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VII. General Appearance Of The Citt, Houses, Strekts, Water, &c.

Tho first appearance of Athens was not pleasing to a stranger. Dicaearcbus, who visited the city in the fourth century before the Christian era, describes it " as dusty and not well supplied with water; badly laid out on account of its antiquity; the majority of the houses mean, and only a few good." He adds that "a stranger, at the first view, might doubt if this is Athens; but after a short time he would find that it was." (Dicaearch. Bios Ttjs 'EAAaSos, init., p. 140, ed. Fuhr.) The Btreets were narrow and crooked; and the meanness of the private houses formed a striking contrast to the magnificence of the public buildings. None of the houses appear to have been of any great height, and the upper stories often projected over the streets. Themistocles and Aristeides, though authorised by the Areiopagus, could hardly prevent people from building over the streets. The houses were, for the most part, constructed eilher of a frame-work of wood, or of unburnt bricks dried in the open air. (Xen. Mem. iii. 1. § 7; Plut. J)em. 11; Hirt, Bauhmst der Altai, p. 143.) The front towards the street rarely had any windows, and was usually nothing but a curtain wall, covered with a coating of plaster (xovfa/xa: Dem. de Ord. Rep. p. 175; Plut Comp. Arist. et Cat. 4); though occasionally this outer wall was relieved by some ornament, as in the case of Phocion's house, of which the front was adorned with copper filings. (Plut Phoc 18; Becker, Charities, vol. i. p. 198.) What Horace said of the primitive worthies of his own country, will apply with still greater justice to the Athenians during their most flourishing period: —

"Privatos illis census erat brevis, Commune magnum.'1 (Mure, vol. ii. p. 98). It was not till the Macedonian period, when public spirit had decayed, that the Athenians, no longer satisfied with participating in the grandeur of the state, began to erect handsome private houses. "Formerly," says Demosthenes, "the republic had abundant wealth, but no individual raised himself above the multitude. If any one of us could now see the houses of Themistocles, Aristcides, Cimon, or the famous men of those days, he would perceive that they were not more magnificent than the houses of ordinary persons; while the buildings of the state are of such number and magnitude that they cannot be surpassed;" and afterwards he complains that the statesmen of his time constructed houses, which exceeded the public buildings in magnitude. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 689, Olynth. iii. pp. 35, 36; Bockh, Pvbl. Ham. of Athens, p.64, seq., 2nd ed.; Becker, Charities, vol.i. p. 188.)

The insignificance of the Athenian houses is shown by the small prices which they fetched. Bockh {Ibid. p. 66) has collected numerous instances from the orators. Their prices vary from the low sum of 3 or 5 minus (122. 3t. 9d. and 201. 6s. 3d.) to 120 minas (487/. 10*.); and 50 minas (2031 2s. 6d.) seem to have been regarded as a considerable sum for the purchase of a house.

Athens was inferior to Rome in the pavement of its streets, its sewers, and its supply of water. "The Greeks," says Strabo (v. p. 235), " in building their cities, attended chiefly to beauty and fortification, harbours, and a fertile soil. The Romans, on the Other hand, provided, what the others neglected, the pavement of the streets, a supply of water, and com

mon sewers." This account must be taken with some modifications, as we are not to suppose that Athens was totally unprovided with these public conveniences. It would appear, however, that few of the streets were paved; and the scavengers did not keep them clean, even in dry weather. The city was not lighted (Becker, Chankles, voL ii. p. 211); and in the Wasps of Aristophanes we have an amusing picture of a party at night picking thenway through the mud, by the aid of a lantern ( Veep. 248); and during a period of dry weather, as further appears from their own remarks. It would seem, from several passages in Aristophanes, that Athens was as dirty as the filthiest towns of southern Europe in the present day; and that her places of public resort, the purlieus of her sacred edifices more especially, were among the chief repositories of every kind of nuisance. (Aristoph. Plvt. 1183, seq., A'ui. 1384, seq., Eccles. 320, seq., Vesp. 394; from Mure, voL ii. p. 46.)

