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MSS.). 1. AsnciTANA Colonia Acoi-sta FmXA (Ecija), ww, under the Romans, one of the chief cities of Hispania Baetica, and the seat of a ammUue jttridicus. It stood in the plain of the Borti", scene distance S. of the river, on its tributary the Singulis (Genii), which began here to be navigable. It was at the junction of the roads from Grdnba (Cordova) and Emcrita (Merida) to Hispolis (Seville), at the respective distances of 36 M. P., 105 M. P., and 58 If. P. (/fin. A nt. pp. 413, 414; Hah, ii. 6. § 4; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3; Florcz, Esp.S. x. p. 72.)

2. Astigi Vetits (Alameda), a free city of Hisp:ni:i Baetica, N. of Antiqnaria (Antequera), bcloceing to the Conventus Astigitanus [see No. 1], (Pun. Hi. 1. s. 3; Florez, Esp. S. x. p. 74.)

3. JlLrCTSES. [aktigi.] [P. S.] ASTKAEUM (Liv. xl. 24; 'Atrrpaia, Steph. B.

«.r.; MtTTpaiov, Ptol. iii. 13. § 27), a town of Paeonia in Macedonia, which Leake identifies witli Stnaoitza. Aclian (//. An. xv. 1) speaks of a river A?traens, flowing between Thessalonica and Berrhoea, which Leake supposes to be the same as the Vistritza. Tafel, however, conjectures that Astraeus in Aelian is a false reading for Axius. (Leake, S'ortkern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 293, 466, seq.; Tafel, Tiettaloniea, p. 312, seq.)

ASTRUM("AoTpoi': Astro). 1. AtowninCynuria Cd the coast, and the first town in Argolis towards the frontiers of Laconia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy alone (iii. 16. § 11), but is conjectured by Leake to have been the maritime fortress in the bedding of which the Aeginetae were interrupted by the Athenians in the eighth year of the Peloponne»in war. (Thuc. iv. 57.) The place was situated on a promontory, which retains its ancient name. Here there are still considerable remains of an ancient watt. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 484, seq.; Ross, PelopoOnes, p. 162.)

A'STURA("A<rrii()o). 1. A small islet on the coast of Lad am, between Antium and Circeii, at the mouth of a river of the same name, which rises at the so<£bem foot of the Alban hills, and has a course of about 20 miles to the sea. It is called Storas ( Zropm) by Strabo, who tells us that it had a place of aachonce at its mouth (v. p. 232). It was on the banks of this obscure stream that was fought, in E. C.-338, the last great battle between the Romans and the Latins, in which the consul G. Maenius totally defeated the combined forces of Antium, Lanuvioai, Alicia and Velitrae. (Liv. viii. 13.) At a much later period the little island at its mouth, and the whole adjacent coast, became occupied with Roman villas; among which the most celebrated is that of Cicero, to which he repeatedly alludes in his letters, and which ho describes as "locus amoenus et in man ipso," commanding a view both of Antium and Circeii (ad Att. xii. 19, 40, ad Fam. vi. 19). It was from thence that, on learning his proscription by the triumvirs, he embarked, with the intention of escaping to join Brutus in Macedonia; a resolution which he afterwards unfortunately abandoned. (Pint. Cic 47.) We learn from Suetonius also that Astura wa« the occasional resort both of Augustus and Tiberius (Suet. Aug. 97, Tib. 72), and existing remains prove that many of the Roman nobility must have had villas there. (See Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, voL L pp. 267—277.) Bnt it does not appear that there ever was a town of the name, as asserted by Servhu (ad Aen. vii. 801). The island was at some time or other joined to the mainland by a bridge or

causeway, and it thus became, as it now remains, a peninsula projecting into the sea. It is surmounted by a fortified tower, called the Torre di Astura, a picturesque object, conspicuous both from Antium and the Circeian headland, and the only one which breaks the monotony of the low and sandy coast between them. The Tab. Peut. reckons Astura 7 miles from Antium, which is rather less than the truo distance.

There is no doubt that the Storas of Strabo is the same with the Astura, which Festus also tells us was often called Stura (p. 317, ed. MUU.); bnt there is no ground for supposing the " Saturae palus" of Virgil (.den. vii. 801) to refer to the same locality. [E. H. B.]

