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22 feet before the gate of the inclosure, which was 376 feet long, and 252 broad; round the inside of it, at a distance of 23 feet from tlie wall, are vestiges of a colonnade. In tlie northern wall, which still exists, are the remains of one large quadrangular recess or apartment in the centre 34 feet in length, and of two semicircular recesses nearly equal to it in diameter. The church of MegiUi Panaghfa, which islands towards the eastern side of the inclosure, is formed of the remains of an ancient building, consisting on one side of a ruined arch, and on the other of an architrave supported by a pilaster, and three columns of the Doric order, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter, and of a somewhat declining period of art, .... The general plan was evidently that of a quadrangle surrounded with porticoes, having one or more buildings in the centre: thus agreeing perfectly with that work of Hadrian which contained stoae, a colonnade of Phrygian marble, and

a library The building near the centre of

the quadrangle, which was converted into a church of the Panaghfa, may have been the Pantheon. . . . Possibly also the temple of Hera and of Zeus Panhellenius stood in the centre of tlie iuclosurc." (Leake, p. 258, seq.)

E. Fourth Fart of the Route of Pausanias.From the Prytaneium to tJie Stadium. (Paus. i. 18. § 4-19.)

Pausanias went straight from the Prytaneium to the Olympieium, between winch buildings he notices these objects, tlie Temple of Sarapis, the place of meeting of Theseus and Peirithous, and the Temple of Kileithyia. After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias mentions the temples of A]»llo Pythius, and of Apollo Delphinius. The Pythium (UvQtov) was one of the most ancient sanctuaries in Athens. We know from Thucydides (ii. 15) that it was in the same quarter as the Olympieium, and from Strabo (ix. p. 404), that the sacred iuclosures of the two temples were only separated by a wall, upon which was the altar of Zeus Astrapacus. The Delphinium {&t\tpiviov) was apparently near the Pythiuin. It was also a temple of great antiquity, being said to have been founded by Aegeus. In its neighbourhood sat one of the courts for the trial of ca*es of homicide, called To itr\ AtAtpipftp. (Plut. Thee. 12, 18; Pollux, viii. 119; Paus. i. 28. § 10.)

Pausanias next proceeds to The Gardens (oi fcrjjroi). which must have been situated east of the aoovc-mentioned temples, along the right bank of the llissus. In this locality was a temple of Aphrodite: the statue of this goddess, called "Aphrodite in the Gardens," by Alcaniciies, was one of the most celebrated pieces of statuary in all Athens. (Plin, xxxvi. 5. s. 4; Lucian, Imag. 4, 6.) Pliny {I.e.), misled by the name "Gardens," places this statue outside the walls; but we have the express testimony of Pausanias in another passage (i. 27. § 3) that it was in tlie city.

Pausanias then visits tlie Cynosarges and Lyctium, both of which were situated outside the walls, and are described below in the account of the suburbs of the city. From the Lyceium he returns to the city, and mentions the Altar of Boreas, who carried off Oreithyia from the banks of the llissus, and the Altar of the Ilissian Muses, both altars being upon the banks of the llissus. (Comp. Plat. Phaedr. c. 6; Herod, vii. 189.) The altar of Boreas is described by Plato (/. c.) as opposite tlie temple of Artemis Agrutera, which probably stands

upon the site of the church of Stavrome'uos Petra. To tlie east of the altar of Boreas stood the altar of the Ilissian Muses. In 1676 Spon and Wheler observed, about fifty yards above the bridge of the Stadium, the foundations of a circular temple, which had, however, disappeared in the time of Stuart. This was probably the Temple of the Ilissian Muses, for though Pausanias only mentions an altar of the>e goddesses, there may have been also a temple.