We have not much information respecting the supply of water at Athens. Dicaearchus, as we have already seen, says that the city was deficient in this first necessary of life. There was only one source of good drinking water, namely, the celebrated fountain, called Callirhoe or Enneacrunus, of which we shall speak below. Those who lived at a distance from this fountain obtained their drinking water from wells, of which there was a considerable number at Athens. (Pans. i. 14. § 1.) There were other fountains in Athens, and Pausanias mentions two, both issuing from the hill of the Acropolis, one in the cavern sacred to Apollo and Pan, and another in the temple of Aesculapius; but they both probably belonged to those springs of water unfit for drinking, but suited to domestic purposes, to which Yitruvius (viii. 3) alludes. The water obtained from the soil of Athens itself is impregnated with saline particles. It is, however, very improbable that so populous a city as Athens was limited for its supply of drinkable water to the single fountain of Callirhoe. We still find traces in the city of water-courses (65po(S/Wiu) channelled in the rock, and they are mentioned by the Attic writers. (Aristoph. Acharn. 922, &c) Even as early as the time of Themistocles there were public officers, who had the superintendence of the supply of water (^riaraTal Tw itdruv, Plut Them. 31). It may reasonably be concluded that the city obtained a supply of water by conduits from distant sources. Leake observes, " Modem Athens was not many years ago, and possibly may still be, supplied from two reservoirs, situated near the junction of the Eridanus and Ilissus. Of these reservoirs one was the receptacle of a subterraneous conduit from the foot of Mt. Hymettus; the other, of one of the Cephissns at the foot of Mt. Pentelicum. This conduit, which may be traced to the north of AmbeUpUco, in proceeding from thence by Koto Marusi to Kifista, where a series of holes give auto a canal, which is deep in the ground, may possibly be a work of republican times. One of these in particular is seen about midway between Athens and Kiftsia, and where two branches of the aqueduct seem to have united, after having conducted water from two or more fountains in the streams which, flowing from Fames, Pentelicum, and the intermediate ridge, form the Cephissus." Among the other favours which Hadrian conferred upon Athens was the construction of an aqueduct, of which the whole city probably reaped the benefit, though nominally intended only for the quarter called after his

own name. There stood in the time of Stuart, at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mt. Lycabettus, the remains of an arch, which was part of the frontispiece of a reservoir of this aqueduct. The piers of some of the arches of this aqueduct are still extant, particularly to the eastward of the village of Dervish-agti, five or six miles to the north of Athens. (I^akc, p. 202, and Appendix XIII., "On the Supply of Water at Athens.")

VIII. Topography/ Of The Acropolis Or Polis.

The Acropolis, as we have already remarked, is a square craggy rock, rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit of about 1,000 feet from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. It is inaccessible on all sides, except the west, where it is ascended by a steep slope. It was at one and the same time the fortress, the sanctuary, and the museum of the city. Although the site of the original city, it had ceased to be inhabited from the time of the Persian wars, and was appropriated to the worship of Athena and the other guardian deities of the city. It was one great sanctuary, and is therefore

called by Aristophanes &€o,tov 'A/cpoVoXii', Upbv T<h*vqs. (Lysistr. 482; comp. Deni. de Fals. Leg. p. 428, SMjs Oucttjs Upas T7jy 'AKpoirdXews.) By the artists of the age of Pericles its platform was covered with the master-pieces of ancient art, to which additions continued to be made in succeeding ages. The sanctuary thus became a museum; and in order to form a proper idea of it, we must imagine the summit of the rock stripped of every thing except temples and statues, the whole forming one vast composition of architecture, sculpture, and painting, the dazzling whiteness of the marble relieved by brilliant colours, and glittering in the transparent clearness of the Athenian atmosphere. It was here that Art achieved her greatest triumphs; and though in the present day a scene of desolation and ruin, its ruins are some of the most precious reliques of the ancient world.