2. (Ezla or Estola), a river of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the NW., which, rising in the mountains of the Cantabri, the prolongation of the Pyrenees, flows S. through the country of the Astukes; and, after receiving several other rivers that drain the great plain of Leon, it falls into the Durius (Douro) on its N. side. (Floras, iv. 12; Oros. vi. 21; Isidor. Etym. ix. 2.) [P. S.]

A'STURES (sing. Astnr, in poets; "a<ttup«i, Strab. iii. pp. 153, 155, 167; Dion Cass. liii. 25; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Flor. iv. 12; Grater, Inscript. p. 193, No. 3, p. 426, No. 5, &c: Adj. Astur and Asturicus; Asturica gens, Sil. Ital. xvi. 584; 'A<rroupioi, Strab. p. 162; Aeroi/oof, Ptol. ii. 6. § 28; i. e. Highlanders, see Asta), a people in the NW. of Hispania Tarraconensis, extending from the N. coast to the river Durius (Douro), between the Gallaeci on the W. and the Cantabri and Celtiberi on the E., in the mountains N. and W. of the great plain of Leon and partly in tho plain itself. They wero divided into two parts by the Cantabrian mountains (M. Vinnius); those between the mountains and tho coast (in the Asturias) being called TraxsmoivTani, and those S. of the mountains (in Leon and V'altadolid) Augustani, names, which clearly indicate the difference between the Roman subjects of the plain and the unsubdued tribes of the mountains and the coast. They comprised a population of 240,000 free persons, divided into 22 tribes (Plin. /. c), of which Ptolemy mentions the following names: Ijnriati (Lancienscs, Plin.), Brigaeeini (Trigaecini, Flor.), Bedunenscs, Omiaci, Lungones, Saelini, Supcratii, Amaci, Tibures, Egurri or Gigurri (Cigurri, Plin.), and the Paesici, on the peninsula of C. de Penas (Plin. iv. 20. s. 34), to which Pliny adds the Zoelae, near the coast, celebrated for their flax. (Plin. iii. 4, xix. 2.)

The country of the Astures (Asturia, Plin.: 'A<rrovpia, Ptol.), was for the most part mountainous and abounded in mines More gold was found in Asturia than in any other part of Spain, and tho supply was regarded as more lasting than in any other part of the world. (Plin. xxxiii. 4. s. 21.) To this the poets mako frequent allusions: eg. Sil. Ital. i. 231:

Astur avarus,

Comp. vii. 755. Callaicis quidquid fodit Astur in arvis,

Mart. x. 16. Merserit Asturii scrutator pattidus avri,

Lucan. iv. 298.

(according to Oudendorp's emendation: comp. Stat.

Silv. iv. 7. 13, Pallidus fossor concolor

auro, and Claudian. Cons. Prub. et Olybr. 50.) Asturia was also famous for its breed of horses, the small ambling Spanish jennet, described by Pliny (viii. 42. s. 67), Silius Italian (Hi. 335— 337: in the preceding lines the poet derives the name of the people from Astur the son of Mcmnon), and Martial (xiv. 199):

"Hie brcvis, ad nnmerum rapidos qui colligit ungues, Venit ab auriferis gentibns, Astur equus."

The species of horse was called Asturco, and the name was applied to horses of a similar character bred elsewhere, as Asturco Macedonicus. (Petron. Sat. 86: comp. Senec. Ep. 87.)

The Asturians were a wild, rugged, and warlike race. (Strab. I. c; Sil. Ital. i. 2b2, exercittu Astur; xii. 748, beUiger Atttir; Flor. iv. 12, Cantabri et Astures validissimae gentes.) Their mountains have always been the stronghold of Spanish independence. In the war of Augustus against the Cantabri, B. c. 25, the Asturians, anticipating the attack of the Romans, were defeated with great slaughter on the banks of the river Astura, and retreated into Lancia, which was taken, after some resistance. (Dion Cass. I. c; Flor. iv. 12. § 56, ed. Dukerj Oros. vi. 21; Clinton, s. a.) These actions ended the Cantabrian war, as the result of which the country south of the mountains became subject to Rome; but the highlands themselves, and the strip i f land between the mountains and the coast (the modem Aslurias), still famished a retreat to the natives, and afterwards sheltered the remnants of the Goths from the Arab invasion, and became the cradle of the modem Spanish monarchy. In its retired position, its mountainous surfaco, and in a certain resemblance of climate, the Asturias is the Wales of Spain; and, in imitation of our principality, it gives to the heir apparent his title.

