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vices, it would not hold water. At the bottom of b | combat ; some ancient wooden statues of Athena and c were found fragments of ordinary ancient in the half burnt state in wbich they had been pottery. There appears to have been a low and left by the Persians; the hunting of a wild boar; narrow doorway through the foundation of the wall, Cycnus fighting with Hercules ; Theseus finding dividing this portico from the temple, to the under the slippers and sword of Aegeus under the rock; ground space or crypt, where these holes occur, and Theseus and the Marathonian bull; and Cylon, who also some communication from above, through a slab attempted to obtain the tyranny at Athens. In the rather different from the rest, in the pavement of Temenos, also, was the habitation of two of the four the portico immediately over them."

maidens, called Arrephori, with their sphaerestra, or Pausanias has not expressly mentioned any other place for playing at hall. These two maidens reobjects as being in the Pandroseium, but we may mained a whole year in the Acropolis; and on the presume that it contained a statue of Pandrosus, approach of the greater Panethenaea they received and an altar of Thailo, one of the Horae, to whom, from the priestess of Polias a burden, the contents he informs us elsewhere (ix. 35. $ 1), the. Athe- of which were unknown to themselves and to the nians paid divine honours jointly with Pandrosus. priestess. With this burden they descended into a He has also omitted to notice the ownoupos opus, or subterraneous natural cavern near the temple of

Aphrodite in the gardens, where they deposited the burden they brought, and carried back another burden corered up. (Paus. i. 27. 83; Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 839 : Harpocr., Suid., 8. . Aenvooópou.) It is probable that the Arrephori passed through the Aglaurium in their descent to the cavern above mentioned. The steps leading to the Aglaurium issued from the Temenos; and it is not impossible, considering the close connexion of the worship of Aglaurus with that of her sister Pandrosus, that the Aglaurium may bave been considered as a part of the Temenos of the Erechtheium.

(Respecting the Erechtheium in general, see Leake, p. 574, seq.; Wordsworth, p. 130, seq.; Müller, De Minerrae Poliadis sacris' et aede, Gotting, 1820; Wilkins, Prolusiones Architecto. nicae, part I.; Böckh, Inscr, vol. i. p. 261; Inwood, The Erechtheion of Athens, London, 1827; Von Quaest, Das Erechtheum zu Athen, nach dem Werk des Hr. Inwood mit Verbess. fc., Berlin, 1840 ; Forchhammer, Hellenika, p. 31, seq. ; Thiersch, Uber das Erechtheum auf der Akropolis zu Athen, Munich, 1849, in which it is, maintained that the Erechtheum was the domestic palace of King Erechtheus; Bötticher, Der Poliastempel als Wohnhaus des Königs Erechtheus nach der Annahme von Fr. Thiersch, Berlin, 1851, a reply to the proceding work; Tetaz, in Revue Archéologique, for

1851, parts 1 and 2.) THE SALT-WELL OF THE ERECHTHEIUM,

5. Other Monuments on the Acropolis. Erechthonian serpent, whose habitation in the Erechtheium was called Opákavos, and to whom honey! The Propylaea, the Parthenon and the Erechcakes were presented every month. (Aristoph. Ly- | theium were the three chief buildings on the Acrosistr. 759; Herod. viii. 41; Plut. Them. 10, Dem. polis; but its summit was covered with other temples, 26; Hesych. 8. v. Oikovpov; Soph. ap. Etymol. M. altars, statues and works of art, the number of which 8. v. Apakavios.) We have no means of determin was so great as almost to excite our astonishment ing the position of this δράκαυλος.