The Acropolis stood in the centre of the city. Hence it was the heart of Athens, as Athens was the heart of Greece (Arist. Panath. i. p. 99, Jebb); and Pindar no doubt alluded to it. when he speaks of tiuntos 6fx<pa\ls &v6us iv rats Upais 'AfldVcus. (Frag. p. 225, Dissen.) It was to this sacred rock

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THE Acropoi

that the magnificent procession of the Panathenaic festival took place once in four years. The chief object of this procession was to carry the Peplus, or embroidered robe, of Athena to her temple on the Acropolis. {Diet, of Ant. art. Panathenaea.) In connection with this subject it is important to distinguish between the three different Athenas of the Acropolis. (Schol. ad Aristid. p» 320, Dindorf.) The first was the Athena Polias, the most ancient of all, made of olive wood, and said to have fallen from heaven; its sanctuary was the Erochtheium. The second was the Athena of the Parthenon, a statue of ivory and gold, the work of Pheidias. The third was the Athena Promachus, a colossal statue of bronze, also the work of Pheidias, standing erect, with helmet, spear, and shield. Of these three statues we shall speak more fully hereafter; but it must be borne in mind that the Peplus of the Panathenaic procession was carried to the ancient statue of Athena Polias, and not to the Athena of the Parthenon. (Wordsworth, p. 123, seq.)

The three goddesses are alluded to in the following remarkable passages of the Knights (1165, seq.) of Aristophanes, which we subjoin, with Wordsworth's comments: —

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I. Walls of the Acropolis.

Being a citadel, the Acropolis was fortified. The ancient fortifications are ascribed to the Pelasgians, who arc said to liave levelled the summit of the rock, and to have built a wail around it, called the PeLwyic Wall or Fortress. (rieAcuryiKOi' Te^or, Herod, v. 64; Ttlxi&pa XlcXapyticbv, Callimach. ap. Schol. ad ArUtopk. Av. 832; Hecataeus, ap, Herod. vi. 137; Myrsilus, ap. Dionys. i. 28; Cleidemos, ap. Sutd. s. w. aW5a, fpre5t£bi'.) The approach on the western side was protected by a system of works, comprehending nine gates, hence called ivvfdwvKov To neAmrytKoV. (Cleidem. /. c.) These fortifications were sufficiently strong to defy the Spartans, when the Peisistratidae took refuge in the Acropolis (Herod, v. 64, 65); but after the expulsion of the family of the despot, it is not improbable that they wore partly dismantled, to prevent any attempt to restore the former state of tilings, since the seizure of the citadel was always the first step towards the establishment of despotism in a Greek state. When Xerxes attacked the Acropolis, its chief fortifications consisted of palisades and other works constructed of wood. The Persians took up their position on the Areiopagus, which was opposite the western side of the Acropolis, just as the Amazons had done when they attacked the city of Cecrops. (Aesch. Eum. 685, seq.) From the Areiopagus the Persians discharged hot missiles against the wooden defences, which soon took fire and were consumed, thus leaving the road on the western side oj>en to the enemy. The garrison kept them at bay by rolling down large stones, as they attempted to ascend the road; and the Persians only obtained possession of the citadel by scaling the precipitous rock on the northern side, close by the temple of Aglaurus. (Herod, viii. 52, 53.) It would seem to follow from this narrative that the elaborate system of works, with its nine gates on the western side, could not have been in existence at this time. After the capture of the Acropolis, the Persians set fire to all the buildings upon it; and when they visited Athens in the following year, they destroyed whatever remained of the walls, or houses, or temples of Athens. (Herod, viii. 53, ix. 93.)

The foundations of the ancient walls no doubt remained, and the name of Pelasrjie continued to bo applied to a part of the fortifications down to the latest times. Aristophanes (Av. 832) speaks of T^y w6\fots To IUAapyiffoV, which the Scholiast explains as the " Pelargic wall on the Acropolis;** and Pausanias (i. 28. § 3) says that the Acropolis was surrounded by the Pelasgians with walls, except on the side fortified by Cimon. We have seen, however, from other authorities that the Pelasgians fortified the whole hill; and the remark of Pausanias probably only means that in his time the northern wall was called the Pelasgic, and the southern the Cimonian. (Cornp. Plut. Cim. 13.) When the Athenians returned to their city after its occupation by the Persians, they commenced the restoration of the walls of the Acropolis, as well as of those of the Asty; and there can be little doubt that the northern wall had been rebuilt, when Cimon completed the southern wall twelve years after the retreat of the Persians. The restoration of the northern wall may be ascribed to Themistocles; for though called apparently the Pelasgic wall, its remains show that the greater part of it was of more recent origin. In the middle of it wc find courses of masonry, formed of pieces of Doric

columns and entablature; and as we know from Thucydides (i. 93) that the ruins of former buildings were much employed in rebuilding the walls of the Asty, we may conclude that the tame was the case in rebuilding those of the Acropolis.