Under the Romans, Asturia possessed several floulishing cities, nearly all of which were old Iberian towns: most of them were situated in the S. division, the valleys and plain watered by the Astura and its tributaries. The capital, Asturica Augusta (Astorga), the city of the Amaci, was the centre of several roads, which, with the towns upon them, were as follows (comp. Ptol. ii. 6. § 29): — (1) On the road SW.to Bracara Augusta (JBraoa, in Portugal; I tin. Ant. p. 423): Argentiolum, 14 M. P. (Torienzo or Torneras t La Mcdulas, Ford): Petavoniurn, 15 M. P. (Poybumo or Congostaf). (2) NW. also to Bracara, branching out into three different roads through Gallaecia (It Ant. pp. 423, 429, 431): Interamninm Flavium, 30 M.P. (PonJerradaor Bembibref): Bergidum, 16 M.P. (prob. Castro de la Ventosa, on a hill near Villa Franca, in a Swiss-like valley at the foot of the mountain pass leading into Gallaecia), beyond which, the following places on the same road, which would seem to belong properly to Gallaecia, are assigned by Ptolemy to Asturia: Forum Cigurrorum (Ttyofyfrav, corrected from 'Eyoipiuv), the Forum of the Itinerary, the chief city of the Cigurri (Plin.), now Cigarrosa or S. Eitcvan de Val de Orres, with ruins and a Roman bridge, where the people preserve a tradition that an old town once stood there, named Guigurra: Nemetobriga (Mendoga), the city of the Tiburi. (3) E. to Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza; It. Ant. pp. 448,453): Vallata, 16 M. P. (prob. Puente de Orvigo): Interamninm, 13 M. P. ( Villaroane): Palantia, 14 M.P. (Valencia de S. Juan): Viminacium, 31 M. P. ( Valderaduei or Becerilt): at the next station, Lacobriga, 10 M. P., in the Vaccaei, this road was joined by that from the military sta

tion of Legio VIL Gemina (Leon), NE. of Asturica (ft. Ant. p. 395): between Legio VTI. and Lacobriga were Lakce or Lancia, 9 M. P.(Sollanco or Mansillaf), and Camala (Ceaf); (4) A lower road to Caesaraugusta (It Ant. pp. 439,440): Bednnia, 20 M. P. (prob. La Baneza), city of the BeduDrnses: Brigaecium, 20 M. P. (prob. Benarente), the capital of the Brigaecini. In the district between the mountains and the coast, the chief cities were Lueus Asturum (Ptol.: prob. Oviedo), perhaps the Ovetnm of Pliny (xxxiv. 17. s. 49); Noeqa, and Flarionavia (Ptol.: Amies), on the coast. To these may be added, in the S. district, Intercatia, the city of the Omiaci; Pelontium, city of the Lungones; Nardininm. city of the Saelini (coins, Scstinj, Med. Isp. p. 172); Petavonium, city of the Superatii; and two or three more, too insignificant to name. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 440—443; Forbiger, vol. ii. pp. 83—85.) [P. S.]

ASTURIA. [astures.]

ASTURICA AUGUSTA (Afryoicrro 'Affrououra, Ptol.: 'AaTovpucaroi, Asturicani: Astorga, Eu.), the chief city of the Astures, in Hispania Tarraconensis, belonging to the tribe of the Amaci, stood in a lateral valley of the NW. mountains of Asturia, on the upper course of one of the tributaries of the Astura (Esla). Under the Romans, it was the seat of the conventus Asturicanus, one of the seven conrentus juridici of Hispania Tarraconensis. Respecting the roads from it see Astures. It obtained the title Augusta, doubtless, after the Cantabrian war, when the southern Astures first became the subjects of Rome; and from it the people S. of the mountains were called Augnstani. Pliny calls it urbs magniJica; and, even in its present wretched state, it bears traces of high antiquity, and "gives a perfect idea of a Roman fortified town." (Ford, p. 308.) "The walls are singularly curious, and there are two Roman tombs and inscriptions, near the Puerta dellierro." (Ibid.) The mythical tradition of the descent of the Astures from Astur, son of Memnnn (Sil. Ital. iii. 334), is still cherished by the people of Astorga, who make the hero the founder of their city. There are two coins ascribed to Asturica: one, of uncertain application, inscribed COL. Arrr. Augusta., which may belong to Asta or Astigi; the other, of doubtful genuineness, with the epigraph

COL. ASTURICA. AMAKUR. AUGUSTA.

