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modern geographers, but we must not expect great accuracy in the use of the term. Ptolemy, who also represents the Rhine as rising in Mt. Adula, says nothing of the Addua; but erroneously describes this part of the Alps as that where the chain alters its main direction from N.to E. (Strab.iv.pp. 192, 204, v. p. 213; Ptol. ii. 9. § 5, iii. 1. § 1.) [E. H. B.]

ADUXE or ADU'LIS ('AooiAr,, Ptol. iv. 7. § 8, viii. 16. § 11; Arrian. PeripL; Eratosth. pp. 2, 3; "ASouAu, Steph. B. ».».; 'AooiiAfi, Joseph. Anliq. iL 5; Procop. B. Pers. i. 19; oppidum adouliton, Plin. II. N. vi. 29. s. 34: Eth. 'aooua/ttij, Ptol. iv. 8; Adulita, Plin. I. c: Adj. 'asov\itik6s), the principal haven and city of the Adulitae, a people of mixed origin in the regio Troglodytica, situated on a bay of the Red Sea called Adulicus Sinus ('ASou\inbs iroAirot, Aimesleg Bay). Adule is the modern Thulla or Zulla, pronounced, according to Mr. Salt, Azoole, and stands in lat. 15° 35' N. Ruins arc said to exist there. D'Anville, indeed, in his Map of the Red Sea, places Adule at Arkeeko on the same coast, about 22° N. of Thulla. According indeed to Cosmas, Adule was not immediately on the coast,but about two miles inland. It was founded by fugitive slaves from the neighbouring kingdom of Egypt, and under the Romans was the haven of Axumc. Adule was an emporium for hides (riverhorse and rhinoceros), ivory (elephant and rhinoceros tusks), and tortoise-shell. It had also a large slave-market, and was a caravan station for the trado of the interior of Africa. The apes which the Uoman ladies of high birth kept as pets, and for which they often gave high prices, came principally from Adule. At Adule was the celebrated Monumentum Adulitanum, the inscription of which, in Greek letters, was, in the 6th century of the Christian era, copied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (Indicopleustes; see Diet, of Biog. art. Cosmas) into the second book of his "Christian Topography." The monument is a throne of white marble, with a slab of some different stone behind it. Both throne and slab seem to have been covered with Greek characters. Cosmas appears to have put two inscriptions into one, and thereby occasioned no little perplexity to learned men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the inscription at Axume,and the contents of the Adulitan inscription itself, show that the latter was bipartite.

The first portion is in the third person, and records that Ptolemy Euergetes (b. C. 247—222) received from the Troglodyte Arabs and Aethiopians certain elephants which his rather, the second king of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had taken in hunting in the region of Adule, and trained to war in their own kingdom. The second portion of the inscription is in the first person, and commemorates the conquests of an anonymous Aethiopian king in Arabia and Aethiopia, as far as the frontier of Egypt. Among other names, which we can identify with the extant appellations of African districts, occurs that of the most mountainous region in Abyssinia, the Semenae, or Sanien, and that of a river which is evidently the Astaboras or Tacazze, a main tributary of the Nile. The Adulitan inscription is printed in the works of Cosmas, in the Collect. Nov. Pair, et Script. Grace, by Montfaucon, pt. ii. pp. 113—346; in Chisull's Antiq. Asia*.; and in Fabricius, Bibl. Grate, iv. p. 245. The best commentary upon it is by Buttmann, Mas. der Alterthumsw. ii. 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.]

ADULI'TAE. [adule.]

ADTRMA'CHIDAE ('ASupuaxSJai), a people of

N. Africa, mentioned by Herodotus as the first Libyan people W. of Egypt. (Herod, iv. 168.) Their extent was from the frontier of Egypt (that is, according to Herodotus, from the Sinus Plinthinetes (ii. 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hudson), from the Canopic mouth of the Nile), to the harbour of Plynos, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in the E. of N. Africa, who were chiefly nomade (iv. 191), by saying that their manners and customs resembled those of the Egyptians (iv. 168). He also mentions some remarkable usages which prevailed amongst them (/. a). At a later period they are found further to the S., in the interior of Marmarica. (Ptol.; Plin. v. 6; SU. Ital. iii. 278, full., ix. 223, foil.) [P. S.]