Ou the other side of the llissus Pausanias entered the district Agrae or Agra, m which was the Temple of Artemis Agrotera, spoken of above. A part cf this district was sacred to Demeter, since we know that the lesser Eleusiuian mysteries were celebrated in Agrae, and were hence called iv 'Aypais. (Steph. B. s. v. "Kypa; Plut. Demetr. 26.) Stephanus (JL c.) says that Agra was a spot before the city (*pb Tjjs voAfus), but this appears t> be only a conclusion drawn from tlie name, which would seem to indicate that it was in tlie country, and may be classed together with the above-mentioned error of Pliny about the gardens. The Panathenaic Stadium was also in Agrae, after describing which [see p. 292], Pau-aiiias retraces his steps to the Prytaneium. He has omitted to mention tlie hill Ardettus ( Apoirrroi), situated above tlie Stadium, where the Di casts were sworn. (HarpoeraL, Hesych., Suid. s. v.; Pollux, viii. 122.) The high ground of Agrae appears to have been called Helu-un in ancient times. (Clcidemus, ap. Bekkcr, Anted. Graec. i. p. 326.)

F. Fifth Part of Vie Route of Pausanias.From tlie Prytaneium to tlte Projrylaca of the Acropolis. (Paus. i. 20—22. § 3.)

In this part of his route Pausanias went round the eastern and southern sides of the Acropolis. Starting again from the Prytaneium, he went down the Street of the Tripods, which led to the Lei&eum or sacred enclosure of Dionysus. The position of this street is marked by the existing Choragic Monument of Lysicrates [see p. 291], and by a number of small churches, which probably occupy the phu-e of the tripod temples. The Lenueum, which contained two temples of Dionysus, and which was close to the theatre, was situated in the district called Limnae. It was here that the Dionysiac festival, called Lenaea, was celebrated. (Thuc. ii. 15; Diet, of Ant. p. 411, b. 2nd ed.) The Lenaeum must be placed immediately below the theatre to the south. Immediately to the east of the theatre, and consequent ly at the north-eastern angle of the Acropolis, was the Odeium of Pericles. Its site is accurately determined by Vitrovina, who says (v. 9), that it lay on tne left hand to persons coming out of the theatre. This Odeium, which must be distinguished from the earlier building with tljis name near the llissus, was built by Pericles, and its roof is said to have been an imitation of tlie tent of Xerxes. (Plut. Per. 13.) It was burnt during the siege of Athens by Sulla, B. C 85, but was rebuilt by Ariobarzancs II., king of Cappadocia, who succeeded to the throne about B.C. 63. (Appian, B. Mithr. 38; Vitruv. I c; Bbckh, No. 357; Did. of Ant. pp. 822, 823, 2nd ed.) Ail traces of this building have disappeared.

On the western side of the theatre are some remains of a succession of arches, which Leake con jectures may have belonged to a portico, built by Hcrodcs Attkus, for tlie purpose of a covered con;munication between the theatre and the Odeium of Herodes Perhaps they are tl»e remains of the Portions Eumenia, which appears from Vitruvius (/. ft) to have been close to the theatre. For an account of the theatre itself, see p. 284.

In proceeding from the theatre Pansanias first mentions the Tomb of Talos or Cabs, below the steep rocks of the Acropolis, from which Daedalus is said to have hurled him down. Pausanias next conies to the Asclepieium or Temple of Asclepius, which stood immediately above the Odeium of Herodes Atticus. Its site is determined by the statement that it contained a fountain of water, celebrated as the fountain at which Ares slew Halirrhothius, the son of Poseidon. Pansanias makes no mention of the Odeium of Herodes, since this building was not erected when lie wrote his account of Athens. [See p. 286.] Next to the Asclepieium Pausanias, in his ascent to the Acropolis, passed by the Temple of Themis, with the Tomb of Ilippolytus in front of it, the Temple of Aphrodite Pandemtts and Peitho, and the Temple of Ge Curotrophus and Ihmeter ClUoe At the temple of Aphrodite Panden I us, Pausanias was again close to the statues of Hannodius and Ariatogeiton. [See p. 297, a.] The proximity of this temple to the tomb of Hippolytus is alluded to by Euripides {BippoL 29, seq.). The temple of Ge and Demeter was probably situated beneath the temple of Nike Apteros. At the foot of the wall, supporting the platform of the latter temple, there are two doors, coeval with the wall, and conducting into a small grotto, which was probably the shrine of Ge and Demeter. It was situated on the right hand of the traveller, just before he commenced the direct ascent to the Propylaea; and from being placed within a wall, which formed one of the defences of the Acropolis, it is sometimes described as a part of the latter. (Soph, ad Oed. Cot. 1600; Suid. s.v. Kovporpopos Tij.) The position of this temple is illustrated by a passage in the Lysistrata of Aristophanes (829), where, the Athenian women being in possession of tho Acropolis, Lysistrata suddenly perceives a man at the temple of Demeter Chloe approaching the citadel:

AT. 'low, iotfj yvrcuKis ....

fobp1 avUp1 Apu wpoffi&m .... IT. Uov V i<n\v, SVWj fori- AT. vapd To rijs X\6vs.