that space could be found for them all. Of these, The Erechtheium was surrounded on most sides however, we can only mention the most important. by a Temenos or sacred inclosure, separated from (i.) The Statue of Athena Promachus, one of the rest of the Acropolis by a wall. This Temenos the most celebrated works of Pheidias, was a colossal was on a lower level than the temple, and the descent bronze figure, and represented the goddess armed to it was by a flight of steps close to the eastern and in the very attitude of battie. Hence it was portico. It was bounded on the east by a wall, distinguished from the statues of Athena in the extending from this portico to the wall of the Parthenon and the Erechtheium, by the epithet of Acropolis, of which a part is still extant. On the Promachus, This Athena was also called " The north it was bounded by the wall of the Acropolis, Bronze, the Great Athena" (ý zahrñ meyaan and on the south by a wall extending from the 'Aonva, Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 428.) Its position southern portico towards the left wing of the Pro- has been already described. It stood in the open pylaea. Its limits to the west cannot be ascertained. air nearly opposite the Propylaea, and was one of In the Temenos, there were several statues men- | the first objects seen after passing through the gates tioned by Pausanias, name y, that of the aged of the latter. It was of gigantic size. It towered even priestess Lysimacha, one cubit high (comp. Plin. ( above the roof of the Parthenon; and the point of its Sxxiv. 8. s. 19. & 15); the colossal figures in brass spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the of Erechtheus and Eumolpus, ready to engage in , promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens


(Paus. i. 28. $2; comp. Herod. v. 77.) With its pedestal | passing through the Propylaea, and went straight it must have stood about 70 feet high. Its position to the Parthenon; that from the Parthenon he proand colossal proportions are shown in an ancient coin ceeded to the eastern end of the Acropolis ; and re. of Athens figured below (p. 286], containing a rude turned along the northern side, passing the Erechrepresentation of the Acropolis. It was still stand- theium and the statue of Athena Proinachus, ing in A. D. 395, and is said to have frightened away Alaric when he came to sack the Acropolis. (Zosim. 5.6.) The exact site of this statue is now well

IX. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE Asty. ascertained, since the foundations of its pedestal bare been discovered.

Before accompanying Pausanias in his route (ii.) A brazen Quadriga, dedicated from the

through the city, it will be convenient to notice the spoils of Chalcis, stood on the left hand of a person,

various places and monuments, as to the site of as he entered the Acropolis through the Propylaea.

which there can be little or no doubt. These are (Herod. v. 77; Paus. i. 28. $ 2.)

the hills Areiopagus, Pnyx, of the Nymphs and (ii.) The Gigantomachia, á composition in

Museium; the Divnysiac theatre, and the Odeium sculpture, stood upon the southern or Cimonian

of Herodes on the southern side of the Acropolis ; wall, and just above the Dionysiac theatre ; for

the cave of Apollo and Pan, with the fountain ClepPlutarch relates that a violent wind precipitated

| sydra, and the cave of Aglaurus on the northern side into the Dionysiac theatre a Dionysus, which was

of the Acropolis ; the temples of Theseus and of one of the figures of the Gigantomachia. (Paus.

Zeus Olympius ; the Horologium of Andronicus 1. 25. & 2; Plut. Ant. 60.) The Gigantomachia |

* Cyrrhestes; the Choragic monument of Lysicrates; was one of four compositions, each three feet in

À the Stadium; the gateway and the aqueduct of Habeight, dedicated by Attalus, the other three repre

drian; and, lastly, the Agora and the Cerameicus. senting the battle of the Athenians and Amazons, the battle of Marathon, and the destruction of the | A. Places and Monuments, as to the site of which Gauls by Attalus. (Paus. I. c.) If the Giganto

there is little or no doubt. machia stood towards the eastern end of the southern Fall, we may conclude that the three other com

1. The Areiopagus. positions were ranged in a similar manner upon the The Areiopagus (8 Apelos máyos), or Hill of Hall towards the west, and probably extended as far | Ares, was the rocky height opposite the western end as opposite the Parthenon. Mr. Penrose relates that of the Acropolis, from which it was separated only Eitth-east of the Parthenon, there has been dis. by some hollow ground. Of its site there can be Covered upon the edge of the Cimonian wall a plat- no doubt, both from the description of Pausanias, lor of Piraic stone, containing two plain marble and from the account of Herodotus, who relates that babes, which are perhaps connected with these it was a height over against the Acropolis, from sculptures.