AEA. [colchis.]

AEACE'UM. [aegisa.]

AEA'NTIUM (aiovtiop: Trtkeri), a promontory in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there was a town of the same name upon it. Its highest summit was called Mt. Tisaeum. (PUn. iv. 9. s. 16; Ptol. iii. 13. § 16; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 397.) [tisaeum.]

AEAS. [Aous.]

AEBU'RA (Afgoupa: Eth. Ai€ovpatos: prob. Cuervo), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispania Tarraconensis (Liv. xL 30; Strab. ap. Steph. B. s. v.), probably the AiSojw of Ptolemy (ii. 6). Its name appears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, vol. i. p. 55, Supp. vol. i. pp. 111, 112). [P. S.]

AECAE (Awoi: Eth. Aecanns: Trqja), a town of Apulia mentioned both by Tolybius and Livy, during the military operations of Hannibal and Fabius in that country. In common with many other Apulian cities it had joined the Carthaginians after the battlo of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus in B. c. 214, though not without a regular siege. (Pol. iii. 88; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates the Aecani among the inland towns of Apulia (iii. 11); but its position is more clearly determined by the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way between Equus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance of 18 or 19 miles from the latter city. (Itin. Ant. p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Pent, places it between Equus Tuticus and Luceria, but without giving the distances.) This interval exactly accords with the position of the modern city of Troja, and confirms the statements of several chroniclers of the middle ages, that the latter was founded about the beginning of the eleventh century, on the ruins of the ancient Aecae. Cluvcrius erroneously identified Accae with Accadia, a village in the mountains S. of Bovine; but his error was rectified by Holstenius. Troja is an episcopal see, and a place of some consideration; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, rising above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles S. of iMcera, and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Holsten. Not. in Cluver. p. 271; Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 227; Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.]

AECULA'NUM, or AECLA'NUM (AutouAoxox, Appian, Ptol.: Eth. Aeculanus, Plin.; but the contracted form Aeclanus and Aeclanensis is the only one found in inscriptions:—the reading Aeculanum in Cic. adAtt. xvi.2, is very uncertain:— later inscriptions and the Itineraries write the name Eclanum), a city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is correctly placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum. (Plin. iii. ll.s. 16; Ptol. iii. 1. § 71; Itin. Ant. p 120; Tab. Pent.) No mention of it is found in history daring the wars of the Romans with the S»mnitcs, though it appears to have been one of the chief cities of the Kirpini: but daring the Social War (b. C. 89) it was taken and plundered by Sulla, which led to the submission of almost all the neighbouring cities. (Appian, B. C. i. 51.) It appears to have been soon after restored: the erection of its new walls, gates, and towers being recorded by an inscription still extant, and which probably belongs to a date shortly after the Social War. At a later period we find that part of its territory was portioned out to new colonists, probably under Octavian, but it retained the condition of a municipium (as we learn from Pliny and several inscriptions) until long afterwards. It was probably in the reign of Trajan that it acquired the rank and title of a colony which we find assigned to it in later inscriptions. (Lib. Colon, pp. 210, 260; Orell. Inter, no. 566, 3108, 5020; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 401.)

The site of Aeculanum was erroneously referred by Cluverius (Jtal. p. 1203) to Frigento. Holstenius was the first to point out its true position at a place called le Grotte, about a mile from MirabtUa, and close to the Taverna del Passo, on the modern high road from Naples into Puglia. Here the extensive remains of an ancient city have been found: a considerable part of the ancient walls, as well as ruins and foundations of Thermae, aqueducts, temples, an amphitheatre and other buildings have been discovered, though many of them have since perished; and the whole site abounds in coins, gems, bronzes, and other minor relics of antiquity. The inscriptions found here, as well as the situation on the Appian Way, and the distance from Benevcnto, clearly prove these remains to be those of Aeculanum, and attest its splendour and importance under the Roman empire. It continued to be a flourishing place until the 7th centnry, but was destroyed in A. D. 662, by the emperor Constans II. in his wars with the Lombards. A town arose out of ita ruins, which obtained the name of Quixtodecimum from its position at that distance from Benevcntum, and which continued to exist to the 11th century when it had fallen into complete decay, and the few remaining inliabitants removed to the castle of MirabtUa, erected by the Normans on a neighbouring hill. (Holsten. Not. in Cluver. p. 273; Lupuli, Iter Venusin. pp. 74 —128; Guarini, Mccrche suit antica Citta di Eclano, 4to. Napoli, 1814; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. 323—328.) [E. H. B.]

