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Athens till the abolition of its schools of philosophy ^ tion. (Leake, p. 221, note.) 2. THE Asty (TD by Justinian in the sixth century. It was probably | AOTU), the upper town, in opposition tothe lower town at this time that many of its temples were converted of Peiraeeus (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. $ 10), and therefore, into churches. Thus the Parthenon, or temple of in its widest sense, including the Polis. Sometimes, the Virgin-goddess, became a church consecrated to however, the Asty is called the Lower City ý kátu the Virgin-Mother; and the temple of Theseus was Ólis), in opposition to the Acropolis or Upper City. dedicated to the warrior St. George of Cappadocia. To prevent confusion we shall confine the term of The walls of Athens were repaired by Justinian. Polis to the Acropolis, and Asty to the Upper City (Procop, de Aedit. iv. 2.).

as distinguished from the Peiraeeus. 3. The PORTDuring the middle ages Athens sunk into a pro- Towns, Peiraeeus, including Munychia and Phavincial town, and is rarely mentioned by the Byzan- lerum. Peiraceus and Munychia were surrounded tine writers. After the capture of Constantinople by the same fortifications, and were united to the by the Latins in 1204, Boniface, Marquis of Mont- Asty by the Long Walls. Phalerum, the ancient ferrat, obtained the greater part of northern Greece, port-town of Athens, was also united for a time to which he governed under the title of king of Thessa- the Asty by the Phaleric wall, but was not included lonica. He bestowed Athens as a duchy upon one of within the fortifications of Peiraeeus. his followers; and the city remained in the hands of The topography of these three divisions of Athens the Franks, with many alternations of fortune, till its will be given in succession, after describing the walls incorporation into the Turkish empire in 1456. The and gates, and making some remarks upon the exParthenon was now converted from a Christian tent and population of the city. church into a Turkish mosque. In 1687 the buildings of the Acropolis suffered severe injury in the

IV. WALLS. siege of Athens by the Venetians under Morosini. Hitherto the Parthenon had remained almost unin The true position of the Walls of the Asty was first jured for 2,000 years; but it was now reduced to a pointed out by Forchhammer, in his able essay on ruin by the explosion of a quantity of powder which the Topography of Athens (published in the Kieler had been placed in it by the Turks. “A few years philologische Studien, Kiel, 1841). He successfully before the siege, when Wheler, Spon, and De Nointel defended his views in the Zeitschrift für die Altervisited Athens, the Propylaea still preserved its thumswissenschaft (1843, Nos. 69, 70), in reply to pediment; the temple of Victory Apterus was com- the criticisms of Curtius; and most modern scholars plete; the Parthenon, or great temple of Minerva, have acquiesced in the main in his opinions. The was perfect, with the exception of the roof, and of accoinpanying map of Athens, taken from Kiepert, the central figures in the eastern, and of two or three gives the direction of the walls according to Forchin the western pediment; the Erechtheium was so hammer's views; but as Leake, even in the second little injured that it was used as the harem of a edition of his Topography, has assigned a more Turkish house; and there were still remains of build- limited extent to the walls of the Asty, the matter ings and statues on the southern side of the Par- | must be examined at some length, as it is one of thenon. If the result of the siege did not leave the great importauce for the whole topography of the edifices of the Acropolis in the deplorable state in city. which we now see them, the injury which they re- It is in the direction of the western and southern ceived on that occasion was the cause of all the portion of the walls that Forchhammer chiefly differs dilapidation which they have since suffered, and ren- from his predecessors. Leake supposes that the dered the transportation of the fallen fragments of walls built by Themistocles ran from the gate Dipy. sculpture out of Turkey their best preservative from lum across the crest of the hills of the Nymphs, of total destruction.” (Lcake, Topography of Athens, the Pnyx, and of the Museium, and then north of p. 86.) Spon and Wheler visited Athens in 1675; the Tissus, which would thus have flowed outside and have left an account of the buildings of the the walls. This view seems to be supported by the Acropolis, as they existed before the siege of Moro- fact that across the crest of the hills of Pnyx and sini. In 1834 Athens was declared the capital of Museium, the foundations of the walls and of some the new kingdom of Greece; and since that time of the towers are clearly traceable; and that vestiges much light has been thrown upon the topography of of the walls between Museium and Enneacrunus the ancient city by the labours of modern scholars, of may also be distinguished in many places. Forchwhich an account is given in the course of the hammer, on the other hand, maintains that these present article.