which the Persians assailed the western extremity (iv.) Temple of Artemis Brauronia, standing of the Acropolis. (Paus. i. 28. § 5; Herod. vui. bet wexn the Propylaea and the Parthenon, of which 52; see above, p. 266, a.) According to tradition it the firundations have been recently discovered. (Paus. | was called the Hill of Ares, because Ares was brought 1. 25. 97.) Near it, as we learn from Pausanias, | to trial here before the assembled gods by Poseidon. was a brazen statue of the Trojan horse (inTOS on account of his murdering Halirrhothius, the son COUPELOS), from which Menestheus, Teucer and the of the latter. The spot is memorable as the place sons of Theseus were represented looking out (Útep- of meeting of the Council of Areiopagus (év 'Apeia KUFTOVI). From other authorities we learn that | máyu Bouan), frequently called the Upper Council spears projected from this horse (Hesych. 8. v. Sov- (avw Bovin), to distinguish it from the Council pros (Tros: comp. BOÚDELOS (TOS. Kpu TOY au of Five Hundred, which held its sittings in the Howy dopu, Eurip. Troad. 14); and also that it valley below the hill. The Council of Areiopagus was of colossal size (TWY ÚT ÓVTWY Méyelos 800v | met on the south-eastern summit of the rock. There

orupios, Aristoph. Av. 1128; Hesych. s. v. Kpios are still sixteen stone steps cut in the rock, leading ATEATÓK Epus). The basis of this statue has also up to the hill from the valley of the Agora; and imteen discovered with an inscription, from which we mediately above the steps is a bench of stones exlearn that it was dedicated by Chaeredemus, of Coele cavated in the rock, forming three sides of a quad. (a quarter in the city), and that it was made by rangle, and facing the south. Here the Areiopagites Strongylion. (Χαιρέδημος Ευαγγέλου εκ Κοίλης | sat, as judges, in the open air (υπαίθριοι εδικάas fonkEV, Tpoyyuaior doing ev: Zeitschrift für COVTO, Pollux, viii. 118). On the eastern and die Alterthumswissenschaft, 1842, p. 832.)

western sides is a raised block. Wordsworth sup... (.) Temple of Rome and Aurustus, not men- | poses these blocks to be the two rude stones which tioned by Pausanias, stood about 90 feet before the Pausanias saw here, and which are described by Eastern front of the Parthenon. Leake observes | Euripides as assigned, the one to the accuser, the (p. 353, seq.) that from a portion of its architrave other to the criminal, in the causes which were tried still in existence, we may infer that it was circular, in this court:23 feet in diameter, of the lonic or Corinthian order, US 8' els Aperoy xoov shkov és Síkny pl and about 50 feet in height, exclusive of a basement. έστην, εγώ μέν θάτερον λαβών βάθρον, An inscription found upon the site informs us that TO &ano apéo belp' hep hv 'EpivÚwv. it was delicated by the Athenian people geą Póun Kai Lebaoto Kalo apu. It was dedicated to Rome (Eurip. Iph. T. 961.) Of the Council itself an ar. and Augustus, becanse this emperor forbade the count has been given elsewhere. (Dict. of Ant. prosinces to raise any temple to him, except in con- 8. v.) The Areiopagus possesses peculiar interest Junction with Rome. (Suet. Aug. 52.)

to the Christian as the spot from which the Apostle In following Pausanias through the Acropolis, we Paul preached to the men of Athens. At the foot must suppose that he turned to the right after I of the height on the north-eastern side there are


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ruins of a small church, dedicated to S. Dionysius hewn from the same rock.” (Wordsworth.) This the Areiopagite, and commemorating his conversion is the celebrated Bema (Baua), or pulpit, often here by St. Paul. (Act. Apost. xvii. 34.)

