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22 feet before the gate of the inclosure, which was upon the site of the church of Stavroménos Petros. 376 feet long, and 252 broad; round the inside of To the east of the altar of Boreas stood the altar of it, at a distance of 23 feet from the wall, are vestiges the Ilissian Muses. In 1676 Spon and Wheler of a colonnade. In the northern wall, which still observed, about fifty yards alove the bridge of the exists, are the remains of one large quadrangular Stadium, the foundations of a circular temple, which recess or apartment in the centre 34 feet in length, had, however, disappeared in the time of Stuart, and of two semicircular recesses nearly equal to it This was probably the Temple of the Ilissian Muses, in diameter. The church of Megáli Panaghía, for though Pausanias only mentions an altar of these which stands towards the eastern side of the in- goddesses, there may have been also a temple. closure, is formed of the remains of an ancient On the other side of the Ilissus Pausanias entered building, consisting on one side of a ruined arch, the district Agrae or Agra, in which was the Temple and on the other of an architrave supported by a of Artemis Agrotera, spoken of above. A part of pilaster, and three columns of the Doric order, 1 foot this district was sacred to Demeter, since we know 9 inches in diameter, and of a soinew hat declining that the lesser Eleusinian mysteries were celebrated period of art. .... The general plan was evidently in Agrae, and were bence called td ev "Aypass. that of a quadrangle surrounded with porticoes, (Steph. B. 8. v. "Aypa; Plut. Demetr. 26.) Stehaving one or more buildings in the centre: thus phanus (l. c.) says that Agra was a spot before agreeing perfectly with that work of Hadrian which the city (npo tris notews), but this appears to be contained stoae, a colonnade of Phrygian marble, and only a conclusion drawn froin the name, which a library. .... The building near the centre of would seein to indicate that it was in the country, the quadrangle, which was converted into a church and may be classed together with the abore-inenof the Panaghía, may have been the Pantheon. ... tioned error of Pliny about the gardens. The PaPossibly also the temple of Hera and of Zeus Pan nathenaic Stadium was also in Agrae, after de hellenius stood in the centre of the inclosure." scribing which (see p. 292], Pau-anias retraces liis (Leake, p. 258, seq.)
steps to the Prytaneium. He has omitted to mention E. Fourth Fart of the Route of Pausanias.— From
the hill Ardettus ('Aponttós), situated above the
* Stadium, where the Dicasts were sworn. (Harpocrat., the Prytaneium to the Stadium. (Paus. i. 18.
Hesych., Suid. 8. v.; Pollux, viii. 122.) The bigla § 4-19.)
ground of Agrae appears to liave been called Helicu Pausanias went straight from the Prytaneium to in ancient times, (Cleidemus, ap. Bekker, Ancol. the Olympicium, between which buildings he notices Graec. i. p. 326.) these objects, the Temple of Sarapis, the place of meeting of Theseus and Peirithous, and the Temple F. Fifth Part of the Route of Pausanias.-From of Eileithyia. After describing the Olympieium,
the Prytaneium to the Propyluca of the AcroPausanias mentions the temples of Apollo Pythius,
polis. (Paus. i. 20—22. $ 3.) and of Apollo Delphinius. The Pythium (slúdov) was one of the most ancient sanctuaries in Atheus. In this part of his route Pausanias went round We know from Thucydides (i1. 15) that it was in the eastern and southern sides of the Acropolis. the same quarter as the Olympiciuin, and from Starting again from the Prytaneiuin, he went down Strabo (ix. p. 404), that the sacred inclosures of the Street of the Tripods, which led to the Les aeuin the two temples were only separated by a wall, upon or sacred enclosure of Dionysus. The position of which was the altar of Zeus Astra paeus. The this street is marked by the existing Choragic MoDelphinium (Aenqivior) was apparently near the nument of Lysicrates (see p. 291), and by a number Pythiuin. It was also a temple of great antiquity, of sinall churches, which probably occupy the place being said to have been founded by Aegeus. In its of the tripod temples. The Lenaeum, which conneighbourhood sat one of the courts for the trial of tained two teinples of Dionysus, and wlich was cases of homicide, called to el AeApivia (Plut. close to the theatre, was situated in the district Thes. 12, 18; Pollux, viii. 119; Paus. i. 28. $ 10.) called Limnae. It was here that the Dionysiac
Pausanias next proceeds to The Gardens (oi festival, called Lenaea, as celebrated. (Thuc. ii. 15; KÑTOU), which must have been situated east of the Dict. of Ant. p. 411, b. 2nd ed.) The Lenaeum above-mentioned temples, along the right bank of must be placed immediately below the theatre to the the lissus. In this locality was a temple of Aphro south. Iminediately to the east of the theatre, anil dite : the statue of this goddess, called “ Aphro- consequently at the north-eastern angle of the dite in the Gardens,” by Alcamenes, was one of the Acropolis, was the Odeium of Pericles. Its site most celebrated pieces of statuary in all Athens. is accurately determined by Vitruvius, who says (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s. 4; Lucian, Imag. 4, 6.) Pliny (v. 9), that it lay on tne left hand to persons (l. c.), misled by the name “Gardens,” places this coming of the theatre. This Odein statue outside the walls; but we have the express must be distinguished froin the earlier building with testimony of Pausanias in another passage (i. 27. / this name near the blissus, was built by Pericles, $ 3) that it was in the city.
