriga (Mendoya), the city of the 2. (Eth. 'AOTUmaraieus, 'AGTUTaralárns, AstyTiburi. (3) E. to CAESARAUGUSTA (Zaragoza; It. palaeensis: called by the present inhabitants AstroAnt. pp. 448, 453): Vallata, 16 M. P. (prob. Puente | palaca, and by the Franks Stampalia), an island in the de Orvigo): Interamnium, 13 M. P. (Villaroane): | Carpathian sea, called by Strabo (x. p.392) one of the Palantia, 14 M. P. (Valencia de S. Juan): Vimi. Sporades, and by Stephanus B. (8. v.) one of the Cynacium, 31 M. P. (Valderaduei or Beceril?): at the clades, said to be 125 (Roman) miles from Cadistas next station, LACOBRIGA, 10 M. P., in the VACCAEI, I in Crete (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23), and 800 stadia from this road was joined by that from the military sta- Chalcia, an island near Rhodes. (Strab. 1. c.) Pliny describes Astypalaea (I. c.) as 88 miles in circum- | bitants abandoned in order to build Cos. (Strab. ference. The island consists of two large rocky xiv. p. 658; Steph. B.) masses, united in the centre by an isthmus, which 5. A promontory in Caria, near Myndus. (Strab. in its narrowest part is only 450 or 500 feet across. xiv. p. 657.) On the N. and S. the sea enters two deep bays be- A'STYRA ("Aotupa, Astupov: Eth. 'Astupn. tween the two halves of the island; and the town, vós), a small town of Mysia, in the plain of Thebe, which bore the same name as the island, stood on the between Antandros and Adramyttium. It had a western side of the southern bay. To the S. and E. temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the of this bay lie several desert islands, to which Ovid superintendence. (Strab. p. 613.) Artemis had (Ar. Am. ii. 82) alludes in the line:—"cinctaque hence the name of Astyrene or Astirene. (Xen. Hell. piscosis Astypalaea vadis." From the castle of the iv. 1. § 41.) There was a lake Sapra near Astyra, town there is an extensive prospect. Towards the which communicated with the sea. Pausanias, from E. may be seen Cos, Nisyros, and Telos, and towards his own observation (iv. 35. § 10), describes a the S. in clear weather Casos, Carpathus, and spring of black water at Astyra; the water was hot. Crete.

But he places Astyra in Atarneus. [ATARNEUS.] Of the history of Astypalaea we have hardly any There was, then, either a place in Atarneus called account. Stephanus says that it was originally called Astyra, with warm springs, or Pausanias has made Pyrrha, when the Carians possessed it, then Pylaea, some mistake; for there is no doubt about the posinext the Table of the Gods (ewv Tpámeca), on tion of the Astyra of Strabo and Mela (i. 19). account of its verdure, and lastly Astypalaea, from Astyra was a deserted place, according to Pliny's the mother of Ancaeus. (Comp. Paus. vii. 4. & 1.) authorities. He calls it Astyre. There are said to We learn from Scymnus (551) that Astypalaea was be coins of Astyra. a colony of the Megarians, and Ovid nientions it as Strabo (pp. 591, 680) mentions an Astyra above one of the islands subdued by Minos. (“ Astypaleia | Abydus in Troas, once an independent city, but in regna," Met. vii. 461.) In B. C. 105 the Romans Strabo's time it was a ruined place, and belonged to concluded an alliance with Astypalaea (Böckh, Inscr. the inhabitants of Abydus. There were once gold vol. ii. n. 2485), a distinction probably granted to the mines there, but they were nearly exhausted in island in consequence of its excellent harbours and of Strabo's time.