called " the Stone" (o nilos, comp. év ayopâ apos At the opposite or south-eastern angle of the Toniga, Plut. Solon, 25), from whence the orators hill, 45 or 50 yards distant from the steps, there addressed the multitude in the semicircular area beis a wide chasm in the rocks, leading to a gloomy fore them. The bema looks towards the NE., that recess, within which there is a fountain of very is, towards the agora. It is 11 feet broad, rising dark water. This was the sanctuary of the Eu- from a graduated basis: the summit is broken; but menides, commonly called by the Athenians the the present height is about 20 feet. It was accesSemnae (ai Leuvai), or Venerable Goddesses. (Paus, sible on the right and left of the orator by a flight i. 28. § 6: TwpKnaus Tås Zenvàs Beds év 'Apeig of steps. As the destinies of Athens were swayed Távo, Dinarch. c. Dem. p. 35, Reiske.) The cavern by the orators from this pulpit, the term “ the itself formed the temple, with probably an artificial stone" is familiarly used as a figure of the governa construction in front. Its position is frequently referred to by the Tragic poets, who also speak of the chasm of the earth (Trázov nap' aútdy xágua dúgovtas xbovós, Eur. Elect. 1271), and the subterranean chamber (sáramot .... Katè yîis, Aesch. Eumen, 1004, seq.). It was probably in consequence of the subterranean nature of the sanctuary of these goddesses that torches were employed in their ceremonies. “ Aeschylus imagined the procession which escorted the Eumenides to this their temple, as descending the rocky steps above described from the platform of the Areiopagus, then winding round the eastern angle of that hill, and conducting them with the sound of music and the glare of torches along this rocky ravine to this dark enclosure." (Wordsworth.) Within the sacred enclosure was the monument of Oedipus. (Paus. i. 28. $ 7.)

Between the sanctuary of the Semnae and the lowest gate of the Acropolis stood the heroum of Hesychus, to whom a ram was immolated before the sacrifices to the Eumenides. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed.

PLAN OF THE PNYX. Col. 489.) His descendants, the Hesychidae, were

The Bema.

1 C. Rock-cut wall.

B. Semicircular edge the hereditary priests of these goddesses. (Comp.

of D. Remains of ancient the Payx.

Berna? Müller, Eumenides, p. 206, seq., Engl. Trans.) Near the same spot was the monument of Cylon. / ment of the state ; and the “ master of the stone" erected on the spot where he was slain. (Leake, indicates the ruling statesman of the day (oonis p. 358.)

Keparei vuv Toll nidov Toû 'y Tŷ FUKVÍ, Aristoph.

Pax, 680; comp. Acharn. 683, Thesmoph. 528, 2. The Pnyx.

seq.) The position of the berna commanded a view The Pnyx (Irút), or place of assembly of the of the Propylaea and the other magnificent edifices Athenian people, formed part of the surface of a of the Acropolis, while beneath it was the city low rocky hill, at the distance of a quarter of a mile itself studded with monuments of Athenian glory. from the centre of the Areiopagus hill. - The Pnyx The Athenian orators frequently roused the national may be best described as an area formed by the feelings of their audience by pointing to “ that segment of a circle, which, as it is very nearly equal | Propylaea there," and to the other splendid buildto a semicircle, for the sake of conciseness, we shall ings, which they had in view from the Pnyx. assume as such. The radius of this semicircle varies | (Ilpotulaia taūra, Hesych. 8. v.; Dem. c. Androt. from about 60 to 80 yards. It is on a sloping pp. 597, 617; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 253.) ground, which shelves down very gently toward the The position and form of the remains that have hollow of the ancient agora, which was at its foot been just described agree so perfectly with the on the NE. The chord of this semicircle is the statements of ancient writers respecting the Pnyx highest part of this slope; the middle of its arc is (see authorities quoted by Leake, p. 179), that it is the lowest; and this last point of the curve is cased surprising that there should ever bave been any by a terras wall of huge polygonal blocks, and of doubt of their identity. Yet Spon took them for about 15 feet in depth at the centre: this terras those of the Areiopagus. Wheler was in doubt wall prevents the soil of the slope from lapsing down whether they belonged to the Areiopagus or the into the valley of the agora beneath it. The chord Odeiam, and Stuart regarded them as those of the of this semicircle is formed by a line of rock, verti- theatre of Regilla. Their true identity was first cally hewn, so as to present to the spectator, stand- pointed out by Chandler ; and no subsequent writer ing in the area, the face of a flat wall.* In the