remains do not belong to the walls of Themistocles,

but to the fortifications of a later period, probably III. DIVISIONS OF THE Crry.

those erected by Valerian, when the population of

the city had diminished. (Zosim. i. 29.) That the Athens consisted of three distinct parts, united walls of Themistocles must have included a much within one line of fortifications. 1. THE ACROPOLIS greater circuit than these remains will allow, may be or Polis ('Akpótonis, Móxis). From the city proved by the following considerations. having been originally confined to the Acropolis, the Thucydides gives an exact account of the extent latter was constantly called Polis in the historical of the fortifications of the Asty and the Harbours, period. (Thuc. ii. 15.) It is important to bear this including the Long Walls, as they existed at the befact in mind, since the Greek writers frequently use ginning of the Peloponnesian war. He says (ii. 13) the word Polis, without any distinguishing epithet - the length of the Phuleric Wall (td Jainpikoy to indicate the Acropolis. (Aesch. Eum. 687, Dind. ; Teixos) to the walls of the Asty was 35 stadia. Aristoph. Lysistr. 759, 911; Arrian, Anab. iii. 16.) The part of the walls of the Asty which was guarded Hence the Zeus of the Acropolis was surcamed no- was 43 stadia. The part that was left unguarded Rieus, and the Athena Iloniás. At the same time lay between the long wall and the Phaleric. Now it must be observed that Polis, like the word City the Long Walls (pakpà Teixn), running down to in London, was used in a more extended significa- the Peiraeeus, were 40 stadia in length, of which the outer one (td w ev) was guarded. The whole pp. 451, 453 ; Aeschin. de Fals. Leg. & 51 ; Lir. circumference of Peiraeeus, with Munychia, was 60 xxxi. 26.) stadia, but the guarded part was only half that ex- Between the two Long Walls, there was a carriage tent." It is clear from this passage that the Asty road (apacitós) leading from the Asty to Peiraeeus was connected with the port-towns by three walls, (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. $ 10); and on either side of the road namely the Phaleric, 35 stadia long, and the two there appear to have been numerous houses in the Long Walls, each 40 stadia long. The two Long time of the Peloponnesian war, probably forming a Walls ran in a south-westerly direction to Peiraeeus, broad street between four and five miles in length. parallel to, and at the distance of 550 feet from one This may be inferred from the account of Xenophon, another. The Phaleric Wall appears to have run who relates (Hell. ii. 2. & 3) that when the news nearly due south to Phalerum, and not parallel to of the defeat of the Athenian fleet at Aegosthe other two; the direction of the Phaleric Wall potami reached Peiraeeus, " a sound of lamentation depending upon the site of Phalerum, of which we spread from the Peiraeeus through the Long Walls shall speak under the port-towns. (See plan, p. to the Asty, as each person announced the news to 256.)