[G. L.] its central position among the European and Asiatic ATABY'RIUM ('Arabúprov, Steph. B. Hesych.; islands of the Aegaean. Under the Roman emperors 'Italúpov LXX.; Oabáp: Jebel-et-Túr), or TABOR, Astypalaea was a “ libera civitas.” (Plin. l. c.) a mountain of Galilee, on the borders of Zebulon and The modern town contains 250 houses and not Issachar. (Josh, xix. 22; Joseph. Antiq. v. 1. $ quite 1500 inhabitants. It belongs to Turkey, 22.) It stands out alone towards the SE. from the and is subject to the Pashah of Rhodes, who high land around Nazareth; while the north-eastern allows the inhabitants, however, to govern themselves, arm of the great plain of Esdraelon sweeps around only exacting from them the small yearly tribute of its base, and extends far to the N., forming a broad 9500 piastres, or about 607. sterling. This small tract of table-land, bordering upon the deep Jordan town contains an extraordinary number of churches valley and the basin of the Lake Tiberias. It was and chapels, sometimes as many as six in a row. before Mount Tabor that Deborah and Barak asThey are built to a great extent from the ruins of sembled the warriors of Israel before their great battle the ancient temples, and they contain numerous in- with Sisera. (Judges, iv. 6, 12, 14; Joseph. Antig. scriptions. In every part of the town there are seen v. 5. $ 3.) The beauty of this mountain aroused the capitals of columns and other ancient remains. We enthusiasm of the Psalmist, when he selected Tabor learn from inscriptions that the ancient city con- and Hermon as the representatives of the hills of his tained many temples and other ancient buildings. native land; the former as the most graceful; the

The favourite hero of the island was Cleomedes, of latter as the loftiest. (Ps. lxxxix. 12: comp. Jer. whose romantic history an account is given elsewhere. xlvi. 18; Hos. v. 1.) In B. c. 218 Antiochus the (Dict. of Biogr. art. Cleomedes.) Cicero probably Great ascended the mountain, and came to Ataconfounds Achilles with this Cleomedes, when he | byrium, a place lying on a breast-formed height, says (de Nat. Deor. üi. 18) that the Astypalaeenses having an ascent of more than 15 stadia; and by worship Achilles with the greatest veneration. stratagem and wile got possession of the city, which

Hegesander related that a couple of hares having he afterwards fortified. (Polyb. v. 70. 8 6.) About been brought into Astypalaea from Anaphe, the 53 B.C. a battle took place here between the Roman island became so overrun with them that the inha- forces under the proconsul Gabinius, and the Jews bitants were obliged to consult the Delphic oracle, under Alexander, son of Aristobulus, in which 10,000 which advised their hunting them with dogs, and of the latter were slain. (Joseph. Antig. xiv. 6. that in this way more than 6000 were caught in one § 3, B. J. i. 8. & 7.) In the New Testament Mount year. (Athen. ix. p. 400, d.) This tale is a coun- Tabor is not mentioned. In later times Josephus terpart to the one about the brace of partridges in- (B. J. ii. 20. § 6, Vita, $ 37) relates that he had troduced from Astypalaea into Anaphe. [AXAPHE.] himself caused Mt, Tabor to be fortified, along with Pliny (viii. 59) says that the muscles of Astypalaea various other places. He describes the mountain as were very celebrated; and we learn from Ross that having an ascent of 30 stadia (Rufinus reads 20 stathey are still taken off the coast. (Ross, Reisen auf dia, which corresponds better with the 15 stadia of den Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 56, seq.; for inscrip- Polybius, and is nearer the truth). On the N. it tions, see Böckh, Inscr. n. 2483, seq.; Ross, Inscr. | was inaccessible, and the summit was a plain of ined. ii. 153, seq.)

26 stadia in circumference. The whole of this cir3. A town in Samos, according to Stephanus cuit Josephus enclosed with a wall in forty days, in (8.v.), said by others to be either the acropolis of which time the inhabitants had to bring water and the city of Samos (Polyaen. Strat. i. 23. & 2), or the materials from below, since they had only rainname of half of the city. (Etym. M.)

water. (B. J. iv. 1. § 8.) Still later, when Jo4. A town in the island of 'Cos, which the inha-sephus had himself fallen into the hands of the