The Eleusinium, which Pansanias had mentioned (i. 14. § 3) in the description of his second route [see p. 297, b], Leake conjectures to have been the great cavern in the middle of the rocks at the eastern end of the Acropolis. The Eleusinium is said by Clemens of Alexandria (Protrept. p. 13, Sylburg), and Arnobius (adv. Gent. vi. p. 193, Maire) to have been below the Acropolis. The Eleusinium is also mentioned by Thucydides (ii. 15) and Xenophon (Bipparch. 3), but without any positive indication of its site.

G. Sixth Part of Oie Route of Pansanias.The Acropolis, Areiopafjus and Academy. (Pans, i. 22. § 4—30.)

The Acropolis has been already described. In descending from it Pausanias notices the cave of Pan and the Areiopagus [see pp. 286, 281], and the place near the AreiojKigus, where the ship was kept, which was dragged through the city in the great Panathcnaic festival, surmounted by the Peplus of i

Athena as a sail (i. 29. § 1). He then proceeds through Dipylum to the outer Cerameieus and the Academy. The two latter are spoken of under the suburbs of the city.

H. Districts of tlie A sty. It is remarked by Isocrates that the city was divided into hwuai and the country into brjfiot (huA<\u(voi Tjiv uiv wo\tP Kara Ku-uas. ri)v ot x^'Pav MifAOxts, A reap. p. 149, ed. Steph.). In consequence of this remark, and of the frequent opposition between the woAir and the br,fiott it was formerly maintained by many writers that none of the Attic demi were within the city. But since it has been proved beyond doubt that the contrary was the case, it has been supposed tliat the city demi were out-side the walls when the demi were established by Cleisthenes, but were subsequently included within the walls upon the enlargement of the city by Themistocles. But even this hypothesis will not apply to all the demi, since Melite and Cydathenaeum, for example, as well as others, must have been included within the city at the time of Cleisthenes. A little consideration, however, will show the necessity of admitting the division of the city into the demi from the first institution of the latter by Cleisthenes. It is certain that every Athenian citizen was enrolled in some demos, and that the whole territory of Attica was distributed into a certain number of demi. Hence the city must have been formed by Cleisthenes into one or more demi; for otherwise the inhabitants of the city would have belonged to no demos, which we know to have been impossible. At the same time there is nothing surprising in the statement of Isocrates, since the demi within the walls of Athens were few. and had nothing to do with the organization of the city. For administrative purposes the city was divided into icu/uai or wards, the inhabitants being called K»/t$roi. (Comp. Aristoph. Nub. 9CG, Lysistr. 5; Hesych. s. v. Kwfiat.)

The following is a list of the city demi: —

1. Cerameieus (Kcpo/tciKuf: Kth. K(pafitts), divided into the Inner and the Outer Ceramcicu , The Inner Cerameieus has been already described, and the Outer Cerameieus is spoken of below. [See p. 303.] The two districts formed only one demus, which belonged to the tribe Acamantis. Wordsworth maintains (p. 171) that the term Inner Cerameieus was used only by later writers, and that during the Peloponnesian war, and for many years afterward:-, there was only one Cerameieus, namely, that outside the walls. But this opinion is refuted by the testimony of Antiphon, who spoke of the two Cerameiei (ap. Jlarpocrat. s. p.), and of Phanodcmus, who stated that the Lcocorium was in the middle of the Cerameieus (ap. Harpocrat. s. v. AtwitSpiov).