his neighbour.” Moreover, it appears from a passage The two Long Walls were also called the Legs of Andocides (de Myst. 7. 22, Reiske) that there was (Tà XKéin, Strab. ix. p. 395; Polyaen. i. 40; Brachia a Theseium within the Long Walls, which must be by Livy, xxxi. 26), and were distinguished as the distinguished from the celebrated temple of Thesens Northern Wall (To Bópelov Teixos, Plat. de Rep. in the Asty. In describing the stations assigned to iv. p. 439) and the Southern Wall (TO Nótlov, Har- the infantry, when the Boeotians advance to the pocrat. $. v Alquédov ; Aeschin. de Fals. Leg. & frontiers, Andocides says (l. c.), that the troops in 51). The former is called by Thucydides, in the the Asty were stationed in the Agora; those in the passage quoted above, the Outer (Td & Ewev), in op- Long Walls, in the Theseium ; and those in Peiposition to the Inner or the Intermediate wall (TO raeens, in the Hippodameian Agora. It is worth Zaméo ou teixos, Harpocrat l.c.; Plat. Gorg. p.455), noticing that Andocides calls the Long Walls the which lay between the Phaleric and the northern Long Fortress (rò uaxpoy teixos), as one of the Long Wall.

three great garrisons of Athens. The northern Long Wall and the Phaleric Wall The Long Walls were repaired more than once were the two built first. They are said by Plutarch after the time of Conon. A long and interesting to have been commenced by Cimon (Plut. Cim. 13); inscription, originally published by Müller (De Mira but, according to the more trustworthy account of nimentis Athenarum, Gött. 1836), and reprinted by Thucydides they were commenced in B. C. 457, Leake, contains a register of a contract entered into during the exile of Cimon, and were finished in the by the treasurer of the state for the repair of the following year. (Thuc. i. 107, 108 ) There can walls of the Asty and Peiraeeus, and of the Long be no doubt that their erection was undertaken at Walls. It is probable that this contract was made the advice of Pericles, who was thus only carrying about B. C. 335, in order to continue the repairs out more fully the plans of Themistocles to make which had been commenced by Demosthenes after Athens a maritime power and to secure an unin- the battle of Chaeroneia (B. C. 338). But between terrupted communication between the city and its this time and the invasion of Attica by Philip in harbours in time of war. Between B.C. 456 and B.C. 200, the walls had fallen into decay, since we 431,- the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, read of Philip making an irruption into the space

the Intermediate wall was built upon the advice between the ruined walls (“inter angustias seiniof Pericles, whom Socrates heard recommending this ruti muri, qui brachiis duobus Piraeum Athenis measure in the assembly. (Plat. Gorg. p. 455; jungit," Liv. xxxi. 26). Sulla in his siege of Athens comp. Plut. Per. 13; Harpocrat. 8. v.) The object (B. c. 87—86) used the materials of the Long Walls of building this intermediate wall was to render the in the erection of his mounds against the fortificacommunication between the Asty and Peiraeeus more tions of Peiraeeus. (Appian, Mithr. 30.) The secure. The distance between the northern Long Long Walls were never repaired, for Peiraceus sank Wall and the Phaleric was considerable; and conse- down into an insignificant place. (Strab. ix. p. 395.) quently each of them required the same number of The ruins (épeitia) of the Long Walls are noticed men to man them as the two Long Walls together, by Pausanias (i. 2. $ 2). Their foundations may which were separated from one another by so small still be traced in many parts. “Of the northern the an interval. Moreover, the harbour of Phalerum was foundations, which are about 12 feet in thickness, no longer used by the Athenian ships of war; and resting on the natural rock, and formed of large it was probably considered inexpedient to protect by quadrangular blocks of stone, commence from the the same fortifications the insignificant Phalerum foot of the Peiraic heights, at half a mile from the and the all-important Peiraceus.