Romans, a great number of the Jews took refuge between Salamis and Peiraeeus. (Strab. ix. pp. 395, in this fortress; against whom Vespasian sent Pla- | 425; Steph. B. $. v.) cidus with 600 horsemen. By a feint he induced 3. A town in Macedonia, in the upper part of the great body to pursue him into the plain, where the valley of the Axius. (Thuc. ii. 100.) Cramer he slew many, and cut off the return of the multi-(Ancient Greece, vol. i. p. 230) suggests that the tude to the mountain; so that the inhabitants, who Atalanta of Thucydides is probably the town called were suffering from want of water, made terms, and Allante by Pliny (iv. 12), and Stephanus B. (8. v. surrendered themselves and the mountain to Placi- | 'AXAdvtn); the latter says that Theopompus named dns. (Joseph. l. c.) Nothing further is heard of it Allantium. Mount Tabor till the 4th century, when it is often ATARANTES ('ATápaytes), a people of Inner mentioned by Eusebius (Onomast. s. v. Thabor Ita- | Libya, in the N. part of the Great Desert (Sahara), byrium), but without any allusion to its being re in an oasis formed by salt hills, between the Garagarded as the scene of the Transfiguration. About mantes and Atlantes, at a distance of ten days' jourthe middle of this century, the first notice of Tabor ney from each (Herod. iv. 184), apparently in as the place where our Lord was transfigured ap Fezzan. They used no individual names; and they years as a passing remark by Cyril of Jerusalem were accustomed to curse the Sun for its burning (Cat. xii. 16, p. 170); and Jerome twice mentions heat (nio Útrepáxlovti, the sun as it passes over the same thing, though he implies that there was their heads, or when its heat is excessive; the comnot yet a church upon the summit. (Hieron. Ep. mentators differ about the meaning). in all the 44, ad Marcell. p. 522, Ep. 86; Epitaph. Paulae, / MSS. of Herodotus, the reading is 'Atlantes. But, p. 677.) Lightfoot (Hor. Iebr. in Marc. ix. 2) as Herodotus goes on to speak separately of the Atand Reland (Palaest. pp. 334-336) have inferred, lantes, the editors are agreed that the reading in the from the narrative of the Evangelists, that the Mount first passage has been corrupted by the common of Transfiguration is to be sought somewhere in the confusion of a name comparatively unknown with ncighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi. Rosenmüller one well known; and this view is confirmed by the (Bibl. Alt. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 107) adheres to the an- fact that Mela (i. 8. $ 5) and Pliny (v. 8) give an cient traditions connected with this mountain. The account of the Atlantes, copied from the above stateexistence of a fortified city upon the spot so long ments of Herodotus, with the addition of what Hebefore and after the event of the Transfiguration rodotus affirms in the second passage of the Atlantes would seem, as Robinson (Palestine, vol. iji. p. 224) (where the name is right), that they saw no visions argues, to decide the question. At the foot of this in their sleep. The reading 'Atópartes is a correcmountain, in the time of the Crusades, many battles tion of Salmasius (ad Solin. p. 292), on the authowere fought between the Christians and Moslerns; rity of a passage from the Achaica of the Alexanand in modern times a victory was here gained by drian writer Rhianus (ap. Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. Napoleon over the Turks. Mount Tabor consists 66: comp. Steph. B. 3. v. ATAAVTES; Nicol. Damasc. wholly of limestone; standing out isolated in the ap. Stob. Tit. xliv. vol. ii. p. 226, Gaisf.; Diod. Sic. plain, and rising to a height of about 1,000 feet, it iii. 8; Solin. I. c.; Baehr, ad Herod. l. c.; Meineke, presents a beautiful appearance. Seen from the Anal. Alex. pp. 181, 182.)

[P. S.] SW., its form is that of the segment of a sphere; to ATARNEUS or ATARNA ('Arapveús, Atapra: the NW. it more resembles a truncated cone. The | Eth. 'Atapveús, 'Arapveltns), a city of Mysia, opsides are covered up to the summit with the valonia posite to Lesbos, and a strong place. It was on the oak, wild pistachios, myrtles, and other shrubs. Its road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caicus. crest is table-land of some 600 or 700 yards in (Xen. Anab. vii. 8. $ 8.) Atarneus seems to be the height from N. to S., and about half as much across. genuine original naine, though Atarna, or Atarnea, Upon this crest are remains of several small half- | and Aterne (Pliny) may have prevailed afterwards. ruined tanks. Upon the ridges which enclose the Stephanus, who only gives the name Atarna, consmall plain at the summits are some ruins belonging sistently makes the ethnic name Atarneus. Herodoto different ages; some are of large bevelled stones, tus (i. 160) tells a story of the city and its territory, which cannot be of later date than the Romans. both of which were named Atarneus, being given to (Robinson, Palestine, vol. iii. p. 213; Burkhardt, the Chians by Cyrus, for their having surrendered Travels, p. 332.) Lord Nugent describes the view to him Pactyes the Lydian. Stephanus (s. v. "Anaas the most splendid he had ever seen from any na-cos) and other ancient authorities consider Atarneus tural height. (Lands Classical and Sacred, vol. ii. to be the Tarne of Homer (I1. v. 44); but perhaps p. 204; Ritter, Erdkunde, West Asien, vol. xv. p. incorrectly. The territory was a good corn country. 391; Raumer, Palestina, p. 37.) [E. B. J.] Histiaeus the Milesian was defeated by the Persians at ATABYRIS MONS. [Rhodus.]