Asturica is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical observation, being 3 hrs. 25 min. W. of Alexandria, and having 15 hrs. 25 min. for its longest day. (Plin. iii. 3. s.4; Ptol. ii. 6. § 36, viii. 4. § 5; IL Ant.; Sestini.p. 104; Eckhel,vol.i.p.35.) [P.S.]

ASTYCUS ('Aorwro'r: Yrarnitza, or river of Istib), a river of Paeonia, flowing into the Axius, on which was situated the residence of the Paeonian kings. (Polyaen. Strat. iv. 12; Leake, Northern Greece, voL iii. pp. 464, 475.)

ASTYPALAEA ('AonnroAiuo). 1. A promontory on the W. coast of Attica, between the promontories Zoster and Sunium and opposite the island of Eleussa. (Strab. ix. p. 398; Staph. B. s. r.; Leake, Demi, p. 59.)

2. (Eth. 'AoTvraXaitfo, 'AorwoAtucfrnr, Astvpalaeensis: called by the present inhabitants Astnpalaea,nnd by the Franks Stampalia),aa island in the Carpathian sea, called by Strabo (x. p.392) one of the Sporades, and by Stephanus B. (s. v.) one of the Cyclades, said to be 125 (Roman) miles from Cadistus in Crete (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23), and 800 stadia from Chalcia, an island near Rhodes. (Strab. I. c.) Pliny describes Astypalaea (/. c.) as 88 miles in circumference. The island consists of two large rocky masses, united in the centre by an isthmus, which in its narrowest part is only 450 or 500 feet across. On the N. and S. the sea enters two deep bays between the two halves of the island; and the town, which bore the same name as the island, stood on the western side of the southern bay. To the S. and E. of this bay lio several desert islands, to which Ovid (Ar.Am. ii. 82) alludes in the line:—" cinctaque piscosis Astypalaea vadia." From the castle of the town there is an extensive prospect. Towards the E. may be seen Cos, Nisyros, and Telos, and towards the S. in clear weather Cases, Carpathus, and Crete.

Of the history of Astypalaea we have hardly any account. Stephanas says that it was originally called Pyrrha, when the Carians possessed it, then Pylaea, next the Table of the Gods (8m> TfxUffa), on account of its verdure, and lastly Astypalaea, from the mother of Ancaeus. (Comp. Pans. vii. 4. § 1.) We learn from Scymnus (551) that Astypalaea was a colony of the Megarians, and Ovid mentions it as one of the islands subdued by Minos. (u Astypaleia regna," Met. vii. 461.) In B.C. 105 the Romans concluded an alliance with Astypalaea (Bockh, Inter. vol. ii. n. 2485), a distinction probably granted to the island in consequence of its excellent harbours and of its central position among the European and Asiatic islands of the Aegaean. Under the Roman emperors Astypalaea was a "libera civitas." (Plin. I. c.) The modem town contains 250 houses and not quite 1500 inhabitants. It belongs to Turkey, and is subject to the Pashah of Rhodes, who allows the inhabitants, however, to govern themselves, only exacting from them the small yearly tribute of 9500 piastres, or about 60/. sterling. This small town contains an extraordinary number of churches and chapels, sometimes as many as six in a row. They are built to a great extent from the ruins of the ancient temples, and they contain numerous inscriptions. In every part of the town there are seen capitals of columns and other ancient remains. We leam from inscriptions that the ancient city contained many temples and other ancient buildings. The favourite hero of the island was Clcomedes, of whose romantic history an account is given elsewhere. (Diet, of Biogr. art. Cleomedu.) Cicero probably confounds Achilles with this Cleomedes, when he says (de Nat. Deer. iii. 18) that the Astypalaeenses worship Achilles with the greatest veneration.

Hegesander related that a couple of hares having been brought into Astypalaea from Anaphe, the island became so overrun with them that the inhabitants were obliged to consult the Delphic oracle, which advised their hunting them with dogs, and that in this way more than 6000 were caught in one year. (Athen. ix. p. 400, d.) This tale is a counterpart to the one about the brace of partridges introduced from Astypalaea into Anaphe. [anaphe.] Pliny (viii. 59) says that the muscles of Astypalaea were very celebrated; and we leam from Ross that they are still taken off the coast. (Ross, Reiten auf den Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 56, seq.j for inscriptions, see Bockh, Inter, n. 2483, seq. j Ross, Inter, vied. ii. 153, seq.)

