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modern geographers, but we must not expect great | N. Africa, mentioned by Herodotus as the first accuracy in the use of the term. Ptolemy, who also Libyan people W. of Egypt. (Herod. iv. 168.) Their represents the Rhine as rising in Mt. Adula, says extent was from the frontier of Egypt (that is, acnothing of the Addua; but erroneously describes this cording to Herodotus, from the Sinus Plinthinetes part of the Alps as that where the chain alters its (ü. 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hudson), main direction from N. to E. (Strab.iv.pp. 192, 204, from the Canopic mouth of the Nile), to the harbour v. p. 213; Ptol. ii. 9. § 5, iii. 1. § 1.) [E. H. B.] of Plynos, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus

ADU'LE or ADU'LIS ('Adouan, Ptol. iv. 7. $ 8, distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in viïi. 16. $ 11; Arrian. Peripl.; Eratosth. pp. 2, 3; the E. of N. Africa, who were chiefly nomade (iv. "Adovais, Steph. B. 8. v.; 'Adoúel, Joseph. Antig. 191), by saying that their manners and customs ii. 5; Procop. B. Pers. i. 19; oppidum adoulitôn, resembled those of the Egyptians (iv. 168). He Plin. H. N. vi. 29. 8. 34; Eth. 'Adouritns, Ptol. also mentions some remarkable usages which preiv. 8; Adulita, Plin. l. c.: Adj. 'AdOvAitikós), vailed amongst them (l. c.). At a later period they the principal haven and city of the Adulitae, a people are found further to the S., in the interior of Marof inixed origin in the regio Troglodytica, situated on marica. (Ptol.; Plin. v. 6; Sil. Ital. iii. 278, foll., a bay of the Red Sea cailed Adulicus Sinus ('Abou- ix. 223, foll.)

[P.S.] Nerds Kódos, Annesley Bay). Adule is the modern AEA. [Colchis.] Thulla or Zulla, pronounced, according to Mr. Salt, | AEACE’UM. AEGINA. 7 Azoole, and stands in lat. 15° 35' N. Ruins are AEANTIUM (Āidvtiov: I'rkeri), a promontory said to exist there. D'Anville, indeed, in his Map | in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to of the Red Sea, places Adule at Arkeeko on the the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there same coast, about 22° N. of Thulla. According in- | was a town of the same name upon it. Its highest deed to Cosmas, Adule was not immediately on the summit was called Mt. Tisaeum. (Plin. iv, 9. s. 16; coast, but about two miles inland. It was founded by | Ptol. iii. 13. $ 16; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. fugitive slaves from the neighbouring kingdom of p. 397.) [TISAEUM.] Egypt, and under the Romans was the haven of AEAS. [Aous.7 Axume. Adule was an emporium for hides (river- | AEBU'RA (AYboupa: Eth. Allovpaios : prob. horse and rhinoceros), ivory (elephant and rhinoceros Cuerva), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispania Tartusks), and tortoise-shell. It had also a large raconensis (Liv. xl. 30; Strab. ap. Steph. B. 8. v.), slave-market, and was a caravan station for the probably the Albópa of Ptolemy (ii. 6). Its name trade of the interior of Africa. The apes which the appears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, Roman ladies of high birth kept as pets, and for vol. i. p. 55, Supp. vol. i. pp. 111, 112). [P. S.] which they often gave high prices, came principally | AECAE (Alkai: Eth. Aecanus: Troja), a town of from Adule. At Adule was the celebrated Monu. Apulia mentioned both by Polybius and Livy, during mentum Adulitanum, the inscription of which, in the military operations of Hannibal and Fabius in Greek letters, was, in the 6th century of the Chris- that country. In common with many other Apulian tian era, copied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (In- cities it had joined the Carthaginians after the battle dicopleustes ; see Dict. of Biog. art. Cosmas) into of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus the second book of his " Christian Topography.” | in B. C. 214, though not without a regular siege. The monument is a throne of white marble, with a (Pol. iii. 88; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates slab of some different stone behind it. Both throne the Aecani among the inland towns of Apulia (iii. and slab seem to have been covered with Greek cha- | 11); but its position is more clearly determined by racters. Cosmas appears to have put two inscrip- the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way tions into one, and thereby occasioned no little per- between Equus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance plexity to learned men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the of 18 or 19 miles from the latter city. (Itin. Ant. inscription at Axume, and the contents of the Adulitan p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Peut. places it inscription itself, show that the latter was bipartite. between Equus Taticus and Luceria, but without