AEDEPSUS (AtS7|f>r: Etk. AiS^ios: Lipso), a town on the NW. coast of Euboea, 160 stadia from Cynus on the opposite coast of the Opuntian I/>cri. It contained warm baths sacred to Hercules, which were used by the dictator Sulla. These warm baths arc still found about a mile above Lipso, the site of Aedepsus. (Strab. pp. 60, 425 ; Athen. p. 73; Plut. Sull. 26, Symp. iv. 4, where ri\7r^os is a filse reading; Steph. B. ». r.; Ptol. iii. 15. § 23; Plin. iv. 21; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 176; Walpole, Travels, tfc., p. 71.)

AE'DUI, HE'DUI (AiJoDoi, Strab. p. 186), a Celtic people, who were separated from the Sequani by tlio Arar (Saone), which formed a large part of their eastern boundary. On the W. thoy were separated from the Bituriges by the upper course of the Ligoris (ioire), as Caesar states (.B. G. vii. 5). To the NE. were the Lingones, and to the S. the Scgusiani. The Aedui Ambarri (B. G. i. 11), kinsmen of the Aedui, were on the borders

I of the AUobrogea. The chief town of the Aedui in Caesar's time was Bibracte, and if we assume it to be on the site of the later town of Augustodunum (Autun), we obtain probably a fixed central position in the territory of the Aedui, in the old division of Bourgogne. The Aedui were one of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, but before Caesar's proconsulship of Gallia, they had been brought under the dominion of the Seqnani, who had invited Germans from beyond the Rhine to assist them. The Aedui had been declared friends of the Roman people before this calamity befel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduan, went to Rome to ask for the assistance of the senate, but he returned without accomplishing the object of his mission. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaul (b. C. 58), restored these Aedui to their former independence and power. There was among them a body of nobility and a senate, and they had a great number of clientes, as Caesar calls them, who appear to have been in the nature of vassals. The clientes of the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (B. G. vii. 75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellion against the Romans, which is the subject of the seventh book of the Gallic war (£. G. vii. 42, &c.); but Caesar reduced them to subjection. In the reign of Tiberius A. D. 21, Julius Sacrovir, a Gaul, attempted an insurrection among the Aedui and seized Augustodunum, but the rising was soon put down by C. Silius. (Tac. Ann. iii. 43—46.) The head of the commonwealth of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by the priests, and held his office for one year. He had the power of life and death over his people, as Caesar says, by which expression he means probably that he was supreme judge. (B. G. i. 16, vii. 33.)

The clientes, or small communities dependent on the Aedui, were the Segosiani, already mentioned; the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern boundary of the Aedui trans Mosam, (B. G. iv. 9); and the Aulerci Brannovices [aclekci]. The Ambarri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Aedui, are not enumerated among the clientes (22. G. vii. 55). One of the pagi or divisions of the Aedui was called Insubres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed a body of Boii, who had joined the Helvctii in their attempt to settle themselves in Gaul, to remain in the territory of the Aedui {B. G. i. 28). Their territory was between the Loire and the Allier, a branch of the Loire. They had a town, Gergovia (B. G. vii. 9), the site of which is uncertain; if the reading Gergovia is accepted in this passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded with the Geboovia of the Arvemi. [G. L.]