The Pehtsgicum signified not only a portion of tho wallsof the Acropolis, but also a spaceof ground below the latter (to TltXturyucbv KaXovuevav To (nrb T^v '\Kp6iroKiv} Thuc ii. 17.) That it was not a wall is evident from the account of Thucydides, who says that an oracle had enjoined that it should remain uninhabited; but that it was, notwithstanding this prohibition, built upon, in consequence of the number of people who flocked into Athens at the commencement of the Pelopoimesian war. Lucian (Piscafor. 47) represents a person sitting upon the wall of the Acropolis, and letting down his hook to angle for philosophers in the Pelasgicum. This spot is said to have been originally inhabited by the Pelasgians, who fortified the Acropolis, and from which they were expelled because they plotted against the Athenians. (Schol. ad Thttc. ii. 17; Philochorus, ap. Schol. ad Lucian. Catapl. 1; Paus. i. 28. § 3.) It is placed by Leake and most other authorities at the north-western angle of the Acrojwlis. A recent traveller remarks that "the story of the Pela-pc settlement under the north side of the Acropolis inevitably rises before us, when we see the black shade always falling upon it, as over an accursed spot, in contrast with the bright gleam of sunshine which always seems to invest the Acropolis itself; and we can imagine how naturally the gloom of the steep precipice would conspire with the remembrance of an accursed and hateful race, to make the Athenians dread the snot," (Stanley, Class. Aftts. vol. i. p. 53.)

The rocks along the northern side of the Acropolis were called the Long Rocks (Mafc/xu), a name under which they are frequently mentioned in the Ion of Euripides, in connection with the grotto of Pan, and the sanctuary of Aglaurus:

tvda Tpo(r66$ovs virpas riaAActW for* 6x^<fi TTjy Afoiyafwv x$ovo* Ma/c^as Ka\oiat yijs aytucrts 'ArBtSos.

(Eurip. Ion, 11, seq.; comp. 296, 506, 953, 1413.) This name is explained by the fact that the length of the Acropolis is much greater than its width; but it might have been given with equal propriety to tke rocks on the southern side. The reasonwhythe southern rocks had not the same name appears to have been,that the rocks on the northern side could be seen from the greater part of the Athenian plain, and from almost all the demi of Mt. Parnes; while those cn the southern side were only visible from the small and more undulating district between Hymettus, the Long Walls, and the sea. In the city itself the rocks of the Acropolis were for the most part concealed from view by houses and public buildings. (Forchhammcr, p. 364, seq.)

The surface of the Acropolis appears to have been divided into platforms, communicating with one another by steps. U]>on these platforms stood the temples, sanctnnries, or monuments, which occupied all the summit. Before proceeding to describe the monuments of the Acropolis, it will be ndviseable to give a description of the present condition of the walls, and of the recent excavations on the platform of the rock, for which we are indebted to Mr. Penrose's important work. (An Investigation of the Principles of Athenian Architecture, by F. C. Penrobe; Loudon, 1351.)

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GROUND rUUT OF THK ACROPOU9 AND THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBOURHOOD 5. Pedestal of the Statue

of Agrippa. fi. Quadriga.

7. Statue of Athena Promar h us.

8. Gigantomachia.

9. Temple of Home and Augustus.

10. Temple of Artemis Brauronia.

A A. Southern or Cimonian
Wall.

BB. Northern or Pelasgic
Wall.