The first portion is in the third person, and re- giving the distances.) This interyal exactly accords cords that Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-222) with the position of the modern city of Troja, and received from the Troglodyte Arabs and Aethio- confirms the statements of several chroniclers of the pians certain elephants which his father, the second middle ages, that the latter was founded about the king of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had beginning of the eleventh century, on the ruins of taken in hunting in the region of Adule, and trained the ancient Aecae. Cluverius erroneously identified to war in their own kingdom. The second portion Aecae with Accadia, a village in the mountains S. of the inscription is in the first person, and com- of Bovino; but his error was rectified by Holstenius. memorates the conquests of an anonymous Aethio-Troja is an episcopal see, and a place of some conpian king in Arabia and Aethiopia, as far as the sideration; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, frontier of Egypt. Among other names, which we rising above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles can identify with the extant appellations of African S. of Lucera, and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Holsten. districts, occurs that of the most mountainous region Not. in Cluver. p. 271; Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 227; in Abyssinia, the Semenae, or Samen, and that of a Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.] river which is evidently the Astaboras or Tacazzé, AECULA'NUM, or AECLANUM (Aikoúravov, a main tributary of the Nile. The Adulitan in- Appian, Ptol.: Eth. Aeculanus, Plin.; but the conscription is printed in the works of Cosmas, in the tracted form Aeclanus and Aeclanensis is the only one Collect. Nov. Patr. et Script. Graec. by Mont- | found in inscriptions:- the reading Aeculanum in faucon, pt. ii. pp. 113–346; in Chisull's Antiq. Cic. ad Att. xvi. 2, is very uncertain :- later inscripAsiat.; and in Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. iv. p. 245. tions and the Itineraries write the name ECLANUM), The best commentary upon it is by Buttmann, Mus. / a city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is der Alterthumsw. ii. 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.] correctly placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on ADULI'TA

| the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum. ADYRMA'CHIDAE ('Adupuaxídai), a people of (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Ptol. iii. 1. § 71; Itin. Ant. p

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120; Tab. Peut.) No mention of it is found in of the Allobroges. The chief town of the Aedui history during the wars of the Romans with the in Caesar's time was Bibracte, and if we assume Samnites, though it appears to have been one of the it to be on the site of the later town of Augustochief cities of the Hirpini; but during the Social War dunum (Autun), we obtain probably a fixed cen(B. C. 89) it was taken and plundered by Sulla, tral position in the territory of the Aedui, in the which led to the submission of almost all the neigh- old division of Bourgogne. The Aedui were one bouring cities. (Appian, B. C. i. 51.) It appears of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, but to have been soon after restored: the erection of its before Caesar's proconsulship of Gallia, they had new walls, gates, and towers being recorded by an in- been brought under the dominion of the Sequani, scription still extant, and which probably belongs to who had invited Germans from beyond the Rhine a date shortly after the Social War. At a later to assist them. The Aedui had been declared period we find that part of its territory was portioned friends of the Roman people before this calamity out to new colonists, probably under Octavian, but befel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduan, went to it retained the condition of a municipium (as we Rome to ask for the assistance of the senate, but learn from Pliny and several inscriptions) until long he returned without accomplishing the object of afterwards. It was probably in the reign of Trajan his mission. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaul (B. C. that it acquired the rank and title of a colony which 58), restored these Aedui to their former indepen. we find assigned to it in later inscriptions. (Lib. dence and power. There was among them a body Colon. pp. 210, 260; Orell, Inscr. no. 566, 3108, of nobility and a senate, and they had a great num5020; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 401.)