and its roof is said to have been an imitation of Pausanias then visits the Cynosurges and Ly- the tent of Xerxes. (Plut. Per. 13.) It was burot ceium, both of which were situated outside the during the siege of Athens by Sulla, B. C. 85, but walls, and are described below in the account of the was rebuilt by Ariobarzancs II., king of Cappadocia, suburbs of the city. From the Lyceium he returns who succeeded to the throne about B.C. 63. (Appian, to the city, and mentions the Altar of Boreas, who | B. Mithr. 38; Vitruv. I c.; Böckh, No. 357, Thet. carried off Oreithyia from the banks of the Nissus, of Ant. pp. 822, 823, 2nd ed.) All traces of this and the Altar of the Ilissian Muses, both altars building bave disappeared. being upon the banks of the llissus. (Comp. Plat. On the western side of the theatre are some Phaedr. c. 6; Herod. vii. 189.) The altar of remains of a succession of arches, which Leake con Boreas is described by Plato (1.c.) as opposite thejectures may have belonged to a portico, built by tenjule of Artemis Agrotera, which probably stands Herodes Atticus, for the purpose of a covered coni
munication between the theatre and the Odeium of Athena as a sail (i. 29. $ 1). He then proceeds Herodes. Perhaps they are the remains of the through Dipylum to the outer Cerameicus and the Porticus Eumenia, which appears from Vitruvius Academy. The two latter are spoken of under the (I. c.) to have been close to the theatre. For an suburbs of the city. account of the theatre itself, see p. 284.
H. Districts of the Asty. In proceeding from the theatre Pansanias first mentions the Tomb of Talos or Calos, below the It is remarked by Isocrates that the city was disteep rocks of the Acropolis, from which Daedalus vided into Kwuai and the country into onuou (dienómeis said to have hurled him down. Pausanias next vol triv uėv Tów kata kúuas, Thy dè xópav kard comes to the Asclepieium or Temple of Asclepius, õnuous, Areop. p. 149, ed. Steph.). In consequence which stood immediately above the Odeiuin of He- of this remark, and of the frequent opposition berodes Atticus. Its site is determined by the state-tween the modis and the sun, it was formerly mainment that it contained a fountain of water, celebrated tained by many writers that none of the Attic demi as the fountain at which Ares slew Halirrhothius, were within the city. But since it has been proved the son of Poseidon. Pausanias makes no mention beyond doubt that the contrary was the case, it has of the Odeium of Herodes, since this building was been supposed that the city demi were outside the not erected when he wrote his account of Athens. walls when the demi were established by Cleisthenes,
See p. 286.) Next to the Asclepieium Pausa- but were subsequently included within the walls nias, in his ascent to the Acropolis, passed by the upon the enlargement of the city by Themistocles. Temple of Themis, with the Tomb of Hippolytus But even this hypothesis will not apply to all the in front of it, the Temple of Aphrodite Pandemus demi, since Melite and Cydathenaeum, for example, and Peitho, and the Temple of Ge Curotrophus und as well as others, must have been included within Demeter Chloe At the teinple of Aphrodite Pan- the city at the time of Cleisthenes. A little condemus, Pausanias was again close to the statues of sideration, however, will show the necessity of adHarmolius and Aristogeiton. [See p. 297, a.] The mitting the division of the city into the demni froin proximity of this temple to the tomb of Hippolytus the first institution of the latter by Cleisthenes. is alluded to by Euripides (Hippol. 29, seq.). The It is certain that every Athenian citizen was enrolled teinple of Ge and Demeter was probably situated in some deinus, and that the whole territory of beneath the