head of Port Peiraeeus, and are traeed in the direcAfter the erection of the Intermediate Wall, the tion of the modern road for more than a mile and a Phaleric wall was probably allowed to fall into decay. half towards the city, exactly in the direction of the When the Lacedaemonians took Athens, we find entrance of the Acropolis. The southern Long Wail, mention of their destroying only two Long Walls (Xen. having passed through a deep vegetable soil, occuHell. ï. 2), since the communication of the Asty pied chiefly by vineyards, is less easily traceable with the Peiraeeus depended entirely upon the Long except at its junction with the walls of Peiradas Walls. There can be no doubt that when Conon (not Phalerum, aLeake says), and for half a mile rebuilt the Long Walls after the battle of Cnidus from thence towards the city. Commencing at the (B. C. 393), he restored only the Long Walls leading round tower, which is situated above the northto Peiraeeus (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 10; Paus. i. 2. western angle of the Munychian (not the Phalerc) $ 2); and it is very probable that in their restora- bay, it followed the foot of the hill, along the edge tion he used the materials of the Phaleric Wall. of the marsh, for about 500 yards; then assured, From the end of the Peloponnesian war, we find men- for about half that distance, a direction to the northtion of only two Long Walls. (Comp. Lys. C. Agorat. eastward, almost at a right angle with the preceding: from whence, as far as it is traceable, its course is the citadel of Athens, if the rock of the Acropolis exactly parallel to the northern Long Wall, at a dis- | had not been more suitable for the purpose. Now tance of 550 feet from it.” (Leake, p. 417.) we are told that when Demetrius Poliorcetes de

The height of the Long Walls is nowhere stated ; | livered Athens from the tyranny of Lachares in but we may presume that they were not lower than B. C. 299, he first kept possession of the Peiraeens, the walls of Peiraeeus, which were 40 cubits or and after he had entered the city, he fortified the 60 feet high. (Appian, Mithr. 30.) There were | Museium and placed a garrison in it. (Paus. i. 25. towers at the usual intervals, as we learn from the $ 8; Plut. Demetr. 34.) Pausanias adds (1. c.), inscription already referred to.

| that “the Museium is a hill within the ancient We now return to the Walls of the Asty. It is walls, opposite the Acropolis.” Now if the Museium evident that the part of the walls of the Asty, which stood within the walls, a glance at the map will Thucydides says needed no guard, was the part be- show that the western slopes of the Pnyx hill must tween the northern Long Wall and the Phaleric also have been included within them. Moreover, Wall. The length of this part is said by the we find on this hill remains of cisterns, steps, founScholiast in Thucydides to have been 17 stadia, and dations of houses, and numerous other indications of the circumference of the whole wall to have been 60 this quarter having been, in ancient times, thickly stadia. Thus the circuit of the Asty was the same inhabited, a fact which is also attested by a passage as the circuit of Peiraeeus, which Thucydides esti- in Aeschines (iepl Tv oikhoewv Twv ev lukvi, mates at 60 stadia. The distance of 17 stadia be Aesch. in Timarch. p. 10, Steph. $ 81, Bekk.). tween the northern Long Wall and the Phaleric has | There is likewise a passage in Plutarch, which been considered much too large ; but it may be ob cannot be understood at all on the supposition that served, first, that we do not know at what point the the ancient walls ran across the crest of the Pnyx Phaleric wall joined the Asty, and, secondly, that the hill. Plutarch says (Them. 19), that the bema of northern Long Wall may have taken a great bend the Pnyx had been so placed as to command a view in joining the Asty.