ber of clientes, as Caesar calls them, who appear to The site of Aeculanum was erroneously referred have been in the nature of vassals. The clientes of by Cluverius (Ital. p. 1203) to Frigento. Holstenius the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (B. G. vi. was the first to point out its true position at a place 75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellion called le Grotte, about a mile from Mirabella, and against the Romans, which is the subject of the close to the Taverna del Passo, on the modern high seventh book of the Gallic war (B. G. vii. 42, &c.); road from Naples into Puglia. Here the extensive but Caesar reduced them to subjection. In the remains of an ancient city have been found: a consi- reign of Tiberius A. D. 21, Julius Sacrovir, a Gaul, derable part of the ancient walls, as well as ruins attempted an insurrection among the Aedui and and foundations of Thermae, aqueducts, temples, an seized Augustodunum, but the rising was soon put amphitheatre and other buildings have been disco- down by C. Silius. (Tac. Ann. iii. 43–46.) The vered, though many of them have since perished; head of the commonwealth of the Aedui in Caesar's and the whole site abounds in coins, gems, bronzes, time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by and other minor relics of antiquity. The inscriptions the priests, and held his office for one year. He found here, as well as the situation on the Appian had the power of life and death over his people, as Way, and the distance from Benevento, clearly prove Caesar says, by which expression he means probably these remains to be those of Aeculamum, and attest that he was supreme judge. (B. G. i. 16, vii. 33.) its splendour and importance under the Roman em- The clientes, or small communities dependent on pire. It continued to be a flourishing place until the Aedui, were the Segusiani, already mentioned; the 7th century, but was destroyed in A. D. 662, by the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern the emperor Constans II. in his wars with the Lom- | boundary of the Aedui trans Mosam, (B. G. iv. 9); bards. A town arose out of its ruins, which ob- and the Aulerci Brannovices AULERCI). The Amtained the name of QUIXTODECIMUM from its posi- barri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Aedui, tion at that distance from Beneventum, and which are not enumerated among the clientes (B. G. vii. continued to exist to the Ilth century when it had | 55). One of the pagi or divisions of the Aedui fallen into complete decay, and the few remaining in- was called Insubres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed habitants removed to the castle of Mirabella, erected / a body of Boji, who had joined the Helvetii in by the Normans on a neighbouring hill. (Holsten. their attempt to settle themselves in Gaul, to reNot. in Cluver. p. 273; Lupuli, Iter Venusin. pp. main in the territory of the Aedui (B. G. i. 28). 74-128; Guarini, Ricerche sull'antica Città di Their territory was between the Loire and the Eclano, 4to. Napoli, 1814; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. Allier, a branch of the Loire. They had a town, 323-328.)

[E. H. B.) Gergovia (B. G. vii. 9), the site of which is unAEDEPSUS (Aromyos: Eth. Aishyos: Lipso), certain; if the reading Gergoria is accepted in this a town on the NW. coast of Euboea, 160 stadia passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded from Cynus on the opposite coast of the Opuntian with the GERGOVIA of the Arverni. [G. L.] Locri. It contained warm baths sacred to Hercules, AEGAE in Europe (Aiyai: Eth. Aijaios, which were used by the dictator Sulla. These warm Aiyeárns, Aigaieús). 1. Or AEGA (Aiya), a town baths are still found about a mile above Lipso, the of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was site of Aedepsus. (Strab. pp. 60, 425 ; Athen. p. situated upon the river Crathis and upon the coast, 73; Plut. Sull. 26, Symp. iv. 4, where rányos is between Aegeira and Bura. It is mentioned by a false reading; Steph. B. 3. v., Ptol. ii. 15. $ 23; ) Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for Plin. iv. 21 ; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ï. p. its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted 176; Walpole, Travels, fc., p. 71.)

by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring AE'DUI, HE'DUI (Aidowol, Strab. p. 186), a town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be Celtic people, who were separated from the Sequani one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the by the Arar (Saone), which formed a large part of League in B. c. 280, its place being occupied by their eastern boundary. On the W. they were Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. separated from the Bituriges by the upper course All traces of Aegae have disappeared, but it proof the Ligeris (Loire), as Caesar states (B. G. vii. bably occupied the site of the Khan of Akrata, which 5). To the NE. were the Lingones, and to the ) is situated upon a commanding height rising from S. the Segusiani. The Aedui Ambarri (B. G. i. the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pauul), kinsmen of the Aedui, were on the borders sanias mention on which bank of the Crathis it

in of the Allobroges. The chief town of the Andai the in Caesar's time was Bibracte, and if we assung the it to be on the site of the later town of Augusta Var dunum (Autun), we obtain probably a fixed cralla, tral position in the territory of the Aedui, in the

old division of Bourgogne. The Aedui were ce
ears of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, les

its before Caesar's proconsulship of Gallia, they had
in- been brought under the dominion of the Segnani,

to who had invited Germans from beyond the Rhine
cater to assist them. The Aedui had been declared
uned friends of the Roman people before this calamity
but befel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduan, went ta

we Rome to ask for the assistance of the senate, bet long he returned without accomplishing the object of ajan his mission. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaal (1. hich 58), restored these Aedui to their former indepen. Lib. dence and power. There was among them a bad 108, of nobility and a senate, and they had a great nim.