3. A town in Samos, according to Stepbanus (». r.), said by others to be either the acropolis of the city of Samos (Polyaen. Strat. i. 23. § 2), or the name of half of the city. (Etym. M.)

4. A town in the island of Cos, which the inha

bitants abandoned in order to build Cos. (Strab. xiv. p. 658; Steph. B.)

5. A promontory in Caria, near Myndus. (Strab. xiv. p. 657.)

A'STYRA ('AffTvpa, "Affrvpov: Eth. 'Aarvpnvos)1 a small town of Mysia, in the plain of Thebe, between Antandros and Adramyttium. It had a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence. (Strab. p. 613.) Artemis had hence the name of Astyrene or Astirene. (Xen. Hell.

iv. 1. § 41.) There was a lake Sapra near Astyra, which communicated with the sea. Pansanias, from his own observation (iv. 35. § 10), describes a spring of black water at Astyra; the water was hot. But he places Astyra in Atarncus. [atarneus.] There was, then, either a place in Atameus called Astyra, with warm springs, or Pansanias has made some mistake; for there is no doubt about the position of the Astyra of Strabo and Mela (i. 19). Astyra was a deserted place, according to Pliny's authorities. He calls it Astyre. There are said to be coins of Astyra.

Strabo (pp. 591, 680) mentions an Astyra above Abydus in Troas, once an independent city, but in Strabo's time it was a mined place, and belonged to the inhabitants of Abydus. There were once gold mines there, but they were nearly exhausted in Strabo's time. [G. L.j

ATABY'RIUM (atosi/oiox, Steph. B. Hesych.; IraSipiov LXX.; Bagiip : Jebel-et-Tur), or Tabor, a mountain of Galilee, on the borders of Zebulon and Issacbar. (Joth. xix. 22; Joseph. Antiq. v. 1. § 22.) It stands out alone towards the SE. from the high land around Nazareth; while the north-eastern arm of the great plain of Esdraelon sweeps around its base, and extends far to the N., forming a broad tract of table-land, bordering upon the deep Jordan valley and the basin of the Lake Tiberias. It was before Mount Tabor that Deborah and Barak assembled the warriors of Israel before their great battlo with Sisera. (Judge*, iv. 6, 12,14; Joseph. Antiq.

v. 5. § 3.) The beauty of this mountain aroused the enthusiasm of the Psalmist, when he selected Tabor and Hcrmon as the representatives of the hills of his native land; the former as the most graceful; the latter as the loftiest. (P$, lxxxix. 12; comp. Jer. xlvi. 18; Hot. v. 1.) In B. c. 218 Antiochus the Great ascended the mountain, and came to Atabyrium, a place lying on a breast-formed height, having an ascent of more than 15 stadia; and by stratagem and wile got possession of the city, which he afterwards fortified. (Polyb. v. 70. § 6.) About 53 B. c. a battle took place here between the Roman forces under the proconsul Gabinius, and the Jews under Alexander, son of Aristobulus, inwhich 10,000 of the latter were slain. (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 6. § 3, B. J. i. 8. § 7.) In the New Testament Mount Tabor is not mentioned. In later times Jo6ephus (B. J. ii. 20. § 6, Vita, § 37) relates that he had himself caused Mt. Tabor to be fortified, along with various other places. He describes the mountain as having an ascent of 30 stadia (Rufinus reads 20 stadia, which corresponds better with the 15 stadia of Polybius, and is nearer the truth). On the N. it was inaccessible, and the summit was a plain of 26 stadia in circumference. The whole of this circuit Josephus enclosed with a wall in forty days, in which time the inhabitants had to bring water and materials from below, since they had only rainwater. (B. J. iv. 1. § 8.) Still later, when Josephus had himself fallen into the hands of tho Romans, a great number of the Jews took refuge in this fortress; against whom Vespasian sent Placidus with 600 horsemen. By a feint he induced the great body to pursuo him into the plain, where he slew many, and cut off the return of the multitude to the mountain; so that the inhabitants, who were suffering from want of water, made terms, and surrendered themselves and the mountain to Placidus. (Joseph. L c.) Nothing further is heard of Mount Tabor till the 4th century, when it is often mentioned by Eusebius (Onomast. s. v. Thabor Itabyrium), but without any allusion to its being regarded as the scene of the Transfiguration. About the middle of this century, the first notice of Tabor as the place where our Lord was transfigured appears as a passing remark by Cyril of Jerusalem (Cat. xii. 16, p. 170); and Jerome twice mentions the same thing, though he implies that there was not yet a church upon the summit, (Hieron. Ep. 44, ad Marcett. p. 522, Ep. 86; Epitaph. Paulae, p. 677.) Lightfoot (Hor. Jlebr. in Man. ix. 2) and Reland (Palaest. pp. 334—336) have inferred, from the narrative of the Evangelists, that the Mount of Transfiguration is to be sought somewhere in the neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi. Rosenmiillcr (Bibl. Alt. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 107) adheres to the ancient traditions connected with this mountain. The existence of a fortified city upon the spot so long before and after the event of the Transfiguration would seem, as Robinson (Palestine, vol. iii. p. 224) argues, to decide the question. At the foot of this mountain, in the time of the Crusades, many battles were fought between the Christians and Moslems; and in modern times a victory was here gained by Napoleon over the Turks. Mount Tabor consists wholly of limestone; standing out isolated in tho plain, and rising to a height of about 1,000 feet, it presents a beautiful appearance. Seen from the SW., its form is that of the segment of a sphere; to the NW. it more resembles a truncated cone. The sides are covered up to tho summit with the valonia oak, wild pistachios, myrtles, and other shrubs. Its crest is table-land of some 600 or 700 yards in height from N. to S., and about half as much across. Upon this crest are remains of several small halfruined tanks. Upon the ridges which enclose the small plain at the summits are some ruins belonging to different ages; some are of large bevelled stones, whk-h cannot be of later date than the Romans, (liobinson, Palestine, vol. iii. p. 213; Bnrkhardt, Travels, p. 332.) Lord Nugent describes the view as the most splendid he had ever seen from any natural height. (Lands Classical and Sacred, vol. ii. p. 204; Rittcr, Erdktmde, West Asien, vol. xv. p. 391; Kaumer, Palestina, p. 37.) [E. B. J.]