Malene in the Atarneitis, and taken prisoner. (Herod. A'TAGIS. [ATHESIS.)

vi. 28, 29.) The place was occupied at a later ATALANTA ( Atanártn: Eth. 'Atalavraios.) time by some exiles from Chios, who from this strong 1. (Talandonisi), a small island off Locris, in the position sallied out and plundered Ionia. (Diod. xii. Opuntian gulf, said to have been torn asunder from 65; Xen. Hell. iii. 2. $ 11.) This town was once the mainland by an earthquake. In the first year the residence of Hermeias the tyrant, the friend of of the Peloponnesian war it was fortified by the Aristotle. Pausanias (vii. 2. $ 11) says that the Athenians for the purpose of checking the Locrians same calamity befel the Atarneitae which drove the in their attacks upon Euboea. In the sixth year of Myusii from their city (MyuS]; but as the position the war a part of the Athenian works was destroyed of the two cities was not similar, it is not quite clear by a great inundation of the sea. (Strab. i. p. 61, what he means. They left the place, however, if ix. pp. 395, 425; Thuc. ï. 32, ii. 89; Diod. xii. his statement is true; and Pliny (v. 30), in his time, 44, 59; Paus. X. 20. § 3; Liv. xxxv. 37; Plin. ii. mentions Atarncus as no longer a city. Pausanias 88, iv. 12; Sen. Q. N. vi. 24; Steph. B. s. v.; (iv. 35. § 10) speaks of hot springs at Astyra, opLeake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 172.)

posite to Lesbos, in the Atarneus. [ASTYRA 2. A small island off the western coast of Attica, l. The site of Atarncus is generally fixed at Dikeli

Koi. There are antonomous coins of Atarneus, with Orell. Inscr. 130.) It continued to exist as an the epigraph ATA. and ATAP.

episcopal see till the ninth century, but was then There was a place near Pitane called Atarneus. much decayed; and in A. D. 1030 the inhabitants (Strab. p. 614.)

[G. L.] were removed to the neighbouring town of Arersa, ATAX (Atat: Aude), or ATTAGUS, a river then lately founded by the Norman Connt Raiof Gallia Narbonensis, which rises on the north slope nulphus. Some remains of its walls and other ruins of the Pyrenees, and flows by Carcassonne and Narbo are still visible at a spot about 2 miles E. of Aversa, (Narbonne), below which it enters the Mediterra- near the villages of S. Arpino and S. Elpidio; and nean, near the Etang de Vendres. Strabo (p. an old church on the site is still called Sta Maria di 182) makes it rise in the Cévennes, which is not Atella. Numerous inscriptions, terracottas, and correct. Mela (ii. 5) and Pliny (iii. 4) place its other minor antiquities, have been found there. (Holsource in the Pyrenees. It was navigable to a short sten. Not. in Cluv. p. 260; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 592.) distance above Narbo. A few miles higher up than The name of Atella is best known in connection Narbonne the stream divides into two arms; one with the peculiar class of dramatic representations arm flowed into a lake, Rubresus or Rubrensis (the which derived from thence the appellation of “Faníuvn Napbwritus of Strabo); and the other direct bulae Atellanae," and which were borrowed from into the sea. The Rubresus is described by Mela as them by the Romans, among whom they enjoyed for a very large piece of water, which communicated a time especial favour, so as to be exempt from the with the sea by a narrow passage. This appears to penalties and disqualifications which attached to the be the E'tang Sigean ; and the canal Robine actors of other dramatic performances. At a later d'Aude, which runs from Narbonne to this Etang, period, however, they degenerated into so licentious represents the Atax of the Romans.