of Nike Apteros. At the foot | Attica was distributed into a certain number of demi of the wall, supporting the platform of the latter Hence the city must have been forined by Cleisthenes temple, there are two doors, coeval with the wall, into one or more demi; for otherwise the inhabitants and conducting into a small grotto, which was pro- of the city would have belonged to no demus, which bably the shrine of Ge and Demeter. It was situated | we know to have been impossible. At the same on the right hand of the traveller, just before he time there is nothing surprising in the statement of coinmenced the direct ascent to the Propylaea; and Isocrates, since the demi within the walls of Athens from being placed within a wall, which formed one were few, and had nothing to do with the organization of the defences of the Acropolis, it is sometimes of the city. For administrative purposes the city described as a part of the latter. (Soph. ad Oed. Col. I was divided into Kwuai or wards, the inhabitants 1600; Suid. 3. v. Koupotpópos rñ.) The position being called Kwuntai. (Comp. Aristoph. Nub. 966, of this temple is illustrated by a passage in the Lysistr. 5; Hesych. 8. v. Kwuar.) Lysistrata of Aristophanes (829), where, the Athe- ' The following is a list of the city demi:nian women being in possession of the Acropolis, 1. Cerameicus (Kepauerkús : Eth. Kepaueis), Lysistrata suddenly perceives a man at the temple divided into the Inner and the Outer Cerameicu:. of Demeter Chloë approaching the citadel:
The Inner Cerameicus has been already described, ar. 'loù, low, yuvaikes
and the Outer Cerameicus is spoken of below. [See ávop' avdp' dpc #pogibyta ....
p. 303.] The two districts formed only one demus, rr. Doû go do tiv, cotis do rí; ar. mapa od
which belonged to the tribe Acainantis. Wordsworih
maintains (p. 171) that the term Inner Cerameicus tñis Xións.
was used only by later writers, and that during the The Eleusinium, which Pausanias had mentioned | Peloponnesian war, and for many years afterwards, (i. 14. § 3) in the description of his second route there was only one Cerameicus, namely, that outside s see p. 297, b], Leake conjectures to have been the the walls. But this opinion is refuted by the tesgreat cavern in the middle of the rocks at the timony of Antiphon, who spoke of the two Cerameici eastern end of the Acropolis. The Eleisinium is (ap. Harpocrat. 8. v.), and of Phanodemus, who said by Clemens of Alexandria (Protrept. p. 13, stated that the Leocorium was in the middle of the Sviburg), and Arnobius (aulo. Gent. vi. p. 193, Cerameicus (ap. Harpocrat. 8. v. newkópiov). Maire) to have been below the Acropolis. The 2. Melite (Menity: Eth. Mediteis), was a demus Eleusinium is also mentioned by Thucydides (ii. 15) of the tribe Cecropis, west of the Inner Cerameicus. and Xenophon (Hipparch. 3), but without any | The exact limits of this demus cannot be ascertained; positive indication of its site.
but it appears to have given its name to the whole
hilly district in the west of the Asty, comprising G. Sixth Part of the Route of Pausanias.--The
the hills of the Nymphs, of the Pnyx and of the
Museium, and including within it the separate den i Acropolis, Areiopagus and Academy. (Paus.