ber of clientes, as Caesar calls them, who appear te
Ited have been in the nature of vassals. The clientes of
nius the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (B. G. ri.
place | 75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellica

and against the Romans, which is the subject of the
high seventh book of the Gallic war (B. G. vii. 42, &c.);

to subjection. In the
nsive / but Caesar reduced them

onsi- reign of Tiberius A. D. 21, Julius Sacrosir, a Gaal,
ruins attempted an insurrection among the Aedni and
S, an seized Augustodunum, but the rising was soon put
isco- down by C. Silius. (Tac. Ann. ü. 43–46.) The
hed; / head of the commonwealth of the Aedai in Caesar's

zzes, time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by
tions the priests, and held his office for one year. He
pian / had the power of life and death over his people, as
rove / Caesar says, by which expression he means probably
ttest that he was supreme judge. (B. G. 1. 16, vii. 33.)
em-1 The clientes, or small communities dependent ca
until the Aedui, were the Segusiani, already mentioned;
, by the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern
-om | boundary of the Aeduj trans Mosan, (B. G. jr. 9);

ob and the Anlerci Bramnovices (AULERCI). The Aunosi- / barri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Aedni, hich are not enumerated among the clientes (B. G. V. had / 55). One of the pagi or divisions of the Aedus

was called Insubres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed cted / a body of Boji, who had joined the Helveti in

their attempt to settle themselves in Gaul, to mpp. / main in the territory of the Aedui (B. G. i. 2). di / Their territory was between the Loire and the

They had a town, pp. Allier, a branch of the Loire.

stood, but it probably stood on the left bank, since To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequentiy the right is low and often inundated. (Hom. II. viii. allude. Thus Horace (Carm, ii. 16): Otium divos 203; Hend. i. 145; Strab. pp. 386387; Paus. rogat in patenti prensus Aegaeo; and Virgil (Aen. vü, 25. $ 12; Leake, Norea, vol. iii. p. 394; Cur- xii. 365): Ac velut Edoni Boreae cum spiritus alto tius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 472.)

insonat Aegaeo. The Aegaean contained numerous 2. A town in Emathia in Macedonia, and the islands. Of these the most numerous were in the burial-place of the Macedonian kings, is probably southern part of the sea; they were divided into the same as Edessa, though some writers make two principal groups, the Cyclades, lying off the them two different towns. [EDESSA.]

coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, and the Sporades, 3. A town in Euboea on the western coast N. of lying along the coasts of Caria aud Ionia. [CyChalcis, and a little S. of Orobiae. Strabo says CLADES; SPORADES. In the northern part of the that it was 120 stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and It is mentioned by Homer, but had disappeared in Samothrace, and off the coast of Asia those of Samos, the time of Strabo. It was celebrated for its wor-Clios and Lesbos. ship of Poseidon from the earliest times; and its The Aegaean sea was divided into: 1. MARE temple of this god still continued to exist when THRACIUM (8 Opinkis TóYTOS, Hom. Il. xxiii. 230; Strabo wrote, being situated upon a lofty mountain. To OpnikioY TÉAayos, Herod. vii. 176; comp. Soph. The latter writer derives the name of the Aegaean Oed. R. 197), the northern part of the Aegaean, Sea from this town. Leake supposes it to have washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and stond near Limni. (Hom. II. xiii. 21; Strab. pp. extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island 386, 405; Steph. B. 8. 7.; Leake, Northern Greece, of Euboea. rol. iïi. p. 275.)

2. MARE MYRTOUM (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 14; To AEGAE in Asia, 1. (Aiyal, Aiyaiai, Atyear: Eth. Muptwov médayos), the part of the Aegaean S. of Airaios, Aireáins; Ayas Kala, or Kalassy), a town Euboea, Attica and Argolis, which derived its name on the coast of Cilicia, on the north side of the bay from the small island Myrtus, though others suppose of Issas. It is now separated from the outlet of the it to come from Myrtilus, whom Pelops threw into Pyramius (Jyhoon) by a long narrow aestuary called this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. Ayu Bay. In Strabo's time (p. 676) it was a s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; snall city with a port. (Comp. Lucan, iii. 227.) | but Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between Aegae was a Greek town, but the origin of it is the two, representing the Aegaean as terminating

unknown. A Greek inscription of the Roman period at the promontory Sunium in Attica. · has been discovered there (Beanfort, Karamania, 3. MARE ICARIUM (Hor, Carm. i. 1. 15; 'Ikápios

D. 299); and under the Roman dominion it was TOYtos, Hom. Il. ii. 145; 'Ikápior Téaayos, Herod. a place of some importance. Tacitus calls it Aegeae vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts (Ann. xii. 8.)

of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the 2. (Aiyal: Eth. Aiyaios, Aigaieús), an Aeolian city island of Icaria, though according to tradition it was (Herod. i. 149), a little distance from the coast of so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, having Mysia, and in the neighbourhood of Cume and fallen into it. Tennus. It is mentioned by Xenophon (Hellen. 4. MARE CRETICUM (TO KontikÒN Téayos, iv. 8. $ 5) under the name Aineis, which Schneider | Thuc. iv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, has altered into Alyal. It suffered from the great / N. of the island of Crete. Strabo (I. c.), however, earthquake, which in the time of Tiberius (A. D. makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, 17) desolated 12 of the cities of Asia. (Tacit. distinct from the Aegaean. Amn. . 47.)