ATABYKIS MONS. [rhodus.]

A'TAGIS. [athesis.j

ATALANTA ( AruAom?: Eth. 'atoaoktcuos.) 1. (Talandonisi), a small island off Locris, in the Opuntian gulf, said to have been torn asunder from the mainland by an earthquake. In the first year of the Peloponneaian war it was fortified by the Athenians for the purpose of checking the Locrians in their attacks upon Euboca. In the sixth year of the war a part of the Athenian works was destroyed by a great inundation of the sea. (Strab. i. p. 61, ix. pp. 395,425; Thuc. ii. 32, iii. 89; Diod. xii. 44, 59; Paus. x. 20. § 3; Liv. xxxv. 37; Plin. ii. 88, iv. 12; Sen. Q. N. vi. 24; Steph. B. *. r.; Leake, Nortliern Greece, vol. ii. p. 172.)

2. A small island off the western coast of Attica,

between Salamis and Peiraeeus. (Strab. ix. pp. 395, 425; Steph. B. *. r.)

3. A town in Macedonia, in the upper part of the valley of the Axius. (Thuc. ii. 100.) Cramer (Ancient Greece, vol. i. p. 230) suggests that the Atalanta of Thucydides is probably the town called Allantc by Pliny (iv. 12), and Stephanus B. (s. r. 'AAXarT7j); the latter says that Theopompus named it Allantium.

ATARANTES (-ATd>x>T«r), a people of Inner Libya, in the N. part of the Great Desert (Sahara), in an oasis formed by salt hills, between the Garamantes and Atlantcs, at a distance of ten days' journey from each (Herod, iv. 184), apparently in Fczzan. They used no individual names; and they were accustomed to curse the Sun for its burning heat (^ai'oj inrep€d\XovTt, the sun as it passes over their heads, or when its heat is excessive; the commentators differ about the meaning). In all the MSS. of Herodotus, the reading is 'ArKavrfi. But, as Herodotus goes on to speak separately of the Atlantcs, the editors are agreed that the reading in the first passage has been corrupted by the common confusion of a name comparatively unknown with one well known; and this view is confirmed by the fact that Mela (i. 8. § 5) and Pliny (v. 8) give an account of the Atlantes, copied from the above statements of Herodotus, with the addition of what Herodotus affirms in the second passage of the Atlantes (where the name is right), that they saw no visions in their sleep. The reading 'ATctporr** is a correction of Salmasins (ad Solin. p. 292), on the authority of a passage from the Achaica of the Alexandrian writer Rbianus (op. Eustatb. ad Dion. Perieg. 66: comp.Steph.B.s.v."atAoktcs; Nicol. Damasc ap. Stob. Tit xliv. vol. ii. p. 226, Gaisf.; Diod. Sic iii. 8; Solin. I.e.; Baehr, ad Herod. l.c; Meineke, Anal. Alex. pp. 181, 182.) « [P. S.]