** of Scambonidae and Collytus. Melite is said to have i. 22. $ 4 30.)
been named from a wife of Hercules. It was one of The Acropolis has been already described. In the most populous parts of the city, and contained descending from it Pausanias notices the cave of several temples as well as houses of distinguished Pan and the Areiopagus (see pp. 286, 281], and the men. In Melite were the Hephaesteium, the Euryplace near the Areiopagus, where the ship was kept, saceium, the Colonus Agoraeus respecting these which was dragged through the city in the great three, see p. 298]; the temple of Hercules AlexiPanathenaic festival, surmounted by the Peplus of 1 cacus (see p. 296, a]; the Melanippeium, in which
Melanippus, the son of Theseus, was buried (Har- | Forchhaminer places Collytus between the hills of pocrat. 8.0, MelaviameLOV); the temple of Athena Payx and Museium, in which case the expression of Aristobula, built by Themistocles near his own house its being in the centre of the city, must not be (Plut. Them. 22); the house of Callias (Plat. Para interpreted strictly. The same writer also supposes men, p. 126, a.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 504); OTEVwTÓs not to signify a street, but the whole the house of Phocion, which still existed in Plu- district between the Pnyx and the Museium, intarch's time (Plut. Phoc. 18); and a building, cluding the slopes of those bills. Leake thinks that called the “ House of the Melitians," in which tra- Collytus bordered upon Diomeia, and accordingly gedies were rehearsed. (Hesych. Phot. Lex. 8. o. places it between Melite and Diomeia; but the auMediTÉMY Olkos.) This is, perhaps, the same thority to which he refers would point to an opposite theatre as the one in which Aesobines played the conclusion, namely, that Collytus and Diomeia were part of Oenomaus, and which is said to have been situated on opposite sides of the city. We are told situated in Collytus (Harpocrat. 8. v. 'loxavopos ; that Collytus was the father of Diomus, the favourite Anonym. Vit. Aesch.); since the district of Melite, as of Hercules; and that some of the Melitenses, under we have already observed, subsequently included the the guidance of Diomus, migrated from Melite, and demus of Collytus. It is probable that this theatre settled in the spot called Diomeia, from their leader, is the one of which the remains of a great part of where they celebrated the Metageitnia, in memory the semicircle are still visible, hewn out of the rock, of their origin. (Plut. de Ersil. 1. c.; Steph. B. 8. 8. on the western side of the hill.of Pryx. The Meli- Albuela; Hesych. 8. v. Alueleis.) This legend tian Gate at the SW. corner of the city were so called, confirms the preceding account of Collytus being as leading to the district Melite. [See p. 263, b.] situated in Melite. We have already seen that there Pliny (iv. 7. s. 11) speaks of an "oppidum Melite," was a theatre in Collytus, in which Aeschines played which is conjectured to have been the fortress of the part of Oenomaus; and we are also told that he the Macedonians, erected on the hill Museium. I lived in this district 45 years. (Aesch. Ep. 5.) [See p. 284, a.]
Collytus was also the residence of Timon, the mis3. Scambonidae (Ekaubwvidai), a demus belong- anthrope (Lucian, Timon, 7, 44), and was celeing to the tribe Leontis. In consequence of a brated as the demus of Plato. passage of Pausanias (i. 38. § 2) Müller placed 5. Cydathenaeum (Kudabývalgy: Eth. KudaonThis demus near Eleusis ; but it is now admitted | vaveis), a demus belonging to the tribe Pandionis. that it was one of the city demi. It was probably in- (Harp. Suid. Steph. Phot.) The name is apparently cluded within the district of Melite, and occupied compounded of küdos " glory," and 'Aonvaios, and is the Hills of the Nymphs and of Pnyx Its con- hence explained by Hesychius (8. v.) as votos nexion with Melite is intimated by the legend, that 'Aonvaios. It is, therefore, very probable, as Leake Melite derived its name from Melite, a daughter of has suggested, that this demus occupied the TheMyrmex, and the wife of Hercules ; and that seian city, that is to say, the Acropolis, and the this Myrmex gave his name to a street in Scam-parts adjacent to it on the south and south-east. bonidae. (Harpocrat. 8. v. Meritm; Hesych., 3. v.) (Leake, p. 443; Müller, Dor. vol. ii. p. 72, transl.) Múpunikos àtparós; comp. Aristoph. Thesm. 100; 6. Diomeia (Albuela: Eth. Alqueis), a demus and Phot Lex.) This street, however, the " Street belonging to the tribe Aegeis, consisting, like of Ants," did not derive its name from a hero, but Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner Diomeia. from its being crooked and narrow, as we may sup- The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of pose the streets to have been in this hilly district. city, and gave its name to one of the city-gates in Scambonidae, also, probably derived its name from this quarter. In the Outer Dion.cia was situated the same circumstance (from okaubós, “ crooked.") the Cynosarges. (Steph., Suid. . 0. Alójela; He