2. Melite (M*Ainj: Kth. MeAirtis), was a demus of the tribe Cecropis, west of the Inner Cerameieus. The exact limits of this demus cannot be ascertained; but it appears to have given its name to the whole hilly district in the west of the Asty, comprising the hills of the Nymphs, of the 1'nyx and of the Museium, and including within it the separate demi of Scambonidae and Collytus. Melite is said to have been named from a w ife of Hercules. It was one of the must populous parts of the city, and contained several temples as well as houses of distinguished men. In Melite were the Ilephaesteium, the Eurysaceium, the Colonus Agorneus [respecting these three, see p. 298]; the temple of Hercules Alexicacus [see p. 296, a]; the Melanippcium, in which Melanippus, the son of Theseus, was buried (Harpocrat ». v. Mf\avtmrtiovy; the temple of Athena Aristobula, built by Themistocles near his own house (Plut Them. 22); the house of Callias (Plat Parinert, p. 126, a.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 504); the house of Phocion, which still existed in Plutarch's time (Plut. Pkoc. 18); and a building, called the "House of the Melitians," in which tragedies were rehearsed. (Hesych. Phot. Lex. s. v. MeAi-fcW ofros.) This is, perhaps, the same theatre as the one in which Aesnhincs played the part of Oenomaus, and which is said to have been situated in Collytus (Harpocrat. s. v. "laxavtyos i Anonym. YiU AeschJ); since the district of Melitc, as we have already observed, subsequently included the demua of Collytus, It is probable that this theatre U the one of which the remains of a great part of the semicircle are still visible, hewn out of the rock, on the western side of the hill .of Pnyx- The Melitian Gate at the SW. comer of the city were so called, as leading to the district Melite. [See p. 263, b.] Pliny (iv. 7. s. 11) speaks of an " oppidum Melite," which is conjectured to have been the fortress of the Macedonians, erected on the hill Museium. [See p. 284, a.]

3. Scambontdae (SKOfLfowi'Sai), a demus belonging to the tribe Leontis. In consequence of a passage of Pausanias (i. 38. § 2) MUiler placed t his demus near Eleusis; but it is now admitted that it was one of the city demi. It was probably included within the district of Melite, and occupied the Hills of the Nymphs and of Pnyx Its connexion with Melite is intimated by the legend, that Melite derived its name from Melite, a daughter of Myrmex, and the wife of Hercules; and that this Myrmex gave his name to a street in ScamIxmidac. (Harpocrat. *. v. VltXirn.; Hcsych., s. v. HvpfitiKOS arpoirdr; comp. Aristoph. Thesm, 100; and Phot Lex.) This street, however, the " Street of AnU," did not derive its name from a hero, but from its being crooked and narrow, as we may suppose the streets to have been in this hilly district. Scambonidae, also, probably derived its name from the same circumstance (from cnan€6?, "crooked/')

4. Collytus (koaautoj, not KoAirrrrfj: Eth. KoAAvTfis), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, and probably, as we have already said, sometimes included under the general name of Melite. It appears from a passage of Strabo (i. p. 65) that Collytus and Melite were adjacent, but that their boundaries were not accurately marked, a passage which both Leake and Wordsworth have erroneously supposed to mean that these places had precise boundaries. (It is evident, however, that Collytus and Melite arc quoted as an example of fify Ivrwv aKpiSwv Spuv.) Wordsworth, moreover, remarks that it was the least respectable quarter in the whole of Athens: but we know, on the contrary, that it was a favourite place of reMdence. Hence Plutarch says {de. Extil. 6, p. 601), "neither do all Athenians inhabit Collytus, nor Corinthians Craneium, nor Spartans Pitane," Craneium and Pitane being two favourite localities in Corinth and Sparta respectively. It is described by Hhnerius (ap. Phot. Cod. 243, p. 375, Bekker), as a artyanros (which does not mean a narrow street, but simply a street, comp. Diod. xii. 10; Hesych. *. r.), situated in the centre of the city, and much valued for its use of the market {ayopds XP*1'? rtfiw^yos), by wluch words we are prohably to understand that it was conveniently situated for the use of the market.