has entertained any doubt on the subject middle point of this wall of rock, and projecting The Pnyx appears to have been under the especial from, and applied to it, is a solid rectangular block,

protection of Zeus. In the wall of rock, on either side of the bema, are several niches for votive offerings.

In clearing away the earth below, several of these * Hence it is aptly compared by Mure to a theatre, offerings were discovered, consisting of bas-reliefs rethe shell of which, instead of curving upwards, presenting different parts of the body in white marble, slopes downwards from the orchestra.

I and dedicated to Zeus the Supreme (Art 'ntiore)

Some of them are now in the British Museum. dence to a passage of Plutarch (Them. 19), to which (Leake, p. 183; Dodwell, vol. i. p. 402.)

allusion has been already made. Plutarch relates The area of the Pnyx contained about 12,000 that the bema originally looked towards the sea, and square yards, and could therefore easily accommo that it was afterwards removed by the Thirty Tydate the whole of the Athenian citizens. The re- rants so as to face the land, because the sovereignty mark of an ancient grammarian, that it was con of the sea was the origin of the democracy, while the structed with the simplicity of ancient times (Katà pursuit of agriculture was favourable to the oligarchy The Taraiày Santa, Pollux, viii. 132), is borne | But from no part of the present Pnyx could the sea out by the existing remains. We know moreover be seen, and it is evident, from the existing remains, that it was not provided with seats, with the excep- that it is of much more ancient date than the age of tion of a few wooden benches in the first row. the Thirty Tyrants. Moreover, it is quite incredible (Aristoph. Acharn. 25.) Hence the assembled citi- that a work of such gigantic proportions should have zens either stood or sat on the bare rock (xapal, been erected by the Thirty, who never even sumAristoph. Vesp. 43); and accordingly the Sausage moned an assembly of the citizens. And even if seller, when he seeks to undermine the popularity of they had effected such a change in the place of Cleon, offers a cushion to the demus. (Aristoph meeting for the citizens, would not the latter, in the Equit. 783.) It was not provided, like the theatres, restoration of the democracy, have returned to the with any species of awning to protect the assembly former site? We have therefore no hesitation in from the rays of the sun; and this was doubtless rejecting the whole story along with Forchhammer onė reason why the assembly was held at day-break. and Mure, and of regarding it with the latter writer (Mure, vol. ii. p. 63.)

as one of the many anecdotes of what may be called It has been remarked that a traveller who mounts the moral and political mythology of Greece, invented the bema of the Pnyx may safely say, what perhaps to give zest to the narrative of interesting events, or cannot be said with equal certainty of any other the actions and characters of illustrions men. spot, and of any other body of great men in antiquity: Wordsworth, however, accepts Plutarch's story, Here have stood Demosthenes, Pericles, Themistocles, and points out remains which he considers to be those Aristides, and Solon This remark, however, would of the ancient Pnyx a little behind the present bema. not be true in its full extent, if we were to give cre- | It is true that there is behind the existing bema, and


THE BEMA OF THE PXIX. on the summit of the rock, an esplanade and terrace, all directions. We bave already had occasion to which has evidently been artificially levelled; and point out (see above, p. 261, b.] that even the westnear one of its extremities are appearances on the ern side of the hill was covered with houses, ground which have been supposed to betoken the existence of a former bema. It has been usually