4. Collytus (Konturós, not KOAUTTÓS ; Eth. sych. 8. v. Aloueis; Steph., Hesych. 8. . KuróKoxdureis), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, capves; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 664; Plnt. de and probably, as we have already said, sometimes Exsil. l. c.) The Outer Diomeia could not have included under the general name of Melite. It ap- extended far beyond the walls, since the demus pears from a passage of Strabo (i. p. 65) that Col- Alopece was close to Cynosarges, and only eleven or lytus and Melite were adjacent, but that their twelve stadia from the walls of the city. (Herod. boundaries were not accurately marked, a passage ( v. 63; Aesch. c. Tim. p. 119, Reiske.) which both Leake and Wordsworth have erroneously 7. Coele (Koian), a demus belonging to the tribe supposed to mean that these places had precise Hippothoontis. It lay partly within and partly withboundaries. (It is evident, however, that Collytus out the city, in the valley between the Mrseium and and Melite are quoted as an example of un outwv | the hills on the southern side of Missus. In this åkpılwy opww.) Wordsworth, moreover, remarks district, just outside the Melitian gate, were the that it was the least respectable quarter in the sepulchres of Thicydides and Cimon. (For authowhole of Athens; but we know, on the contrary, / rities, see p. 263.7 that it was a favourite place of residence. Hence 8. Ceiriadae (Keipiádai), a demus belonging to Plutarch says (de Exsil. 6, p. 601), “neither do the tribe Hippothoontis. (Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. all Athenians inhabit Collytus, nor Corinthians B., Hesych. s. o.) The position of this demus Craneium, nor Spartans Pitane," Craneium and is uncertain; but Sauppe brings forward many Pitane being two favourite localities in Corinth and arguments to prove that it was within the city Sparta respectively. It is described by Hiinerius walls. In this district, and perhaps near the Me(ap. Phot. Cod. 243, p. 375, Bekker), as a ote- trouin, was the Bápalpov, into which criminals were ywio's (which does not mean a narrow street, but cast. (For authorities, see Sauppe, pp. 17, 18.) simply a street, comp. Diod. xii, 10; Hesych. 8. v.), 9. Agrae ("Aypar), was situated south of the situated in the centre of the city, and much valued | Ilissus, and in the SE. of the city. Respecting its for its use of the market (å ropas xpeia topáuevos), site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been & by which words we are probably to understand that separate demus, and was perhaps included in the It was conveniently situated for the use of the market. demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it.
10. Limnue (Aluvai), was a district to the south (Plut. Sull. 12; Appian, Mithr. 30.) The Academy, of the Acropolis, in which the temple of Dionysus however, was replanted, and continued to enjoy its was situated. (Thuc. ii. 15.) It was not a demus, ancient celebrity in the time of the emperor Julian. as stated by the Scholiast on Callimachus (H. in Near the temple of Athena in the Academy were Del. 172), who has mistaken the Limnae of Messenia the Moriae, or sacred olives, which were derived from for the Limnae of Athens.
the sacred olive in the Erechtheium. The latter, Colonus, which we have spoken of as a hill in as we have already seen, was the first olive tree the city, is maintained by Sauppe to have been a planted in Attica, and one of the Moriae was shown separate demus; but see above, p. 298, b.
to Pausanias as the second. They were under the The Euboean cities of Eretria and Histiaea were guardianship of Zeus Morius. (Comp. Suid. 8. v. said by some to have been named from Attic demi | Moplar; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 730.) A little (Strab. x. p. 445); and from another passage of way beyond the Academy was the hill of Colonns. Strabo (x. p. 447) it has been inferred that the so- immortalised by the tragedy of Sophocles; and becalled New Agora occupied the site of Eretria. [Seetween the two places were the tomb of Plato and p. 298, b.] It is doubtful whether Eretria was the tower of Timon. (Paus. i. 30. SS 3, 4.) The situated in the city; and at all events it is not men name of Akodhimia is still attached to this spot. tioned elsewhere, either by writers or inscriptions, as “ It is on the lowest level, where some water-courses a demus.
from the ridges of Lycabettus are consumed in garRespecting the city demi the best account is given dens and olive plantations. These waters still cause by Sauppe, De Demis Urbanis Athenarum, Wei the spot to be one of the most advantageous situmar, 1846.
ations near Athens for the growth of fruit and potherbs, and maintain a certain degree of verdure when
all the surrounding plain is parched with the heat I. SUBURBS OF THE CITY.