a character, that in the reign of Tiberius they were The inhabitants of the valley of the Atax were altogether prohibited, and the actors banished from called Atacini. Mela calls Narbo a colony of the Italy. These plays were originally written in the Atacini and the Decumani, from which Walckenaer Oscan dialect, which they appear to have mainly con(vol. i. p. 140) draws the conclusion that this place tributed to preserve in its purity. (Liv. vii. 2; Strab. was not the original capital of the Atacini. But v. p. 233; Tac. Ann. iv. 14. For further partiMela employs like terms, when he speaks of “ Tolosa culars concerning the Fabulae Atellanae see BernTectosaguin” and “ Vienna Allobrogum;" so that hardy, Römische Literatur. p. 379, &c.) The early we may reject Walckenaer's conclusion from this importance of Atella is further attested by its coins. passage. There may, however, have been a “ Vicus which resemble in their types those of Capua, but Atax," as Eusebius names it, or Vicus Atacinus, bear the legend, in Oscan characters, “ Aderl," — the birth-place of P. Terentius Varro: and the evidently the native form of the name. (Millingen, Scholiast on Horace (Sat. i. 10. 46) may not be cor- | Numism. de l'Italie, p. 190; Friedländer, Oskische rect, when he says that Varro was called Atacinus Münzen, p. 15.)

[E. H. B.) from the river Atax. Polybius (iii. 37, xxxiv. 10) ATER or NIGER MONS, a mountain range of calls this river Narbo.

[G. L.] Inner Libya, on the N. side of the Great Desert ATELLA ("ATema: Eth. 'AteMavós, Atella- (Sahara), dividing the part of Roman Africa on the nus), a city of Campania, situated on the road from Great Syrtis from Phazania (Fezzan). It seems to Capua to Neapolis, at the distance of 9 miles from correspond either to the Jebel-Soudan or Black each of those two cities. (Steph.B. s.v.; Tab. Peut.) Mountains, between 28° and 29° N. lat., and from Its name is not found in history during the wars of about 10° E. long. eastward, or to the SE. prothe Romans with the Campanians, nor on occasion of longation of the same chain, called the Black the settlement of Campania in B. c. 336: it probably | Harusch, or both. The entire range is of a black followed the fortunes of its powerful neighbour Capua, basaltic rock, whence the ancient and modern names though its independence is attested by its coins." In (Plin. v. 5, vi. 30. s. 35; Hornemann, Reisen von the second Punic war the Atellani were among the Kairo nach Fezzan, p. 60).

[P. S.] first to declare for the Carthaginians after the battle ATERNUM ("ATepvov: Pescara), a city of the of Cannae (Liv. xxii. 61; Sil. Ital. xi. 14): hence, Vestini, situated on the coast of the Adriatic, at the when they fell into the power of the Romans, after mouth of the river Aternus, from which it derived the reduction of Capua, B. C. 211, they were very its name. It was the only Vestinian city on the seaseverely treated: the chief citizens and authors of coast, and was a place of considerable trade, serving the revolt were executed on the spot, while of the as the emporium not only of the Vestini, but of the rest of the inhabitants the greater part were sold as Peligni and Marrucini also. (Strab. v. pp. 241, 242.) slaves, and others removed to distant settlements. As early as the second Punic war it is mentioned as a The next year (210) the few remaining inhabitants place of importance: having joined the cause of Hanwere compelled to migrate to Calatia, and the citizens nibal and the Carthaginians, it was retaken in B.c.213 of Nuceria, whose own city had been destroyed by by the praetor Sempronius Tuditanns, when a consiHannibal, were settled at Atella in their stead. (Liv. I derable sum of money, as well as 7000 prisoners, xxvi. 16, 33, 34, xxvii. 3.) After this it appears fell into the hands of the captors. (Liv. xxiv. 47.) to have quickly revived, and Cicero speaks of it as, Under Augustus it received a colony of veterans, in his time, a flourishing and important municipal among whom its territory was portioned out (Lib. town. It was under the especial patronage and pro Colon. p. 253), but it did not obtain the rank of a tection of the great orator himself, but we do not colony. Various inscriptions attest its municipal know what was the origin of this peculiar connection | condition under the Roman Empire. One of these between them. (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 31, ad Fam. mentions the restoration of its port by Tiberius (Roxiii. 7, ad Q. Fr. q. 14.) Under Augustus it re- manelli, vol. iii. p. 82); another, which commemoceived a colony of military settlers; but continued | rates the continuation of the Via Valeria by Clauto be a place only of municipal rank, and is classed dius to this point (Orell. Inscr. 711), speaks only of by Strabo among the smaller towns of Campania. the “ Ostia Aterni," without mentioning the town of (P'lin. iii. 5. s. 9; Strab. v. p. 249; Ptol. ii. 1. $ 68; 1 that name; and the same expression is found both in

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