of the sea, but was subsequently removed by the In addition to this we have other statements Thirty Tyrants so as to face the land, because the which go to show that the circuit of the Asty sovereignty of the sea was the origin of the dewas larger than has been generally supposed. Thus, mocracy, while the pursuit of agriculture was faDion Chrysostom says (Orat. vi. p. 87), on the vourable to the oligarchy. The truth of this tale authority of Diogenes of Sinope," that the circuit may well be questioned; but if the people ever met of Athens is 200 stadia, if one includes the walls higher on the hill (for froin no part of the place of of the Peiraeeus and the Intermediate Walls assembly still remaining can the sea be seen), they (i.e. the Long Walls), in the walls of the city.” could never have obtained a sight of the sea, if the It is evident that in this calculation Diogenes in- existing remains of the walls are in reality those of cluded the portions of the walls both of the Asty | Themistocles. and the Peiraeeus, which lay between the Long It is unnecessary to discuss at length the direcWalls; the 60 stadia of the Asty, the 60 stadiation of the walls on the south and south-eastern of Peiraeeus, the 40 stadia of the northern Long side of the Asty. Thucydides says (ii. 15) that Wall, and the 40 stadia of the southern Long the city extended first towards the south, where the Wall making the 200 stadia. Other statements principal temples were built, namely, that of the respecting the extent of the walls of Athens are not Olympian Zeus, the Pythium, and those of Ge and so definite. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (iv. 13, ix. of Dionysus ; and he adds, that the inhabitants 68) compares the walls of Athens with those of used the water of the fountain of Callirrhoë, which, Rome, and Plutarch (Nic. 17) with those of Syra- from the time of the Peisistratidae, was called cuse; the walls of Rome being, according to Pliny Enneacranus. A southerly aspect was always a (iii. 5), 23 miles and 200 paces, about 185 stadia ; favourite one among the Greeks, and it is impossible and those of Syracuse, according to Strabo (vi. to believe that instead of continuing to extend their p. 270), 180 stadia.

city in this direction, they suddenly began building There are good grounds for believing that the towards the north and north-east. Moreover, it is walls of Themistocles extended from the gate called far more probable that the walls should have been Dipylum, along the western descent of the hills of carried across the hills on the south of the Ilissus, Pnyx and Museium, including both of these hills than have been built upon the low ground immediately within their circuit; that they then crossed the at the foot of these hills. That the Stadium was llissus near the western end of the Museium, and ran within the walls may be inferred from the splendour along the heights on the left of the river, including with which it was fitted up, and also from the fact Ardettus and the Stadium within the city; after that in all other Greek cities, as far as we know, which, making a turn to the north, they again the stadia were situated within the walls. Is it crossed the Ilissus, and leaving Mt. Lycabettus likely that the fountain Callirrhoë, from which the on the east, they ran in a semicircular direction inhabitants obtained their chief supply of water, till they rejoined the Dipylum. (See the plan of should have been outside the walls? Is it probable Athens.) According to this account, the Acropolis that the Heliastic judges, who were sworn at stands in the middle of the Asty, as Strabo states, Ardettus (Harpocrat. 8. v.), had to go outside the while Leake, by carrying the walls across the crest city for this of the hills of Pnyx and Museium, gives the city That no traces of the walls of Themistocles can too great an extension to the east, and places the be discovered will not surprise us, when we recollect walls almost under the very heights of Lycabettus, the enormous buildings which have totally disappeared so that an enemy from the slopes of the latter might in places that have continued to be inhabited, or from easily have discharged missiles into the city. which the materials could be carried away by sea.

It is important to show that the Museium was Of the great walls of Syracuse not a vestige remains; within the city walls. This hill is well adapted for and that this should have been the case at Athens a fortress, and would probably have been chosen for 1 is the less strange, because we know that the walls

facing Hymettus and Pentelicus were built of bricks | Vesp. 707); and this was the number at which they baked in the sun. (Vitruv. ii. 8; Plin. xxxv. 14.) were estimated by Demosthenes in B. c. 331. (Dem.

c. Aristog. p. 785.)

That the population of Attica could not have been V. EXTENT AND POPULATION.

much short of half a million may be inferred from In estimating the extent of Athens, it is not suf- the quantity of corn consumed in the country. In ficient to take into account the circuit of the walls; the time of Demosthenes the Athenians imported their form must also be borne in mind, or else an annually 800,000 medimni, or 876,302 bushels, of erroneous opinion will be formed of the space en corn. (Dem. c. Leptin. p. 466.) Adding this to closed. Athens, in fact, consisted of two circular the produce of Attica, which we may reckon at about cities, each 60 stadia, or 79 miles, in circumference, | 1,950,000 medimni, the total will be 2,750,000 mejoined by a street of 40 stadia, or 4 miles, in dimni, or 3,950,000 bushels. “ This would give length. With respect to the population of Athens, per head to a population of half a million near 8 it is difficult to assign the proportions belonging to bushels per annum, or 54 mediinni, equal to a daily the capital and to the rest of the country. The | rate of 20 ounces and 7-10ths avoirdupois, to both subject has been investigated by many modern sexes, and to every age and co writers, and among others by Clinton, whose cal- | nary full ration of corn was a cho culations are the most probable.