AEGAE in Europe (Ai'Toi; Eth. Alyaios, Afytdrqr, Aiyanis). 1. Or Aeoa (Aryd), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the river Crathis and upon the coast, between Aegeira and Bura. It is mentioned by Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the League in B. C. 280, its place being occupied by Ceryncia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. All traces of Acgac have disappeared, but it probably occupied the site of the Khan otAbrata, which is situated upon a commanding height rising from the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pausanias mention on which bonk of the Crathis it stood, bat it probably stood on the left bank, since the right is low and often inundated. (Horn. II. viii. 203; Herod, i. 145; Strab. pp. 386—387; Pans, vii. 25. § 12; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 394; Curtius, Peloponnetot, vol. i. p. 472.)

2. A town in Emathia in Macedonia, and the burial-place of the Macedonian kings, is probably the same as Edessa, though some writers make them two different towns. [edessa.]

3. A town in Euboea on the western coast N. of Chalcis, and a little S. of Orobiae. Strabo says that it was 120 stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. It is mentioned by Homer, bat had disappeared in the time of Strabo. It was celebrated for its worship of Poseidon from the earliest times; and its temple of this god still continued to exist when Strabo wrote, being situated upon a lofty mountain. The latter writer derives the name of the Aegaean Sea from this town. Leake supposes it to have stood near Limni. (Horn. II. xiii. 21; Strab. pp. 386, 405; Steph. B. : v.; Leake, Northern Greece, Tol. iii. p. 275.)

AEGAE in Asia, 1. (Aryaf, klymcu, Atytcu: Eth. Klyatos, Acycctrnt; Ayae Kola, or Kalassy), a town on the coast of Cilicia, on the north side of the bay of Issus. It is now separated from the outlet of the Pyramus (Jyhoon) by a long narrow aestuary called Ayae Bay. In Strabo's time (p. 676) it was a small city with a port. (Comp. Lucan, iii. 227.) Aegae was a Greek town, but the origin of it is unknown. A Greek inscription of the Roman period has been discovered there (Beaufort, Karamania, p. 299); and under the Roman dominion it was a place of some importance. Tacitus calls it Aegeae (Ann. xiii. 8.)

2. (Aiyof: .EM.ArYaibr,Ai7aitis),anAeoh°an city (Herod, i. 149), a little distance from the coast of Mysia, and in the neighbourhood of Cume and Temnus. It is mentioned by Xenophon (Hcllen. iv. 8. § 5) under the name Ai'7«?j, which Schneider has altered into Alyai'. It suffered from the great earthquake, which in the time of Tiberius (a. D. 17) desolated 12 of the cities of Asia. (Tacit. Arm. ii. 47.) [G. L.]

AEGAEAE. [aegiaf..]

AEGAEUM MARE (to AiyvSov *4\ayos, Herod, iv. 85; Aesch. Agam. 659; Strab. paisim; or simply To Ai7aibi', Herod, vii. 55; 6 Aiytuos WAcryos, Herod, ii. 97), the part of the Mediterranean now called the Archipelago, and by the Turks the White Sea, to distinguish it from the Black Sea. It was bounded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, on the W. by Greece and on the E. by Asia Minor. At its NE. corner it was connected with the Propontis by the Hellespont. [hellespontus.] Its extent was differently estimated by the ancient writers; but the name was generally applied to the whole sea as far S. as the islands of Crete and llhodes. Its name was variously derived by the ancient grammarians, either from the town of Aegae in Euboea; or from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into it; or from Aegaea, the queen of the Amazons, who perished there; or from Aegaeon, who was represented as a marine god living in the sea; or, lastly, from 017(1, a squall, on account of its storms. Its real etymology is uncertain. Its navigation was dangerous to ancient navigators on account of its numerous islands and rocks, which occasion eddies of wind and a confused sea, and also on account of the Etesian or northerly winds, which blow with great fury, especially about the equinoxes.

To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequently allude. Thus Horace (Carm. ii. 16): Otium divot rogat in patenliprennu Aegaeo; and Virgil (Aen. xii. 365): Ac velut Edoni Boreae cum tpiritut alto insonat Aegaeo. The Aegaean contained numerous islands. Of these the most numerous were in the southern part of the sea; they were divided into two principal groups, the Cyclades, lying off the coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, and the Sporades, lying along the coasts of Caria and Ionia. [cyClades; Sporades.] In the northern part of the sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and Samothrace, and off the coast of Asia those of Samos, Chios and Lesbos.