[G. L.] AEGAʼLEOS (Aiyánews, Herod. viii. 90 ; Tò AEGAEAE. (AEGIAE.]

| | AlydA6@v boos, Thục. ii. 19: Skamanga), a range AEGAEUM MARE (5) Aiyalov méXayos, of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of Herod. iv.85; Aesch. Agam. 659; Strab. passim; or Athens and Eleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the simply to Aiyaloy, Herod. vii. 55 ; & Aiyalos té- battle of Salamis. (Herod.l.c.) It ended in a promonAnyos, Herod. ii. 97), the part of the Mediterranean tory, called AMPHIALE ('Aupidan),opposite Salamis, Dow called the Archipelago, and by the Turks the from which it was distant only two stadia according White Sea, to distinguish it from the Black Sea. It to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range was bounded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, near the coast was called CORYDALUS or CORYon the W. by Greece and on the E. by Asia Minor. DALLUS (Kopudarós, Kopvôalós) from a demus of At its NE. corner it was connected with the Pro- this name (Strab. l. c.), and another part, through pontis by the Hellespont. (HELLESPONTUS.7 Its which there is a pass from the plain of Athens into extent was differently estimated by the ancient that of Eleusis, was named POECILUM ([Io.xikov, writers; but the name was generally applied to the Paus. i. 37. $ 7.) (Leake, Demi Of Attica, p. 2, whole sea as far S. as the islands of Crete and seq.) Rhodes. Its name was variously derived by the an- | AEGATES INSULAE, the name given to a cient grammarians, either from the town of Aegae group of three small islands, lying off the western in Euboea; or from Aevens, the fatber of Theseus, extremity of Sicily, nearly opposite to Drepanum and who threw himaself into it: or from Aegaea, the Lilybaeum. The name is supposed to be derived queen of the Amazons, who perished there; or from from the Greek Aiyddes, the “ Goat islands;" but Aegacon, wbo was represented as a marine god living this form is not found in any Greek anthor, and the in the sea; or, lastly, from giyís, a squall, on account | Latin writers have universally Aegates. Silius Itaof its storrog. Ite regl etymolory is uncertain. Its licus also (i. 61) makes the second syllable long. navigation was dangerous to ancient navigators on 1 1. The westernmost of the three, which is distant account of its numerous islands and rocks, which about 22 G. miles from the coast of Sicily, was called occasion eddies of wind and a confused sea, and also | HIERA ('Iepa vasos, Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but at a 2 account of the Etesian or northerly winds, which later period obtained the name of MARITIMA, from blow with great fury, especially about the equinoxes. I its lying so far out to sea (Itin. Marit. p. 492), and

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of Ated upon the and Burning the earliestas deserted

] Gergovia (B. G. vi. 9), the site of which is no$0), certain; if the reading Gergovia is accepted in this adia / passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded tian / with the GERGOVLA of the Arverni. (G. L.] les, AEGAE in Europe (Aigal: Eth. Aijaios, arm Aiyedens, Aiyareús). 1. Or AEGA (Aiga), a tort the / of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, we p. situated upon the river Crathis and upan the cast, is between Aegeira and Burs. It is mentioned by 3; / Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for p/ its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted

by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring a / town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be ni one of the 12 Achacan cities on the renewal of the of League in B. 6. 280, its place being occupied by re / Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. se All traces of Aegae hare disappeared, but it pos 5. / bably occupied the site of the Khan of Akrata, which e is situated upon a commanding beight rising from

the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pao</sanias mention on which bank of the Crathis it