eighth part of a medimnus, or about 28ounces." The chief authority for the population of Attica is It is impossible to determine the exact population the census of Demetrius Phalereus, taken in B.C. 317. of Athens itself. We have the express testimony of (Ctesicles, ap. Athen. vi. p. 272, b.) According | Thucydides (ii, 14) that the Athenians were fond of to this census, there were 21,000 Athenian citizens, a country life, and that before the Peloponnesian 10,000 metocci (UÉTOIKO), or resident aliens, and war the country was decorated with houses. Sume 400,000 slaves. Now we may assune from various of the demi were populous: Acharnae, the largest, authorities, that by the term citizens all the males had in B. c. 431, 3000 hoplites, implying a free above the age of 20 years are meant. According population of at least 12,000, not computing slaves. to the population returns of England, the proportion | Athens is expressly said to have been the most popuof males above the age of twenty is 2430 in 10,000. lous city in Greece (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. $ 24; Thuc. The families, therefore, of the 21,000 citizens i. 80, ii. 64); but the only fact of any weight reamounted to about 86,420 souls; and reckoning the specting the population of the city is the statement families of the metoeci in the same proportion, the of Xenophon that it contained more than 10,000 total number of the free population of Attica was houses. (Xen. Mem. üi. 6. $ 14, Oecon. 8. $ 22.) about 127,000 souls. These, with the addition of Clinton remarks that “ London contains 7) persons the 400,000 slaves, will give 527,000 as the aggre- to a house; but at Paris formerly the proportion was gate of the whole population.

near 25. If we take about half the proportion of The number of slaves has been considered exces- Paris, and assume 12 persons to a house, we obtain sive; but it must be recollected that the agricultural 120,000 for the population of Athens; and we may and mining labour of Attica was performed by slaves; perhaps assign 40,000 more for the collective inthat they served as rowers on board the ships; that habitants of Peiraecus, Munychia and Phalerum." they were employed in manufactures, and in general | Leake supposes the population of the whole city to represented the labouring classes of Modern Europe. have been 192,000; and though no certainty on the We learn from a fragment of Hypereides, preserved point can be attained, we cannot be far wrong in asby Suidas (s. v. årreynploato), that the slaves who suming that Athens contained at least a third of the worked in the mines and were employed in country total population of Attica. labour, were more than 150,000. It appears from The preceding account has been chiefly taken i

ken from Plato (de Rep. ix. p. 578, d. e) that there were Clinton (F. 11. vol. ii. p. 387, seq., 2nd ed.) and many Athenians, who possessed fifty slaves each. Leake (p. 618), with which the reader may com Lysias and Polemarchus had 120 slaves in their pare the calculations of Böckh. (Public Econ. of manufactory (Lys. c. Eratosth, p. 395); and Nicias | Athens, p. 30, seq., 2nd ed.) The latter writur let 1000 slaves to a person who undertook the work- reckons the population of the city and the harbours ing of a mine at Laurium. (Xenoph. de Vectig. 4.) at 180,000. There is therefore no good reason for supposing that the slaves of Attica are much overrated at 400,000,

VI. GATES. which number bears nearly the same proportion to the free inhabitants of Attica, as the labouring Of the gates of the Asty the following are mentioned classes bear to the other classes in Great Britain. by name, though the exact position of some of them