3. Hill of the Nymphs. stated, in refutation of this hypothesis, that not even This hill, which lay a little to the NW. of the from this higher spot could the sea be seen, because Pnyx, used to be identified with the celebrated Lycathe city wall ran across the top of the hill, and would bettus, which was situated on the other side of the have effectually interrupted any view of the sea; but city, outside the walls; but its proper name has been this answer is not sufficient, since we have brought restored to it, from an inscription found on its forward reasons for believing that this was not the summit. (Böckh, Inscr. no. 453; Ross, in Kunstdirection of the ancient wall. This esplanade, how- | blatt, 1837, p. 391.) ever, is so much smaller than the present Pnyx, that it is impossible to believe that it could ever have

4. The Museium. been used as the ordinary assembly of the citizens; The Museium (td Movreior) was the hill to the and it is much more probable that it served for pur SW. of the Acropolis, from which it is separated by poses connected with the great assembly in the Pnyx an intervening valley. It is only a little lower than below, being perhaps covered in part with buildings the Acropolis itself. It is described by Pausanias or booths for the convenience of the Prytanes, scribes, (i. 25. $ 8) as a hill within the city walls, opposite and other public functionaries. Mure calls attention the Acropolis, where the poet Musaeus was buried, to a passage in Aristophanes, where allusion is made and where & monument was erected to a certain to such appendages (Thy lúkva tão av Kal Tàs Syrian, whose name Pausanias does not mention. ornvàs cal tas 8168ous diabpioai, Thesm. 659); | There are still remains of this monument, from the and though the Phyx is here used in burlesque inscriptions upon which we learn that it was the application to the Thesmophorium, where the female monument of Philopappus, the grandson of Antioassemblies were held, this circumstance does not chus, who, having been deposed by Vespasian, came destroy the point of the allusion. (Mure, vol. ii. to Rome with his two sons, Epiphanes and Callini. p. 319.)

cus. [Dict. of Biogr. vol. I. p. 194.] Epiphanes The whole rock of the Pnyx was thickly inha- was the father of Philopappus, who had become an bited in ancient times, as it is flattened and cut in | Attic citizen of the demus Besa, and he is evidently the Syrian to whom Pausanias alludes. “This covered with traces of buildings cut in the rocks, monument was built in a form slightly concave and the remains of stairs are visible in several places, towards the front. The chord of the curve was about - another proof that the ancient city wall did not 30 feet in length: in front it presented three niches run along the top of this hill. [See above, p. 261.] between four pilasters; the central niche was wider There are also found on this spot some wells and than the two lateral ones, concave and with a semi- cisterns of a circular form, hollowed out in the rock, circular top; the others were quadrangular. A and enlarging towards the base. At the eastern seated statue in the central niche was obviously that foot of the hill, opposite the Acropolis, there are of the person to whom the monument was erected. three ancient excavations in the rock ; that in the An inscription below the niche shows that he was middle is of an irregular form, and the other two named Philopappus, son of Epiphanes, of the demus are eleven feet square. One of them leads towards Besa (IÓTATTOS 'Eripávous Bno aleús). On the another subterraneous chamber of a circular form, right hand of this statue was a king Antiochus, son twelve feet in diameter at the base, and diminishing of a king Antiochus, as we learn from the inscrip-towards the top, in the shape of a bell. These tion below it (βασιλεύς 'Αντίοχος βασίλεως Αντιό- | excavations are sometimes called ancient baths, and xou). In the niche on the other side was seated sometiines prisons: hence one of them is said to have Seleucus Nicator (βασιλεύς Σέλευκος 'Αντιόχου | been the prison of Socrates. Nukátwp). On the pilaster to the right of Philo