is still called Maretimo. 2. The southernmost and Syrian goddess. (Paus. vii. 26.) The port of Aegeira nearest to Lilybaeum, is called, both by Ptolemy and Leake places at Mavra Litharia, i.e., the Black Pliny, AEGUSA (Aiyowa); but the latter erroneously Rocks, to the left of which, on the summit of a hill, confounds it with Aethusa. It is the largest of the are some vestiges of an ancient city, which must three, on which account its name was sometimes have been Aegeira. At the distance of 40 stadia extended to the whole group (ai kanoúueva. Aiyou- from Aegeira, through the mountains, there was a oai, Pol. i. 44); it is now called Favignana, and fortress called PHELLOE (DEMón, near Zakhuli), has a considerable population. 3. The northern-abounding in springs of water. (Paus. vii. 26. $ 10; most and smallest of the group, nearly opposite to Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 387, seq.) Drepanum, is called by Ptolemy PHORBANTIA AEGEIRUS. [AEGIROESSA.] (poplavtía), but is probably the same with the AEGIAE or AEGAEAE (Aigiai, Paus. iii. 21. BUCINNA of Pliny, a name erroneously supposed by $ 5; Alyaiat, Strab. p. 364: Limni), a town of LaSteph. B. (s. v. Botkinva) to be that of a city of conia, at the distance of 30 stadia from Gythium, Sicily. It is now called Levanzo. (Ptol. üi. 4. & supposed to be the same as the Homeric Angeiae. 17 Plin. ii.8.s. 14; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 244–247.) (Avgerai, Il. ii. 583; comp. Steph. B. s.v.) It

These islands derive au historical celebrity from possessed a temple and lake of Neptune. Its site is the great naval victory obtained by C. Lutatius placed by the French Commission at Limni, so called Catulus over the Carthaginians in B. C. 241, which from an extensive marsh in the valley of the eastern put an end to the First Punic War. Hanno, the branch of the river of Passava. (Leake, PeloponCarthaginian admiral, had previous to the battle nesiaca, p. 170.) taken up his station at the island of Hiera, and AEGIĀLEIA, AEGIALUS. [ACHAIA.] endeavoured to take advantage of a fair wind to run AE'GIDA, a town of Istria, mentioned only by straight in to Drepanum, in order to relieve the Pliny iii. 19. s. 23), which appears to have army of Hamilcar Barca, then blockaded on Mount been in his time a place of little importance; but Eryx; but he was intercepted by Catulus, and come from an inscription cited by Cluverins (Ital. p. 210) pelled to engage on disadvantageous terms. The it appears that it was restored by the emperor consequence was the complete defeat of the Cartha- Justin II. who bestowed on it the name of Justi. ginian fleet, of which 50 ships were sunk, and 70 NOPOLIS. This inscription is preserved at Capo taken by the enemy, with nearly 10,000 prisoners. d'Istria, now a considerable town, situated on a (Pol. 1. 60, 61; Diod. xxiv. Exc. H. p. 509; Liv. / small island joined to the mainland by a causeway, Epit. xix.; Oros. iv. 10; Flor. ii. 1; Eutrop. ii. 27; which appears to have been termed AEGIDIS INCorn. Nep. Hamilc. 1; Mela, ii. 7; Sil. Ital. i. 61.) SULA, and was probably the site of the Aegida of The island of Aegusa has been supposed by many Pliny.

[E. H. B.] writers to be the one described by Homer in the AE'GILA (rd Afyina), a town of Laconia with Odyssey (ix. 116) as lying opposite to the land of a temple of Demeter, of uncertain site, but placed the Cyclopes, and abounding in wild goats. But all by Leake on the gulf of Skutári. (Paus. iv. 17. $1; such attempts to identify the localities described in Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 278.) the wanderings of Ulysses may be safely dismissed | AEGILIA (Aiyinia). 1. Or AEGILUS (ň Alas untenable.