If we go back from the time of Demetrius Pha- is very doubtful. We begin with the gates on the lereus to the flourishing period of Athenian history, western side of the city. we shall find the number of Athenian citizens gene. 1. Dipylum (Alnulov), originally called the rally computed at about 20,000, which would give Thriasian Gate (Opiariai lúxal), because it led about half a million as the total population of Attica. to Thria, a demus near Eleusis (Plut. Per. 30), Twenty thousand were said to have been their num- / and also the Ceramic Gate (Kepayelkal núnai), as ber in the time of Cecrops (Philochorus, ap. Schol. being the communication from the inner to the outer ad Pind. 01. ix. 68), a number evidently transferred Cerameicus (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 8; comp. Plut. from historical times to the mythical age. In B. C. Sull. 14), was situated at the NW. corner of the city. 444 they were 19,000; but upon a scrutiny under- The name Dipylum seems to show that it was contaken by the advice of Pericles, nearly 5000 were structed in the same manner as the gate of Megalo struck off the lists, as having no claims to the fran- | polis at Messene, with a double entrance and an inchise. (Plut. Pericl. 37; Philoch. ap. Schol. ad termediate court. It is described by Livy (xxxi. 24) Aristoph. Vesp. 716.) A few years afterwards as greater and wider than the other gates of Athens, (1.C. 422) they had increased to 20,000 (Aristoph. and with corresponding approaches to it on either sile; and we know from other authorities that it the city by this gate, and not by the Dipylum, as was the most used of all the gates. The street | Wordsworth and Curtius supposed, nor by a gate within the city led directly through the inner Cera. between the Hill of the Nymphs and the Dipylum, meicus to the Agora; while outside the gate there as Ross has more recently maintained. (Ross, in were two roads, both leading through the outer Ce. Kunstblatt, 1837, No. 92.) rameicus, one to the Academy (Liv. I. c.; Cic. de 4. The Melitian Gate (ai Menitides Núzai). Fin. v. l; Lucian, Scyth, 4), and the other to Eleu- at the SW. corner of the city, so called from the sis. [See below, No. 2.] The Dipylum was some-demus Melite, to which it led. Just outside this times called Anurades Túžai, from the number of gate were the Cimonian sepulchres, in which Thucyprostitutes in its neighbourhood. (Lucian, Dial. dides, as well as Cimon, was buried. In a hill exMer. 4. $ 3; Hesych. 8. vv. Anuidoi, Kepapelkós; tending westwards from the western slope of the Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 769.)

Museium, on the right bank of the lissus, ForchIt is exceedingly improbable that Pausanias en- hammer (p. 347) discovered two great sepulchres, tered the city by the Dipylum, as Wordsworth, Cur- hewn out of the rock, which he supposes to be the tins, and some other modern writers suppose. (See Cimonian tombs. The valley of the Ilissus was here below, No. 3.]