ATARNEUS or ATAKNA ('Arapytis, 'Arappa: Eth. 'Arapytis, 'ATapvWnjr), a city of Mysia, opposite to Lesbos, and a strong place. It was on the road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caicus. (Xen. Anab. vii. 8. § 8.) Atameus seems to be the genuine original name, though Atama, or Atamea, and Atcrne (Pliny) may have prevailed afterwards. Stephanus, who only gives the name Atarna, consistently makes the ethnic name Atameus. Herodotus (i. 160) tells a story of the city and its territory, both of which were named Atarneus, being given to the Chians by Cyrus, for their having surrendered to him Pactyes the Lydian. Stephanus (s. v. "Aircuffor) and other ancient authorities consider Atarneus to be the Tame of Homer (//. v. 44); but perhaps incorrectly. The territory was a good com country. Histiaens the Milesian was defeated by the Persians at Malcne in the Atarneitis, and taken prisoner. (Hcrwl. vi. 28, 29.) The place was occupied at a later time by some exiles from Chios, who from this strong position sallied out and plundered Ionia. (Diod. xiii. 65; Xen. IJeli iii. 2. § 11.) This town was once the residence of Hermeias the tyrant, the friend of Aristotle. Pausanias (vii. 2. § 11) says that the same calamity befel the Atarneitae which drove tho Myusii from their city [myts]; but as the position of the two cities was not similar, it is not quite clear what he means. They left the place, however, if his statement is true; and Pliny (v. 30), in his time, mentions Atameus as no longer a city. Pausanias (iv. 35. § 10) speaks of hot springs at Astyra, opposite to Lesbos, in the Atameus. [astyra.]

The site of Atameus is generally fixed at DikdiKoi. There arc autonomous coins of Atarnens, with the epigraph ATA. and ATAP.

There was a place near Pitanc called Atarncus. (Strab. p. 614.) [G. L.]

ATAX CAraf: Aude), or ATTAGUS, a river of Gallia Narbonensis, which rises on the north slope of the Pyrenees, and flows by Carcassonne and Narbo (Narbonne), below which it enters the Mediterranean, near the E'tang de Vendres. Strabo (p. 182) makes it rise in the Cevennes, which is not correct. Mela (ii. 5) and Pliny (iii. 4) place its source in the Pyrenees. It was navigable to a short distance above Narbo. A few miles higher up than Narbonne the stream divides into two arms; one arm flowed into a lake, Kubresus or Iiubrensis (the AiVnj HapSavim of Strabo); and the other direct into the sea. The Kubresus is described by Mela as a very large piece of water, which communicated with the sea by a narrow passage. This appears to be the E'tang Sigean; and the canal Bobine 61 Aude, which runs from Narbonne to this Etang, represents the Atax of the Romans.

The inhabitants of the valley of the Atax were called Atacini. Mela calls Narbo a colony of the Atacini and the Decumani, from which Walckenaer (vol. i. p. 140) draws the conclusion that this place was not the original capital of the Atacini. But Mela employs like terms, when he speaks of11 Tolosa Tectosagum" and " Vienna Allobrogumso that we may reject Walckenaer's conclusion from this passage. There may, however, have been a " Vicus Atax," as Eusebius names it, or Vicus Atacinus, the birth-place of P. Terentius Varro: and the Scholiast on Horace (Sat i. 10.46) may not be correct, when he says that Varro was called Atacinus from the river Atax. Polybius (iii. 37, xxxiv. 10) calls this river Narbo. [G. L.]