[E. H. B.] lyos, Theocr. i. 147: Eth. Alyas), a demus in AEGEIRA (Ayyelpa: Eth. Aizeipérns, fem. Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis, situated on the Aiyespâtis), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 western coast between Lamptra and Sphettus. It Achaean cities, situated between Aegae and Pellene, was celebrated for its figs. (Aiguides io xádes, is described by Polybius as opposite Mount Parnas | Athen. p. 652, e.; Theocr. l. c. It is placed by sus, situated upon hills strong and difficult of an Leake at Tzuréla, the site of a ruined village on the proach, seven stadia from the sea, and near a river. shore, at the foot of Mt. Elymbo. (Strab. p. 398 ; This river was probably the Crius, which flowed Harpocrat., Steph. B. 8. v. ; Leake, Demi, p. 61.) into the sea, a little to the W. of the town. AC- 2. Or AEGILELA (Aiyinela), a small island off cording to Pausanias the upper city was 12 stadia the western coast of Euboea, and near the town of from its port, and 72 stadia from the oracle of Styra, to which it belonged. Here the Persians left Heracles Buraicus. (Herod. i. 146; Strab. viii. p. the captive Eretrians, before they crossed over to 386; Pol. ii. 41, iv. 57; Paus. vii. 26. § 1; Plin. Marathon, B. C. 490. (Herod. vi. 101, 107.) iv. 6.) Pausanias (l.c.) relates that Aegeira occu 3. Or AEGILA (Athina : Cerigotto), a small pied the site of the Homeric HYPERESIA ('Trepnoin, island between Cythera and Crete. (Plut. Cleom. 31; 11. ii. 573, xv. 254; Strab. p. 383: Eth. 'TTEPNoieús), Steph. B. s.v.; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19.) and that it changed its name during the occupation AEGILIPS. [ITHACA.] of the country by the Ionians. He adds that the AEGIMU’RUS (Airiuopos : Zowamour or ancient name still continued in use. Hence we find | Zembra), a lofty island, surrounded by dangerous that Icarus of Hyperesia was proclaimed victor in cliffs, off the coast of Africa, at the mouth of the the 23rd Olympiad. (Paus. iv, 15. § 1.) On the gulph of Carthage. (Liv. xxx, 24; Strab. pp. 123, decay of the neighbouring town of Aegae its inhab- 277, 834.) Pliny calls it Aegimori Arae (v.7); itants were transferred to Aegeira. (Strab. p. 386.) and there is no doubt that it is the same as the Arae In the first year of the Social war (B.C. 220) of Virgil (Aen. i. 108).

[P. S.] Aegeira was surprised by a party of Aetolians, who AEGI'NA (Atyuva: Eth. Aiyuvhrns, Aeginēta, had set sail from the opposite town of Oeantheia in | Aeginensis, fem. Alywntis: Adj. Aiyuvasos, Alyvn. Locris, but were driven out by the Aegiratans after TiKós, Aegineticus: Eghina), an island in the Saronic they had obtained possession of the place. (Pol. iv.gulf, surrounded by Attica, Megaris, and Epidaurus, 57, 58.) The most important of the public build- from each of which it was distant about 100 stadia. ings of Aegeira was a temple of Zeus. It also con-| (Strab. p. 375) It contains about 41 square English tained a very ancient temple of Apollo, and temples miles, and is said by Strabo (I. c.) to be 180 stadia of Artemis, of Aphrodite Urania, who was worshipped in circumference. In shape it is an irregular triangle. in the town above all other divinities, and of the Its western half consists of a plain, which, though

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stony, is well cultivated with corn, but the remainder century before the Persian wars and for a few years
of the island is mountainous and unproductive. A afterwards, Aegina was the chief seat of Greek art,
magnificent conical hill now called Mt. St. Elias, or and gave its name to a school, the most eminent
Oror (opos, i.e. the mountain), occupies the whole artists of which were Callon, Anaxagoras, Glaucias,
of the southern part of the island, and is the most Simon, and Onatas, of whom an account is given in
remarkable among the natural features of Aegina.
There is another mountain, much inferior in size, on The Aeginetans were at the height of their power
the north-eastern side. It is surrounded by nume- when the Thebans applied to them for aid in their war
rotus rocks and shallows, which render it difficult and against the Athenians about B. c. 505. Their request
hazardous of approach, as Pausanias (ii. 29. $ 6) was readily granted, since there had been an an-
has correctly observed.