called Coele (Koian), a name applied as well to the 2. The Sacred Gate (ai 'Iepal Tiúkai), S. of the district within as without the Melitian Gate. This preceding, is identified by many modern writers with appears from a passage in Herodotus (vi. 103), who the Dipylum, but Plutarch, in the same chapter says that Cimon was buried before the city at the end (Sull. 14), speaks of the Dipylum and the Sacred of the street called dià Koians, by which he clearly Gate as two different gates. Moreover the same means a street of this name within the city. Other writer says that Sulla broke through the walls of authorities state that the Cimonian tombs were siAthens at a spot called Heptachalcon, between the tuated in the district called Coele, and near the MePeiraic and the Sacred Gates; a description which litian Gate. (Marcellin. Vit. Thuc. $$ 17, 32, 55; would scarcely have been applicable to the Hepta- Anonym. Vit. Thuc. sub fin.; Paus. i. 23. $ 9; Plut. chalcon, if the Sacred Gate had been the same as the Cim. 4, 19.) Dipylum. (See the plan of Athens. ] The Sacred Müller erroneously placed the Peiraic Gate on the Gate must have derived its name from its being the NE. side of the city. termination of the Sacred Way to Eleusis. But it On the southern side:appears that the road leading from the Dipylum was 5. The Itonian Gate (ai 'Itwvia. Túrai), not far also called the Sacred Way; since Pausanias says from the Ilissus, and leading to Phalerum. The (i. 36. $ 3) that the monument of Anthemocritus name of this gate is only mentioned in the Platonic was situated on the Sacred Way from Athens to dialogue named Axiochus (c. 1), in which Axiochus Eleusis, and we know from other authorities that is said to live near this gate at the monument of the this monument was near the Dipylum or the Thria- | Amazon; but that this gate led to Phalerum is clear sian Gate. (Plut. Per. 30; Hesych. 8. v. 'Avdepó- from Pausanias, who, in conducting his realer into Kpitos.) Hence, we may conclude that the Sacred | Athens from Phalerum, says that the monument of Way divided shortly before reaching Athens, one Antiope (the Amazon) stood just within the gate. road leading to the Sacred Gate and the other to (Paus. i. 2. $ 1.) the Dipylum. The street within the city from the On the eastern side: Sacred Gate led into the Cerameicus, and joined the 6. The Gate of Diochares (ai Aloxépous Túrai) street which led from the Dipylum to the Agora. leading to the Lyceium, and near the fountain of We read, that when the soldiers penetrated through Panops. (Strab. ix. p. 397 ; Hesych. 8. v. Návoy.) the Sacred Gate into the city, they slew so many 7. The Diomeian Gate (ai Albuelai Iúnai), N. persons in the narrow streets and in the Agora, that of the preceding, leading within the city to the The whole of the Cerameicus was deluged with blood, demus Diomeia, and outside to the Cynosarges. which streamed through the gates into the suburbs. (Steph. B. 8. rv. Atópleto, Kuvos apyes; Diog. Laërt. (Plut. Sull. 14.)

vi. 13; Plut. Them. 1.) 3. The Peiraic Gate (Tierpaïry Múan, Plut. On the northern side: Thes. 27, Sull. 14), S. of the preceding, from which 8. The Herian Gate (ai 'Hplai Núrai), or the ran the duaçitós or carriage road between the Long Gate of the Dead, so called from řpía, a place of Walls, from the Asty to the Peiraeens. It has been sepulture. (Harpocrat. 8. v.) The site of this gate already remarked that the aua Tós lay between the is uncertain; but it may safely be placed on the two Long Walls, and the marks of carriage wheels north of the city, since the burial place of Athens may still be seen upon it. It was the regular road was in the outer Cerameicus. from the Asty to the Peiracens; and the opinion of l 9. The Acharnian Gate (ai 'Axapvikal núnai, Leake (p. 234), that even during the existence of Hesych. 3. v.), leading to Acharnae. the Long Walls, the ordinary route from the Pei | 10. The Equestrian Gate (ai 'Istiádes Múnai, raeeus to the Asty passed to the southwards of the Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 849, c.), the position of Long Walls, has been satisfactorily refuted by Forch-| which is quite uncertain. It is placed by Leake hainmer (p. 296, seq.).

and others on the western side of the city, but by The position of the Peiraic Gate has been the Kiepert on the NE., to the north of the Diomeian subject of much dispute. Leake places it at some point between the hill of Pnyx and Dipylum; but wel 11. The Gate of Aegeus (al Aiyéws Núnai, have no doubt that Forchhammer is more correct Plut. Thes. 12), also of uncertain site, is placed by in his supposition that it stood between the hills Müller on the eastern side; but, as it appears from of Pnyx and of Museium. The arguments in favour | Plutarch (l.c.) to have been in the neighbourhood of of their respective opinions are stated at length by the Olympicium, it would appear to have been in these writers. (Leake, p. 225, seq., Forchhammer, the southern wall. p. 296, seq.) Both of them, however, bring for- ! There were several other gates in the Walls of ward convincing arguments, that Pausanias entered the Asty, the names of which are unknown.

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