The Aegaean Bea was divided into: 1. Mark Thracii'm (4 epfn«tor irdVroj, Horn. //. xxiii. 230; To GpriUior Tt'Aoryos, Herod, vii. 176; comp. Soph. Oed. B. 197), the northern part of the Aegaean, washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island of Euboea.

2. Mare Myrtoum (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 14; To yivpTiiov iri\ayos), the part of the Aegaean S. of Euboea, Attica and Argolis, which derived its name from the small island Myrtus, though others suppose it to come from Myrtilus, whom Pclops threw into this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; bat Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between the two, representing the Aegaean as terminating at the promontory Sunium in Attica.

3. Mare Icariuh (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 15; 'luipios irflVTor, Horn. II. ii. 145; 'iKapiof irMoyot, Herod, vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the island of I caria, though according to tradition it was so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, having fallen into it.

4. Mare Creticum (to Kpirnicipx Tt'Aoyos, Thnc.iv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, N. of the island of Crete. Strabo (/. c), however, makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, distinct from the Aegaean.

AEGA'LEOS (AryiAtMi, Herod, viii. 90; To Alyd\(uv ooos, Thuc. ii. 19: Skarmanga), a range of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of Athens and Eleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis. (Herod.ic.) It ended in a promontory, called Amphiai.e ('Ajt^idAn), opposite Salamis, from which it was distant only two stadia according to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range near the coast was called Corydalus or CoryDAixus(Kopu5aAoy, KopuSaAAd?) from a demus of this name (Strab. /. c), and another part, through which there is a pass from the plain of Athens into that of Eleusis, was named Poecilum (Jloucl\ov, Pans. i. 37. § 7.) (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 2, seq.)

AEGA'TES PNSULAE, the name given to a group of three small islands, lying off the western extremity of Sicily, nearly opposite to Drepanum and Lilybaeum. The name is supposed to be derived from the Greek AlydSes, the "Goat islands;" but this form is not found in any Greek author, and the Latin writers have universally Aegates. Silius Italicus also (i. 61) makes the second syllable long. 1. The westernmost of the three, which is distant about 22 G. miles from the coast of Sicily, was called Hiera ('I»o«i yfiooi, Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but at a later period obtained the name of Maritima, from its lying so far out to sea (Itin. Marit. p. 492), and is still called Maretimo. 2. The southernmost and nearest to Lilybaeum, is called, both by Ptolemy and Pliny, Aegusa QAtyowra); but the latter erroneously confounds it with Aethusa, It is the largest of the three, on which account its name was sometimes extended to the whole group (a/ mAotf/itnu A/70Dtrai, Pol. i. 44); it is now called Favignana, and has a considerable population. 3. The northernmost and smallest of the group, nearly opposite to Drepanum, is called by Ptolemy Phobbantia (♦opfiavrla), but is probably the same with the Bucdtna of Pliny, a name erroneously supposed by Steph. B. (». v. Boi/awa) to bo that of a city of Sicily. It is now called Levanzo. (Ptol. iii. 4. § 17 Plin. iii.8.s. 14; Smyth's Sicily, pp.244—247.)

These islands derive au historical celebrity from the great naval victory obtained by C. Lutatius Cattdus over the Carthaginians in B. c. 241, which put an end to the First Punic War. Hanno, the Carthaginian admiral, hod previous to the battle taken up his station at the island of Hicra, and endeavoured to take advantage of a fair wind to run straight in to Drepanum, in order to relievo the army of Hamilcar Barca, then blockaded on Mount Eryx; but he was intercepted by Catulus, and compelled to engage on disadvantageous terms. The consequence was the complete defeat of the Carthaginian fleet, of which 50 ships wero sunk, and 70 token by the enemy, with nearly 10,000 prisoners. (Pol. 1. 60, 61; Diod. xxiv. Exc. H. p. 509; Liv. Epit. xix.; Oros. iv. 10; Flor. ii. 1; Eutrop.ii. 27; Corn. Nep. Hamilc. 1; Mela, ii. 7; Sil. Ital. i. 61.)