of summer.” (Leake, p. 195.) 1. The Outer Cerameicus and the Academy. —
2. Cynosarges (Kuvos apyes), was a sanctuary of The road to the Academy ('Akaðnuia), which was Hercules and a gymnasium, situated to the east of distant six or eight stadia from the gate named the city, not far from the gate Diomeia. It is said Dipylnm ran through the Outer Cerameicus. to have derived its name from a white dog, which (Liv. xxxi. 24: Thuc. vi. 57; Plat. Parm. 2; Plut. carried off part of the victim, when sacrifices were Sull, 14; Cic. de Fin. v. 1; Lucian, Scyth. 2.) It first offered by Diomus to Hercule. (l'aus. i. 19. is called by Thucydides the most beautiful suburb $ 3; Herod. v. 63, vi. 116; Plut. Them. 1; Harof the city (Al Toû xaliotov a poartelov tûs - pocrat, s. v. 'Hpákdela; Hesych. Suid. Steph. B. news, Thuc. ii. 34). On each side of the road were 8. v. Kuvoo apyes.) Antisthenes, the founder of the the monuments of illustrious Athenians, especially Cynic school, taught in the Cynosarges. (Diog. of those who had fallen in battle; for the Outer
Laërt. vi. 13.) It was surrounded by a grove, which Cerameicus was the place of burial for all persons was destroyed by Philip, together with the trees of who were honoured with a public funeral. Hence the neighbouring Lyceium, when he encamped at we read in Aristophanes (Aves, 395):
this spot in his invasion of Attica in B. C. 200.
(Liv. xxxi. 24.) Since Cynosarges was near a ο Κεραμεικός δέξεται νώ.
rising ground (Isocr. Vit. X. Orat. p. 838), Leake δηχοσία γαρ ίνα ταφώμεν.
places it at the foot of the south-eastern extremity Over each tomb was placed a pillar, inscribed with of Mount Lycabettus, near the point where the arch the names of the dead and of their demi. (Paus, i. of the aqueduct of Hadrian and Antoninus formerly 29. § 4; comp. Cic. de Leg. ii. 26.) In this lo- stood. The name of this gymnasium, like that of cality was found an interesting inscription, now in the Academy, was also given to the surrounding the British Museum, containing the names of those buildings, which thus formed a suburb of the city. who had fallen at Potidaea, B. c. 432.
(Forchhammer, p. 368.) The Academy is said to have belonged originally 3. Lyceium (AKELOV), a gymnasium dedicated to the hero Academus, and was afterwards converted to Apollo Lyceius, and surrounded with lofty plane into a gymnasium. It was surrounded with a wall trees, was also situated to the east of the city, and by Hipparchus, and was adorned by Cimon with a little to the south of the Cynosarges. It was the walks, groves, and fountains. (Diog. Laërt. iii. 7; chief of the Athenian gymnasia, and was adorned Suid, s. v. 'Itnápxou Terxiov; Plut. Cim. 13.) The by Peisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus. (Paus. i. beauty of the plane trees and olive plantations was | 19. § 3; Xen. Hipp. 3. $ 6; Hesych. Harpocrat. particolarly celebrated. (Plin. xii. 1. s. 5.) Be- Suid. 8. v. Aúkelov.) The Lyceium was the place fore the entrance were a statue and an altar of Love, in which Aristotle and his disciples taught, who and within the inclosure were a temple of Athena, were called Peripatetics, from their practice of walk. and altars of the Muses, Prometheus, Hercules, &c. ing in this gymnasium while delivering their lec(Paus. i. 30. $ 1.) It was from the altar of Pro tures. (Diog. Laërt. v. 5; Cic. Acad. Quaest. i. 4.) metheus that the race of the Lampadephoria com- | In the neighbourbood of the Lyceium was a fountain menced. The Academy was the place where Plato of the hero Panops, near which was a small gate of tanghi, who possessed a small estate in the neigh- the city, which must have stood between the gates bourhood, which was his usual place of residence. Diocharis and Diomeia. (Plat. Lys. 1; Hesych. (Diog. Laërt. l. c.; Aelian, v. H. ix. 10.) His s. v Klávwy.) successors continued to teach in the same spot, and 4. Lycabettus (Aukabnttós), was the name of were hence called the Academic philosophers. It the lofty insulated mountain overhanging the city continued to be one of the sanctuaries of philosophy, on its north-eastern side, and now called the Hill of and was spared by the enemy down to the time of St. George, from the church of St. George on its Sulla, who, durir.g the siege of Athens, caused its summit. (See p. 255, a.] This hill was idertified celebrated groves to be cut down, in order to obtain by the ancient geographers with Anchesmus ('Agtimber for the construction of his military machines. (xeouós), which is described by Pausanias (i. 32 $ 2) as a small mountain with a statue of Zens was not used as a harhour before Themistocles ad. Anchesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who ministered the affairs of the Athenians Before that mentions Anchesmus; but since all the other hills time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spat around Athens have names assigned to them, it was where the sea is nearest to the city. . . . . But supposed that the hill of St. George must have been Themistocles, when he held the government, perAnchesmus. But the same argument applies with ceiving that Peiraeens was more conveniently situstill greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently ated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports mentioned by the classical writers; and it is im- instead of the one at Phalerum (aluévas Tpeis dve' possible to believe that so remarkable an object as évès é xeIV TOÙ Paanpo), made it into a receptacle the Hill of St. George conld have remained without of ships." From this passage, compared with the a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem & we believe, the first' writer who pointed out the natural inference