5. The Dionysiac Theatre. pappus of Besa is the inscription c. IVLIVS C. F.FAB (i. e. Caius Julius, Caii filius, Fabiâ) ANTIOCHYS The stone theatre of Dionysus was commenced in PHILOPAPPVS, cos. FRATER ARVALIS, ALLECTVS B. C. 500, but was not completely finished till B. C INTER PRAETORIOS AB IMP. CAESARE NERVA 340, during the financial administration of Lycurgus. -TRAIANO OPTYMO AVGVSTO GERMANICO DACICO. (Paus. i. 29. $ 16; Plut. Vit. X. Orat. pp.841,852.) On that to the left of Philopappus was inscribed A theatre, however, might, as a Gothic church, be Baoileùs 'Artioxos IMÓTAT TOS, Baoinews 'ET- used for centuries without being quite finished; pávous, Toll 'AVTióxov. Between the niches and and there can be no doubt that it was in the stone the base of the monument, there is a representation theatre that all the great productions of the Grecian in high relief of the triumph of a Roman emperor drama were performed. This theatre lay beneath

the southern wall of the Acropolis, near its eastern extremity. The middle of it was excarated out of the rock, and its extremities were supported by solid piers of masonry. The rows of seats were in the form of curves, rising one above another; the diameter increased with the ascent Two rows of seats at the top of the theatre are now visible ; but the rest are concealed by the accumulation of soil. The accurate dimensions of the theatre cannot now be ascertained. Its termination at the summit is evident; but to what extent it descended into the valley cannot be traced. From the summit to the hollow below, which may, however, be higher than the ancient orchestra, the slope is about 300 feet in length. There can be no question that it must have been sufficiently large to have accommodated the whole body of Athenian citizens, as well as the strangers who flocked to the Dionysiac festival. It has been supposed from a passage of

Plato, that the theatre was capable of containing MONUMENT OF PIILOPAPPUS.

more than 30,000 spectators, since Socrates speaking

of Agathon's dramatic victory in the theatre says similar to that on the arch of Titus at Rome. that “his glory was manifested in the presence of The part of the monument now remaining consists more than three myriads of Greeks" (euparie of the central and eastern niches, with remains éyéveto èv páptuoi Twv 'Ex hvw pléov H Tic. of the two pilasters on that side of the centre. The pupious, Plat. Symp. p. 175, e.) It may, howerer, statues in two of the niches still remain, but without be doubted whether these words are to be taken heads, and otherwise imperfect; the figures of the literally, since the term “ three myriads " appears to triumph, in the lower compartment, are not much have been used as a round number to signify the better preserved. This monument appears, from whole body of adult Athenian citizens. Thus HeSpon and Wheler, to have been nearly in the same rodotus (v. 97) says that Aristagoras deceived three state in 1676 as it is at present; and it is to Ciriaco | myriads of Athenians, and Aristophanes (Eccl. 1132) d'Ancona, who visited Athens two centuries earlier, employs the words toliT@ adelov Tplo uvplev esthat we are indebted for a knowledge of the deficient actly in the same sense. parts of the monument.” (Leake, p. 494, seq.; The magnificence of the theatre is attested by comp. Stuart, vol. iii. c. 5; Prokesch, Denkwürdig Dicaearchus, who describes it as “the most beaukeiten, vol. ii. p. 383; Böckh, Inscr. no. 362; Orelli, tiful theatre in the world, worthy of mention, great Inscr. no. 800.)

and wonderful" (ide hv TÔV év oikovuévy Kel Of the fortress, which Demetrius Poliorcetes erected niotov Béarpov, åčióxogov, uéya kal Bavuartés, on the Museium in B. c. 229 (Paus. i. 25. & 8; Dicaearch. Bios tñs 'EMádos, p. 140.) • The Plut. Demetr. 34), all trace has disappeared.

There must have been many houses on the * Many writers, whom Wordsworth has followed, Museium, for the western side of the hill is almost have changed & de tv into údelov; but this emenda

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