The island of Aegusa has been supposed by many writers to be the one described by Homer in the Odyssey (ix. 116) as lying opposite to the land of the Cyclopes, and abounding in wild goats. But all such attempts to identify the localities described in the wanderings of Ulysses may be safely dismissed as untenable. [E. H. B.]

AEGEIRA (Afyfipa: Eth. Alytipdrns, fem. Afyeiparis), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, situated between Aegae and Pellene, is described by Polybins as opposite Mount Parnassus, situated upon hills strong and difficult of approach, seven stadia from the sea, and near a river. This river was probably the Crius, which flowed into the sea, a little to the W. of the town. According to Pausanias the upper city was 12 stadia from its port, and 72 Btadia from tho oracle of Heracles Buraicus. (Herod, i. 146; Strab. viii. p. 386; Pol. ii. 41, iv. 57; Paus. vii. 26. § 1; Plin. iv. 6.) Pausanias (/. c.) relates that Aegeira occupied the site of the Homeric Hyferesia ('TirtpTiOLrj, JIM. 573, xv. 254; Strab. p.383: Eth-'Trtpnouis), and that it changed its name during the occupation of the country by tho Ionians. He adds that the ancient name still continued in use. Hence we find that Icarus of Hypcresia was proclaimed victor in the 23rd Olympiad. (Paus. iv. 15. § 1.) On the decay of the neighbouring town of Aegae its inhabitants were transferred to Aegeira. (Strab. p. 386.) In tho first year of the Social war (b. c. 220) Aegeira was surprised by a party of Aetolians, who had set sail from the opposite town of Oeantheia in Locris, but were driven out by tho Aegiratans after they had obtained possession of the place. (Pol. iv. 57, 58.) The most important of the public buildings of Aegeira was a temple of Zeus. It also contained a very ancient temple of Apollo, and temples of Artemis, of Aphrodite Urania, who was worshipped in the town above all other divinities, and of the

Syrian goddess. (Paus. vii.26.) The port of Aegeira Leake places at Mavrn Litharia, i. e., the Black Kocks, to the left of which, on the summit of a hill, are some vestiges of an ancient city, which must have been Aegeira. At the distance of 40 stadia; from Aegeira, through the mountains, there was a fortress called Pheixoe (4>«aai(j>, near Zakhuli), abounding in springs of water. (Paus. vii. 26. § 10; Leake, Moral, vol. iii. p. 387, sea.)

AEGEIRUS. [aeoiroessa.]

AEGIAE or AEGAEAE (Aryfai, Paus. iii. 21. § 5 ; Myduu, Strab. p. 364: Limni), a town of Laconia, at the distance of 30 stadia from Gythinm, supposed to be the same as the Homeric Augeiae(Airyttal, II. ii. 583; comp. Steph. B. ». v.) It possessed a temple and lake of Neptune. Its Bite is placed by the French Commission at Limni, so allied from an extensive marsh in the valley of the eastern branch of the river of Pauavd. (Leake, I'tlopon~ naiaca, p. 170.)

AEGIALEIA, AEGIALUS. [achaia.]

AE'GIDA, a town of Istria, mentioned only byPliny iii. 19. s. 23), which appears to have been in his time a place of little importance; but from an inscription cited by Cluverius (IlaL p. 210) it appears that it was restored by the emperor Justin II. who bestowed on it the name of JusnNOPOU8. This inscription is preserved at Capo d"htria, now a considerable town, situated on a small island joined to the mainland by a causeway, which appears to have been termed Aeoidis InSula, and was probably the site of the Aegida of Pliny. [E. H. B.]

AE'GILA (t4 AryiAa), a town of Laconia with a temple of Demeter, of uncertain Bite, but placed by Leake on the gulf of Skutdri. (Paus. iv. 17. § 1; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 278.)