that the three ancient ports of identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; / Peiraeeus were those now called Droko, Stratiotiki, and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the and Fanári ; and that Phalerum had nothing to do second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, with the peninsula of Peiraeens, but was situated and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief Athens. But till within the last few years a very mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the posi- different situation has been assigned to the ancient tion and appearance of the Hill of St. George. ( harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation Strabo (x, p. 454) classes Athens and its Lyca- of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes bettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its (Pac. 145), modern writers supposed that the large Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aris- | harbour of Peiraeeus (Dráko) was divided into three tophanes (Ran. 1057), in like manner, speaks of ports called respectively Cantharus (Kavdapos), the Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any port for ships of war, Zea (Zéa) for com-ships, and celebrated mountains :
Aphrodisium ('Aøpodioior) for other merchantήν ούν συ λέγης Λυκαβηττούς
ships; and that it was to those three ports that και Παρνασών ημϊν μεγέθη, τούτ' έστι το tlie words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It χρηστα διδάσκειν.
was further maintained that Stratiotiki was the Its proximity to the city is indicated by several pas
ancient harbour of Munychia, and that Fanári, the sages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes,
more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as
ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threaten
ports was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pamphilet ing to return in anger to Parnes, from which they
published in modern Greek (oi Aiméves kal tà MQhad come. (Phot. Lex. 8. v. Tápvms.) Plato (Cri xpà reixa. TW 'Aonvwv, Athens, 1843), of the tins, p. 112, a) speaks of the Payx and Lycabettus
arguments of which an abstract is given by the as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic
author in the Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenlegend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, & demus
schaft (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a
division of the larger harbour into three parts, and mountain to serve as a bulwark in front of the Acro
maintains that it consisted only of two parts ; the polis, was informed on her return by a crow of the
northern and by far the larger half being called birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount
Emporiuin ('Epitoprov), and appropriated to merLycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (An
chant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right tig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient
hand, after entering the harbour, was named Canwriters, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204,
tharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two seq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anches.
smaller harbours he supposes Stratiotiki to be 7e3, mus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pau
and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he remores sanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives
altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it the name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of
at the eastern corner of the great Phaleric bay, Lycabettus. (See Map, p. 256.]
where the chapel of St. George now stands, and in the neighbourhood of the Tpeis llúpyou, or the Three
Towers. Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly XI. THE PORT-TOWNS.
by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is affairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, the peninsula of Peiraeens, consisting of two rocky near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, were published by Böckh, with a valuable commen the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the tary under the title of Urkunden über das Seewesen higher of the two. This peninsula contains three des attischen Staates, Berlin, 1834. Of the correct. natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western ness of Ulrichs's views there can now be little doubt; side, now called Dráko (or Porto Leone), and two the arguments in support of them are stated in the smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively sequel Stratiotiki (or Paschalimani), and Fanari ; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller
A. Phalerum. of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Pei- The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the raeeus as ywploy douévas xoy tpeis autocveis. ancient writers to have been originally an island,
We know that down to the time of the Persian which was gradually connected with the mainland wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. i. p. 59; Plin. Phalerum ; and that it was upon the advice of iji. 85; Suid. 3. v. čulapos.) The space thus filled Themistocles that they fortified the Peiraeeus, and up was known by the name of Halipedum ('Alime made use of the more spacious and convenient har- dov), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which bours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. $ 2): rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the " The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but winter time till the construction of the broad carriage