1. Parthenon.

2. Kreehlheium.

3. Propylaea.

4. Temple of Nike Apteros: beneath Temple of Gc Curotrophus and Demeter Chloe.

On the ascent to the Acropolis from the modern town our first attention is called to the angle of the Hellenic wall, west of the northern wing of the Propylaea. It is probable that this wall formed the exterior defence of the Acropolis at this point. Following this wall northwards, we conic to a bastion, built about the year 1822 by the Greek general Odysseus to defend an ancient well, to which there is access within the bastion by an antique passage and stairs of some length cut in the rock. Turning eastwards round the corner, we come to two caves, one of which is supposed to have been dedicated to Pan; in these caves are traces of tablets let into the rock. Leaving these eaves we come to a large buttress, after which the wall runs upon the edge of the nearly vertical rock. On passing round a salient angle, where is a small buttress, we find a nearly straight line of wall for about 210 feet; then a short bend to the south-east; afterwards a further straight reach for about 120 feet, nearly parallel to the former. These two lines of wall contain the remaias of Doric columns and entablature, to which reference has already been made. A mediaeval buttress about 100 feet from the angle of the Erechtheium forms the termination of this second reach of wall. From hence to the north-east angle of the Acropolis, where there is a tower apparently Turkish, occur several large square stones, which also appear to have belonged to some early temple. The wall, into which these, as well as the before mentioned fragments, are built, seems to be of Hellenic origin. The eastern face of the wall appears to have been entirely built in the Middle Ages on the old foundations. At the south-east angle we find the Hellenic masonry of the iSouthern or Cimonian wall. At this spot 29 courses remain, making a height of 45 feet. Westward of this point the wall has been almost

11. Odeium of Herodes or Kegilla.

12. Dionysiac Theatre.

13. Odeium of Pericles.

14. Stoa Eumeneia.

15. Grave of Talus or Calun.

16. Eteusinium.

17. Aglaurium.

18. Grotto of Pan.

19 Pehugicum.

20. Asclepieium.

21. Temple of Aphrodito Pandcmus.

22. Temple of Themis.

23. Grave of Hipnolytus.

24. Statues of Ilarmodius and Aristogeiton.

25. Altar of the Twelve Gods.

entirely cased in mediaeval and recent times, and is further supported by 9 buttresses, which, as well as those on the north and east sides, appear to be mediaeval. But the Hellenic masonry of the Cimonian wall can be traced all along as far as the Propylaea under tho casing. The south-west reach of the Hellenic wall terminates westwards in a solid tower about 30 feet high, which is surmounted by the temple of Nike Apteros, described below. This tower commanded the unshielded side of any troops approaching the gate, which, there is good reason to believe, was in the same position as the present entrance. After passing through the gate and proceeding northwards underneat h the west face of the tower, wo come to the Propylaea. The effect of emerging from the dark gate and narrow passage to the magnificent marble staircase, 70 feet broad, surmounted by the Propylaea, must have been exceedingly grand. A small portion of the ancient Pelasgic wall still remains near the south-east angle of the southern wing of the Propylaea, now occupied by a lofty mediaeval tower. After passing the gateways of the Propylaea we come upon the area of the Acropolis, of which considerably more than half has been excavated under the auspices of the Greek government. Upon entering the enclosure of the Acropolis the colossal statue of Athena Promachus was seen a little to the left, and the Parthenon to the right; both offering angular views, according to the usual custom of the Greeks in arranging the approaches to their public buildings. The road leading upwards in the direction of the Parthenon is slightly worked out of the rock; it is at first of considerable breadth, and afterwards becomes narrower. On the right hand, as we leave the Propylaea, and on the road itself, are traces of 5 votive altars, one of which is dedicated to Athena Hygieia. Further on, to tho left of the road, is the site of the statue of Athena Promachuj. Northwards of this statue, we come to a staircase close to the edge of the rock, partly built, partly cut out, leading to the grotto of Aglanrus. This staircase passes downwards through a deep cleft in the rock, nearly parallel in its direction to the outer wall, and opening out in the face of the cliff a little below its foundation. In the year 1845 it was possible to creep into this passage, and ascend into the Acropolis; but since that time the entrance has been closed np. Close to the Parthenon the original soil was formed of made ground in three layers of chips of stone; the lowest being of the rock of the Acropolis, the next of Pentelic marble, and the uppermost of Peiraic stone. In the extensive excavation made to the east of the Parthenon there was found a number of drums of columns, in a more or less perfect state, some much shattered, others apparently rough from the quarry, others partly worked and discarded in consequence of some defect in the material. The ground about them was strewed with marble chips; and some sculptors' tools, and jars containing red colour were found with them. In front of the eastern portico of the Parthenon we find considerable remains of a level platform, partly of smoothed rock, and partly of Peiraic paving. North of this platform is the highest part of the Acropolis. Westwards of this spot we arrive at the area between the Parthenon and Erechtheium, which slopes from the former to the latter. Near the Parthenon is a small well, or rather mouth of a cistern, excavated in the rock, which may have been supplied with water from the roof of the temple. Close to the south, or Caryatid portico of the Erechtheium, is a small levelled area on which was probably placed one of the many altars or statues surrounding that temple.