AEGI'LIA (Ai-yiAfe). 1. Or Aeoilub (f, Afyi\os, Theocr. i. 14?: Eth. AryiAniJs), a demus in Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis,situated on the western coast between Lamptra and Sphcttus. It was celebrated for its figs. (AryiAloef iffx*0**, Athen. p. 652, e.; Theocr. I c.) It is placed by Leake at Tzurela, the site of a ruined village on the shore, at the foot of Mt. Elymbo. (Strab. p. 398; Harpocrat., Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi, p. 61.)

2. Or Aeoileia (AryfAoa), a small island off the western coast of Euboea, and near the town of Styra, to which it belonged. Here the Persians left the captive Eretrians, before they crossed over to Marathon, B.C. 490. (Herod, vi. 101, 107.)

3. Or Af.gila (AfyiAa: CerigoUo), a small island between Cythera and Crete. (Plut. Cleom. 31; Steph. B. *. v.; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19.)

AEGILIPS. [ithaca.]

AEGIMUHUS (Aiylpopos: Zoicamour or Zembra), a lofty island, surrounded by dangerous cliffs, off tho coast of Africa, at the mouth of the gulph of Carthage. (Liv. xxx. 24; Strab. pp. 123, 277, 834.) Pliny calls it Aegimori Arae (v. 7); and there is no doubt that it is the same as the Arae of Virgil (Aen. i. 108). [P. S.]

AEGI'NA (Afyiyo: Eth. Alytrlrrns, Acgineta, Aeginensis, fern. Aiyn^ru: Adj. Aiyiyaios, Alyiyr)Tik6s, Aegineticus : Eghina),(m island in the Saronic gulf, surrounded by Attica, Megaris, and Epidaurus, from each of which it was distant about 100 stadia. (Strab. p. 375) It contains about 41 square English miles, and is said by Strabo (I c.) to be 180 stadia in circumference. In shape it is an irregular triangle. Its western half consists of a plain, which, though stony, is well cultivated with corn, bat the remainder of the island is mountainous and unproductive. A magnificent conical hill now called Mt. St. Eliaa, or Oros {Spot, i. e. the mountain), occupies the whole of the southern part of the island, and is the most remarkable among the natural features of Aegina. There is another mountain, much inferior in size, on the north-eastern side. It is surrounded by numerous rocks and shallows, which render it difficult and hazardous of approach, as Pausanias (ii. 29. § 6) has correctly observed.

Notwithstanding its small extent Aegina was one of the most celebrated islands in Greece, both in the mythical and historical period. It is said to have been originally called Oenone or Oenopia, and to have received the name of Aegina from Aegina, the daughter of the river-god Asopus, who was carried to the island by Zeus, and there bore him a son Aeacus. It was further related that at this time Aegina was uninhabited, and that Zeus changed the ants (pipfjiTjKf J) of the island into men, the Myrmidones, over whom Aeacus ruled (Paus.ii. 29. § 2.; Apollod. iii. 12. § 6; Ov. Met. vii. 472, seq.) Some modern writers suppose that this legend contains a mythical account of the colonization of the island, and that the latter received colonists from Phlius on the Asopus and from Phthia in Thessaly, the seat of the Myrmidons. Aeacus was regarded as the tutelary deity of Aegina, but his sons abandoned the island, Telamon going to Salamis, and Peleus to Phthia. All that we can safely infer from these legends is that the original inhabitants of Aegina were Achaeans. It was afterwards taken possession of by Dorians from Epidaurus, who introduced into the island the Doric customs and dialect. (Herod, viii. 46; Pans, it 29. § 5.) Together with Epidaurus and other cities on the mainland it became subject to Pheidon, tyrant of Argos, about B. c. 748. It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus (Strab. p. 376), that silver money was first coined in Aegina by Pheidon, and we know that the name of Aeginetan was given to one of the two scales of weights and measures current throughout Greece, the other being the Euboic. There seems, however, good reason for believing with Mr. Grote that what Pheidon did was done in Argos and nowhere else; and that the name of Aeginetan was given to his coinage and scale, not from the place where they first originated, but from the people whose commercial activity tended to make them most generally known. (Grote, But. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 432.) At an early period Aegina became a place of great commercial importance, and gradually acquired a powerful navy. As early as B. c. 563, in the reign of Amasis, the Aeginetans established a footing for its merchants at Naucratis in Egypt, and thercerectedatempleof Zeus. (Herod.ii. 178.) With the increase of power came the desire of political independence; and they renounced the authority of the Epidaurians, to whom they had hitherto been subject. (Herod, v. 83.) So powerful did they become that about the year 500 they held the empire of the sea. According to the testimony of Aristotle (Athen. p. 272), the island contained 470,000 slaves; but this number is quite incredible, although we may admit that Aegina contained a great population. At the time of their prosperity the Aeginetans founded various colonies, such as Cydonia in Crete, and another in Umbria. (Strab. p. 376.) The government was in the hands of an aristocracy. Its citizens became wealthy by commerce, and gave great encouragement to the arts. In fact, for the half