cient feud between the Aeginetans and Athenians.
Notwithstanding its small extent Aegina was one The Aeginetans sent their powerful fleet to ravage
of the most celebrated islands in Greece, both in the the coast of Attica, and did great damage to the
mythical and historical period. It is said to have latter country, since the Athenians had not yet any
been originally called Denone or Oenopia, and to have fleet to resist them. This war was continued with
received the name of Aegina from Aegina, the some interruptions down to the invasion of Greece by
daughter of the river-god Asopus, who was carried to Xerxes. (Herod. v.81, seq., vi. 86, seq.; Thuc.i.41.)
the island by Zeus, and there bore him a son Aeacus. The Aeginetans fought with 30 ships at the battle
It was further related that at this time Aegina was of Salamis (B. C. 480), and were admitted to have
tuninhabited, and that Zets changed the ants (uúp- distinguished themselves above all the other Greeks
UTIKES) of the island into men, the Myrmidones, over by their bravery. (Herod. viii. 46, 93.) From this
stam Aeacus ruled (Paus. ii. 29. $2.; Apollod. iii. 12. time their power declined. In 460 the Athenians
$6; Ov. Met. vii. 472, seq.) Some modern writers defeated them in a great naval battle, and laid
supprise that this legend contains a mythical account siege to their principal town, which after a long de-
of the colonization of the island, and that the latter fence surrendered in 456. The Aeginetans now
Tatered colonists from Phlius on the Asopus and became a part of the Athenian empire, and were
from Phthia in Thessaly, the seat of the Myrmidons. / compelled to destroy their walls, deliver up their ships
Atacts was regarded as the tutelary deity of Aegina, of war, and pay an annual tribute. (Thuc, í. 105.
bat his sons abandoned the island, Telamon going | 108.) This humiliation of their ancient enemies did
to Salamis, and Peleus to Phthia. All that we can not, however, satisfy the Athenians, who feared the
safely infer from these legends is that the original | proximity of such discontented subjects. Pericles
inhabitants of Aegina were Achaeans. It was after was accustomed to call Aegina the eye-sore of the
wards taken possession of by Dorians from Epidaurus, | Peiraeus (ň añun toù lierparéws, Arist. Rhet. iii.
the introduced into the island the Doric customs / 10.; comp. Cic. de Of: ii. 11); and accordingly on
and dialect. (Herod. viii. 46; Paus. ïi. 29. $ 5.) | the breaking out of the Peloponnesian war in 431,
Together with Epidaurus and other cities on the the Athenians expelled the whole population from
mainland it became subject to Pheidon, tyrant of the island, and filled their place with Athenian
Argie, about B. c. 748. It is usually stated on the settlers. The expelled inhabitants were settled by the
anthonty of Ephorus (Strab. p. 376), that silver Lacedaemonians at Thyrea. They were subsequently
money was first coined in Aegina by Pheidon, and we collected by Lysander after the battle of Aegos
know that the name of Aeginetan was given to one potami (404), and restored to their own country, but
of the two scales of weights and measures current they never recovered their former state of prosperity,
thronghout Greece. the other being the Euboic. I (Thuc. j. 27; Plut. Per. 34; Xen, Hell. ii. 2. $ 9;
There seems, however, good reason for believing with Strab. p. 375.) Sulpicius, in his celebrated letter to
Dir. Grote that what Pheidon did was done in Argos Cicero, enumerates Aegina atnong the examples of
and nowhere else: and that the name of Aeginetan fallen greatness (ad Fam. iv, 5).
was given to his coinage and scale, not from the The chief town in the island was also called
place where they first originated, but from the Aegina, and was situated on the north-western side,
Jeople whose commercial activity tended to make A description of the public buildings of the city is
them most generally known. (Grote, Hist. of Greece, given by Pausanias (ii, 29, 30). Of these the most
vol. i. p. 432.) At an early period Aegina became important was the Aeaceium (Aidkelov), or shrine of
a place of great commercial importance, and gradually | Aeacus, a quadrangular inclosure built of white
20 aired a powerful navy. As early as R. c. 563. in 1 marble, in the most conspicuous part of the city.
the reign of Amasis, the Aeginetans established a | There was a theatre near the shore as large as that
fonting for its merchants at Naucratis in Egypt, and / of Epidaurus, behind it a stadium, and likewise nu-
there erected a temple of Zeus. (Herod.ü. 178.) With merous temples. The city contained two harbours:
the increase of power came the desire of political | the principal one was near the temple of Aphrodite:
Independence; and they renounced the anthority of the other, called the secret harbour, was near the
the Epidaurians, to whom they had hitherto been theatre. The site of the ancient city is marked by
subject. (Herod. v. 83.) So powerful did they be- numerons remains, though consisting for the most
come that about the year 500 they held the empire / part only of foundations of walls and scattered blocks
of the sea. According to the testimony of Aristotle of stone. Near the shore are two Doric columns of
(Athen. p. 272), the island contained 470.000 the most elegant form. To the S. of these columns
slaves; but this number is quite incredible, although is an oval port, sheltered by two ancient moles, which
we may admit that Aegina contained a great popu- | leave only a narrow passage in the middle, between
lation. At the time of their prosperity the Aegine- | the remains of towers, which stood on either side of
tas founded various colonies, such as Cydonia in the entrance. In the same direction we find another
Crete, and another in Umbris. (Strab. p. 376.) The oval port, twice as large as the former, the entrance
government was in the hands of an aristocracy. Its of which is protected in the same manner by ancient
citizens became wealthy by commerce, and gave great walls or moles, 15 or 20 feet thick, The latter of
Encouragement to the arts. In fact, for the half | these ports seems to have been the large harbour,

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