Before quitting the general plan of the Acropolis, Mr. Penrose calls attention to the remarkable absence of parallelism among the several buildings. "Except the Propylaea and Parthenon, which were perhaps intended to bear a definite relation to one another, no two are parallel. This asymmetria is productive of very great beauty; for it not only obviates the dry uniformity of too many parallel lines, but also produces exquisite varieties of light and shade. One of the most happy instances of this latter effect is in the temple of Nike Apteros, in front of the southern wing of the Propylaea. The facade of this temple and pedestal of Agrippa, which is opposite to it, remain in shade for a considerable time after the front of the Propylaea has been lighted up; and they gradually receive every variety of light, until the sun is sufficiently on the decline to shine nearly equally on all the western faces of the entire group." Mr. Penrose observes that a similar want of parallelism in the separate parts is found to obtain in several of the finest mediaeval structures, and may conduce in some degree to tho beauty of the magnificent Piazza of St. Marc at Venice.

2. The Propylaea.

The road up tho western slope of the Acropolis led from tho agora, and was paved with slabs of Pentelic marble. (Ross, in the Kwutblatt, 1836, No. 60.) At the summit of tho rock Pericles caused a magnificent building to be constructed, which might serve as a suitable entrance (TlpoiriAoio) to the wonderful works of architecture and ■culpture within:—

"OtytoBt 6e' irol yap a»oiyvvp.iyav tpoipos rdr Tlporv\aiuy.

'AAA' dAoAi'faTf tpaivofiffaKTiv rats apxauuaur 'AfHivats,

Kal baufiaarats Kcu iro\vifiyots, Xr 6 K\tivos Atj/xos

ivoitcu. (Aristoph. Eavit. 1326.)

The Propylaea were considered one of the masterpieces of Athenian art, and are mentioned along with the Parthenon as the great architectural glory of the Periclean age. (Dem. c. Androt. p. 597, Kciske; Philostr. Vit. ApolL ii. 5.) When Epaminondaa was urging the Thebans to rival the glory of Athens, he told them that they must uproot the Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis, and plant them in front of the Cadmean citadel. (Aesch. de Fait. Leg. p. 279, Reiske.)

[graphic]

OROPND PLAM OF THB PROPTLAKA.

A. Finacotheca. B. Temple of Nike Apteros.

C. Pedestal ut Agrippa.

The architect of the Propylaea was Mnesicles. It was commenced in the archonship of Euthymencs, R. c. 437, and was completed in the short space of five years. (Plut. Pericl. 13.) It cost 2000 talents (Harpocrat. *. v. ripoTijAoia), or 460,0OO& The building was constructed entirely of Pentelic marble, and covered the whole of the western end of the Acropolis, which was 168 feet in breadth. The central part of the building consisted of two Doric hexastyle porticoes, covered with a roof of white marble, which attracted the particular notice of Pnusanias (i. 22. § 4). Of these porticoes the western faced the city, and the eastern the interior of the Acropolis; the latter, owing to the rise of the ground, being higher than the former. They were divided into two unequal halves by a wall, pierced by five gates or doors, by which the Acropolis waa entered. The western portico was 43 feet in depth, and the eastern about half this depth; and they were

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