century before the Persian wars and for a few years afterwards, Aegina was the chief seat of Greek art, and gave its name to a school, the most eminent artists of which were Callon, Anaxagoras, Glaucias, Simon, and Onatas, of whom an account is given in the Diet, of Biogr.

The Aeginetans were at the height of their power when the Thebans applied to them for aid in their war against the Athenians about B. C. 505. Their request was readily granted, since there had been an ancient feud between the Aeginetans and Athenians. The Aeginetans sent their powerful fleet to ravage the coast of Attica, and did great damage to the latter country, since the Athenians had not yet any fleet to resist them. This war was continued with some interruptions down to the invasion of Greece by Xerxes. (Herod, v.81, seq., vi. 86,seq.; Thuc. i. 41.) The Aeginetans fought with 30 ships at the battle of Salamis (b. C. 480), and were admitted to have distinguished themselves above all the other Greeks by their bravery. (Herod, viii. 46, 93.) From this time their power declined. In 460 the Athenians defeated them in a great naval battle, and laid siege to their principal town, which after a long defence surrendered in 456. The Aeginetans now became a part of the Athenian empire, and wero compelled to destroy their walls, deliver up their ships of war, and pay an annual tribute. (Thuc. i. 105. 108.) This humiliation of their ancient enemies did not, however, satisfy the Athenians, who feared the proximity of such discontented subjects. Pericles was accustomed to call Aegina the eye-sore of the Peiraeus (r) X^/xq To5 Utipaiias, Arist. Shet. iii. 10.; comp. Cic. de Off. iii. 11); and accordingly on the breaking out of the Pcloponnesian war in 431, the Athenians expelled the whole population from the island, and filled their place with Athenian settlers. The expelled inhabitants were settled by the Lacedaemonians at Thyrea. They were subsequently collected by Lysander after the battle of Aegospotami (404), and restored to their own country, but they never recovered their former state of prosperity. (Thuc. ii. 27; Pint. Per. 34; Xcn. Bell. ii. 2. § 9; Strab. p. 375.) Sulpicius, in his celebrated letter to Cicero, enumerates Aegina among the examples of fallen greatness (ad Fam. iv. 5).

The chief town in the island was also called Aegina, and was situated on the north-western side. A description of the public buildings of the city is given by Pausanias (ii. 29, 30). Of these the most important was the Aeaceium (Ai'djcctoy), or shrine of Aeacus, a quadrangular inclosure built of white marble, in the most conspicuous part of the city. There was a theatre near the shore as large as that of Epidaurus, behind it a stadium, and likewise numerous temples. The city contained two harbours: the principal one was near the temple of Aphrodite; the other, called the secret harbour, was near the theatre. The site of the ancient city is marked by numerous remains, though consisting for the most part only of foundations of walls and scattered blocks of stone. Near the shore are two Doric columns of the most elegant form. To the S. of these columns is an oval port, sheltered by two ancient moles, which leave only a narrow passage in the middle, between the remains of towers, which stood on either side of the entrance. In the same direction we find another oval port, twice as large as the former, the entrance of which is protected in the same manner by ancient walls or moles, 15 or 20 feet thick. The latter of {these ports seems to have been the large harbour,

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