Forchhammer places Collytus between the hills of Pnyx and Museium, in which case the expression of its being in the centre of the city, must not be interpreted strictly. The same writer also supposes <rT*varv6s not to signify a street, but the whole district between the Pnyx and the Museium, including the slopes of those hills. Leake thinks that Collytus bordered upon Diomeia, and accordingly places it between Melite and Diomeia; but the authority to which he refers would point to an opposite conclusion, namely, that Collytus and Diomeia were situated on opposite sides of the city. We are told that Collytus was the lather of Diomus, the favourite of Hercules; and that some of the Melitenses, under the guidance of Diomus, migrated from Melite, and settled in the spot called Diomeia, from their leader, where they celebrated the Metageitnia, in memory of their origin. (Plut. de ExsiL L c; Steph. B. *. v. Ai(ju*io; Hesych. s. v. Ato^tcicu.) This legend confirms the preceding account of Collytus being situated in Melite. We have already seen that there was a theatre in Collytus, in which Aeschines played the part of Oenomaus; and we are also told that he lived in this district 45 years. (Aesch. Ep. 5.) Collytus was also the residence of Timon, the misanthrope (Lucian, Timon, 7, 44), and was celebrated as the demus of Plato.

5. Cydathenaeum (KvhaB^vaicv: Eth. KuSathjrams), a demus belonging to the tribe Pandionis. (Harp. Suid. Steph. Phot.) The name is apparently compounded of Kvsos " glory," and 'Afhjecubj, and is hence explained by Ilesychius («. r.) as fr&o£Q$ 'Adnvaios. It is, therefore, very probable, as Leake has suggested, that this demus occupied the Theseian city, that is to say, the Acropolis, and the parts adjacent to it on the south and south-east. (Leake, p. 443; MUiler, Dor. vol. ii. p. 72, transl.)

6. Diomeia (Aioueta: Eth. Aiopcis), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, consisting, like Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner Diomeia. The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of city, and gave its name to one of the city-gates m this quarter. In the Outer Diomeia was situated the Cynosarges. (Steph., Suid. s. v. AtoV"a; Hesych. v. Aiofttis; Steph., Hesych. *. v. Kui-oo-apyts; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 664; Pint, de ExsU. I. c.) The Outer Diomeia could not have extended far beyond the walls, since the demus Alopece was close to Cynosarges, and only eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the city. (Herod, v. 63; Aesch. c. Tim, p. 119, Reiske.)

7. Coele (koi'atj), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. It lay partly within and partly without the city, in the valley between the Mrseium and the hills on the southern side of Ilissus. In this district, just outside the Melitian gate, were the sepulchres of Thucydides and Cimon. [For authorities, see p. 263.]

8. Ceiriadae (Keip.ctSeu), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. (Harpocrat, Suid., Steph. B., Hesych. *. r.) The position of this demus is uncertain; but Sanppc brings forward many arguments to prove that it was within the city walls. In this district, and perhaps near the Metroum, was the BdpaBpov, into which criminals were cast. (For authorities, see Sauppe, pp 17, 18.)

9. Agrae ('A^pai), was situated south of the Ilissus, and in the SE. of the city. Respecting its site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been a separate demus, and was perhaps included in the demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it.

10. Ltmnac (Afpycu), was a district to the south of the Acropolis, in which the temple of Dionysus Was situated. (Thuc. U. 15.) It was not a dermis, as stated by the Scholiast on Callimachus (H. in Del. 172), who has mistaken the Limnae of Messcnia for the Limnae of Athens.

Colonus, which we have spoken of as a hill in the city, is maintained by Sauppe to have been a separate dermis; but see above, p. 298, b.

The Eaboean cities of Eretria and Histiaea were said by some to have been named from Attic demi (Strab. x. p. 445); and from another passage of Strabo (x. p. 447) it lias been inferred that the socalled New Agora occupied the site of Eretria. [See p. 298, b.] It is doubtful whether Eretria was situated in the city; and at all events it is not mentioned elsewhere, either by writers or inscriptions, as a demus.

Respecting the city demi the best account is given by Sauppe, De Demis Urbanis Athenarunij Weimar, 1846.

^ Suburbs Of The City.

1. The Outer Cerameicus and the Academy.— The road to the Academy ('Ajraoruifa), which was distant six or eight stadia from the gate named Dipylnm, ran through the Outer Cerameicns. (lit. xxxi. 24; Thuc vi. 57; Plat. Partn. 2; Plut Sull. 14; Cic. de Fin. v. 1; LucUn, ScytH. 2.) It is called by Thucydides the most beautiful suburb of the city (M rov Kok\1<ttov irpoatrrtlov T?jy »<J\<us, Thuc. ii. 34). On each side of the road were the monuments of illustrious Athenian^ especially of those who had fallen in battle; fir the Outer Cerameicns was the place of burial for all persons who were honoured with a public funeral. Hence we read in Aristophanes (Aves, 395):—

6 Kcpauetfcos o>'|eTai vco.

8nX00^? yty fra ra<f>o}fjttv.