ATELLA ("ArtAAa: Eth. 'ArtWards, Atellanus), a city of Campania, situated on the road from Capua to Neapolis, at the distance of 9 miles from each of those two cities. (Steph. B. t.v.; Tab. Peut.) Its name is not found in history during the wars of the Romans with the Campanians, nor on occasion of the settlement of Campania in B. c. 336: it probably followed the fortunes of its powerful neighbour Capua, though its independence is attested by its coins. In the second Punic war the Atellani were among the first to declare for the Carthaginians after the battle of Cannae (Liv. xxii. 61; Sil. Ital. xi. 14): hence, when they fell into the power of the Romans, after tho reduction of Capua, B. c. 211, they were very severely treated: the chief citizens and authors of the revolt were executed on the spot, while of the rest of the inhabitants the greater part were sold as slaves, and others removed to distant settlements. The next year (210) the few remaining inhabitants were compelled to migrate to Calatia, and the citizens of Nuceria, whose own city had been destroyed by Hannibal, were settled at Atella in their stead. (Liv. xxvi. 16, 33, 34, xxvii. 3.) After this it appears to have quickly revived, and Cicero speaks of it as, in his time, a flourishing and important municipal town. It was under the especial patronage and protection of the great orator himself, but we do not know what was the origin of this peculiar connection between them. (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 31, ad Earn. xiii. 7, ad Q. Fr. ii. 14.) Under Augustus it received a colony of military settlers; but continued to be a place only of municipal rank, and is classed by Strabo among the smaller towns of Campania. (Win. iii. 5. s. 9; Strab. v. p. 249; Ptol. iii. 1. § 68;

Orell. Inter. 130.) It continued to exist as an episcopal see till the ninth century, but was then much decayed; and in A.D. 1030 the inhabitants were removed to the neighbouring town of A versa, then lately founded by the Norman Count Rainulphus. Some remains of its walls and other ruins are still visible at a spot about 2 miles E. of Aversa, near the villages of S. Arpino and S. Elpidio; and an old church on the site is still called Sta Maria di Atella. Numerous inscriptions, terracottas, and other minor antiquities, have been found there. (Holsten. Not.in Clue, p.260; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 592.)

The name of Atella is best known in connection with the peculiar class of dramatic representations which derived from thence the appellation of " Fabulae Atellanae," and which were borrowed from them by the Romans, among whom they enjoyed for a time especial favour, so as to be exempt from the penalties and disqualifications which attached to the actors of other dramatic performances. At a later period, however, they degenerated into so licentious a character, that in the reign of Tiberius they were altogether prohibited, and the actors banished from Italy. These plays were originally written in the Oscan dialect, which they appear to have mainly contributed to preserve in its purity. (Liv. vii. 2; Strab. v. p. 233; Tac. Am. iv. 14. For further particulars concerning the Fabulae Atellanae see Bernhardy, Romische Literattir. p. 379, &c.) The early importance of Atella is further attested by its coins, which resemble in their types those of Capua, but bear the legend, in Oscan characters, "Aderl,"— evidently the native form of the name. (Millingen, Numism. de TItalie, p. 190; FriedlSnder, Oshische MOnzen, p. 15.) [E. H. B.]

ATER or NIGER MONS, a mountain range of Inner Libya, on the N. side of the Great Desert (Sahara), dividing the part of Roman Africa on tho Great Syrtis from Phazania (Fezzan). It seems to correspond either to the Jebel-Soudan or Black Mountains, between 28° and 29° N. lat., and from about 10° E. long, eastward, or to the SE. prolongation of tho same chain, called the Black Barusch, or both. The entire range is of a black basaltic rock, whence the ancient and modern names (Plin. v. 5, vi. 30. s. 35; Homemann, Rcisen von Kairo nach Feetan, p. 60). [P. S.]

ATERNUM CArepvov: Pescara), a city of tho Vestini, situated on the coast of the Adriatic, at the mouth of the river Aternus, from which it derived its name. It was the only Vestinian city on the seacoast, and was a place of considerable trade, serving as the emporium not only of the Vestini, but of the Pcligni and Marmcini also. (Strab. v. pp. 241, 242.) As early as the second Punic war it is mentioned as a place of importance: having joined the cause of Hannibal and the Carthaginians, itwas retaken in B. C.213 by the praetor Sempronius Tuditanns, when a considerable snm of money, as well as 7000 prisoners, fell into the hands of the captors. (Liv. xxiv. 47.) Under Augustus it received a colony of veterans, among whom its territory was portioned out (Lib. Colon, p. 253), but it did not obtain the rank of a colony. Various inscriptions attest its municipal condition under the Roman Empire. One of these mentions the restoration of its port by Tiberius (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 82); another, which commemorates the continuation of the Via Valeria by Claudius to this point (Orell. Inscr. 711), speaks only of the " Ostia Aterni," without mentioning the town of that name; and the same expression is found both in

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