Over each tomb was placed a pillar, inscribed with the names of the dead and of their demi. (Paus. i. 129. § 4; comp. Cic. de Leg. ii. 26.) In this locality was found an interesting inscription, now in the British Museum, containing the names of these who had fallen at Potidaea, B. C. 432.

The Academy is said to have belonged originally to the hero Academus, and was afterwards converted into a gymnasium. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, and was adorned by Cimon with walks, groves, and fountains. (Diog. Laert, iii. 7; Suid. s. v. 'Imdpxov T«x»»'; Plut. Cim. 13.) The beauty of the plane trees and olive plantations was particularly celebrated. (Plin. xii. 1. s. 5.) Before the entrance were a statue and an altar of Love, and within the inelosure were a temple of Athena, and altars of the Muses, Prometheus, Hercules, &c. (Pans. L 30. § 1.) It was from the altar of Prometheus that the race of the Lampadephoria commenced. The Academy was the place where Plato taught, who possessed a small estate in the neighbourhood, which was his usual place of residence. (Diog. Laert. I. c; Aelian, V. //. ix. 10.) His successors continued to teach in the same spot, and were hence called the Academic philosophers. It continue*! to be one of the sanctuaries of philosophy, and was spared by the enemy down to the time of Sulla, who, during the siege of Athens, caused its celebrated groves to be cut down, in order to obtain timber for the obstruction of his military machines.

(Plut. Sull. 12; Appian, Mtihr. 30.) The Academy, however, was replanted, and continued to enjoy its ancient celebrity in the time of the emperor Julian. Near the temple of Athena in the Academy were the Moriac, or sacred olives, which were derived from the sacred olive in the Erechtheium. The latter, as we have already seen, was the first olive tree planted in Attica, and one of the Moriae was .shown to Pausanias as the second. They were under the guardianship of Zeus Mori us. (Comp. Suid. *. v. Mopt'a*; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 730.) A little way beyond the Academy was tho hill of Colonus, immortalised by the tragedy of Sophocles; and between the two places were the tomb of Plato and the tower of Timon. (Pans. i. 30. §§ 3, 4.) The name of Akadhimia is still attached to this spot. "It is on the lowest level, where some water-courses from the ridges of Lycabettus are consumed in gardens and olive plantations. These waters still cause the spot to be one of the most advantageous situations near Athens for the growth of fruit and potherbs, and maintain a certain degree of verdure when all the surrounding plain is parched with the heat of summer." (Leake, p. 195.)

2. Cynosarges (Kuvdaapyes). was a sanctuary of Hercules and a gymnasium, situated to the east of the city, not far from the gate Diomeia. It is said to have derived its name from a white dog, which carried off part of the victim, when sacrifices were first offered by Diomus to Hercule . (Pans. i. 19. § 3; Herod, v. 63, vi. 116; Plut. Them. 1; Harpocrat. s. v. 'HpfU\fia; Hesych. Suid. Steph. IS. s. v, Kvv6tTopryes.') Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school, taught in the Cynosarges. (Diog. Laert vi. 13.) It was surrounded by a grove, which was destroyed by Philip, together with the trees of the neighbouring Lyceium, when he encamped at this spot in his invasion of Attica in B. C. 200. (lit, xxxi. 24.) Since Cynosarges was near a rising ground (Isocr. Vit. X. Oral. p. 838), Leake places it at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mount Lycabettus, near the point where the arch of the aqueduct of Hadrian and Antoninus formerly stood. The name of this gymnasium, like that of the Academy, was also given to the surrounding buildings, which thus formed a suburb of the city. (Forchhammer, p. 368.)

3. Lyceium (Aincttov), a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceius, and surrounded with lofty plane tr?es, was also situated to the east of the city, and a little to the south of the Cynosarges. It was the chief of the Athenian gyrrnasia, and was adorned by Peisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus. (Paus. i. 19. § 3; Xen. Hipp. 3. § 6; Hesych. Harpocrat. Suid. s, v. AvKftovS) The Lyceium was the place in which Aristotle and his disciples taught, who were called Peripatetics, from their practice of walking in this gymnasium while delivering their lectures. (Diog. Laert. v, 5; Cic. Acad. Quaest. i. 4.) In the neighbourhood of the Lyceium was a fountain of the hero Pan ops, near which was a small gate of the city, which must have stood between the gates Diocbaris and Diomeia. (Plat. Lys. 1; Hesych. s. v ndponj/.)

4. Lycabettus (avkost;tt(sj), was the name of the lofty insulated mountain overhanging the city on its north-eastern side, and now called the Hill of SL George, from the church of St. George on its summit. [See p. 255, a.] This hill was identified by the ancient geographers with Anchesmus ('AyX«ff/*o*s)i which is described by Pausanias (i. 32 § 2) as a -in.til mountain with a statue of Zeus Anchesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who mentions Anchesmus; hut since all the other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St. George must have been Anchesmus. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently mentioned by the classical writers; and it is impossible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, the first "writer who pointed oat the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the position and appearance of the Hill of St. George. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lycabettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygctus. Aristophanes (Ran. 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains:

$r oZv <rit Xrypr AvKaSijrrotts

Hal Tlapvwrwv rjfuv ncytfhj, rovr" tarX To

Its proximity to the city is indicated by several passages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threatening to return in anger to Parncs, from which they 'had come. (Phot Lex. s. v. nrfprifr.) Plato (CWHas, p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyx and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in fror.t of the Acropolis, was informed on her return by a crow of the birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (Antig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, seq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anchesmus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pausanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives the name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.]

XL Tiik Pout-towns.

Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is the peninsula of Peiraeeus, consisting of two rocky heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western aide, now called Drako (or Porto T^one). and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively StratiotiH (or Paschalimani), and Fandri; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Peiraeeus as x60Plov AijufVoy fxov TP**S avro<pvfts.

We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum; and that it was upon the advice of Themistocles that they fortified the Peiraeeus, and made use of the more spacious and convenient harbours in this peninsula Pausanias says (L 1. § 2): "The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but

was not used as a harbour before Themistocles administered the affairs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the s]*«t

where the sea is nearest to the city But

Themistocles, when he held the government, perceiving that Peiraeeus was more conveniently situ* ated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports instead of the one at Phalerum {KifUvas rptis aVf ivbs fx*IK T°v ♦aAifpoI), made it into a receptacle of ships." From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem * natural inference that the three ancient ports of Peiraeeus were those now called Drdho, Stratiotikit and Fandri; and that Phalerum had nothing to do with the peninsula of Peiraeeus, but was situated more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very different situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes (Pac. 145), modern writers supposed that the large harbour of Peiraeeus (Drdko) was divided into three ports called respectively Cant hams (KdVflopoj), the port for ships of war, Zea (Zia) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium KQpo&'uriov) for other merchantships; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that StratiotiH was the ancient liarbonr of Munychia, and that Fandri, the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports was first pointed out by UlricJis in a pamphlet published in modem Greek (of Ai/tcVef *al To fiafcpa Ttfxi. rAv 'A04rwr, Athens, 1843), of the arguments >f which an abstract is given by the author in the Zeitschri/t fur die Alterthumswisscnschaft (for 1844, p. 17. seq.). Ulrichs rejects die division of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts; the northern and by far the larger half being called Emporium ('E^a-dpio*), and appropriated to merchant vessels, while the southern hay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Cantharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two smaller harbours he supposes Stratiotiki to be Zes, and Phandrt Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern comer of the great Phaleric bay, where the chapel of St George now stands, and in the neighbourhood of the Tpctt Tlvpyoi, or the Thrtt Towers* Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime affairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable commentary under the title of Urhmden ubrr das Sees*** des aUischen Stnates, Berlin, 1834. Of the correctness of Ulrichs's views there can now be little doubt; the arguments in support of them are stated in the sequel

A. Phalerum. The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by tlrt ancient writers to have been originally an island, which was gradually connected with the mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. i. p. 59; Pl'«* iii. 85; Suid. s. v. frCopoi.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Halipedum ('AAi'y*oW), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time tall the construction of the broad carriagt

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