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road (duašitos), which was carried across it. (Har. | Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Sparpocrat., Suid. s. v. årínedov; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 30.) tans, who had landed at Phalerum, by the ThessaUnder these circumstances the only spot which the lian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the with the open country which extends inland near south-eastern corner of the Phaleric bay, now called, the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable as already remarked, Tpeis Núpyos, which is a round to the Bay of Phanári, which is completely prohill projecting into the sea. This was accordingly tected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged the site of Phalerum (párnpov, also paanpós: Eth. | mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, paanpeis), a demus belonging to the tribe Aeantis. Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, Athens two advantages, which were not possessed apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have by the harbours of the Peiraic peninsula: first, it already seen, was five stadia shorter than the two was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, Long Walls. [See p, 259, b.) which was built for the most part immediately south That there was a town near St. George is evident of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and was accessible at every season of the year by a per- other ruins which Ulrichs found at this place; and fectly dry road.

we learn from another authority that there may still The true position of Phalerum is indicated by be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, many circumstances. It is never included by ancient upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the writers within the walls of Peiraeeus and Munychia. war of independence in Greece. (Westermann, in Strabo, after describing Peiraeeus and Munychia, Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 1843, speaks of Phalerum as the next place in order along p. 1009.) the shore (μετά τον Πειραιά Φαληρείς δήμος εν τη Cape Colias (Κωλίας), where the Persian ships

épetñs mapalía, ix. p. 398). There is no spot at were cast ashore after the battle of Salamis (Herod. which Phalerum could have been situated before viii. 96), and which Pausanias states to have been reaching Tpeis Tiúpyou, since the intervening shore 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. $ 5), used to be of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (td bannpikov, Plut. identified with Tpeis lúpyou, but must now be placed Vit. X. Orat. p. 844, Them. 12; Strab. ix. p. 400; SE. at the present Cape of St. Kosmas : near the Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 1693). The account which I latter are some ancient remains, which are probably

those of the temple of Aphrudite Colias mentioned I have been alrcady described. [See p. 259, seq.] It by Pausanias.

is usually stated that the architect employed by TheThe port of Phalerum was little used after the mistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in foundation of Peiraeeus; but the place continued to the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippoexist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer damus of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought mentions among its monuments temples of Demeter forward good reasons for believing that, though the Zeus, and Athena Sciras, called by Plutarch (Thes. fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themis17) a temple of Scirus; and altars of the Unknown tocles, it was forined into a regularly planned town Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this sepulchre of Aristeides (Plut. Arist. 1) was at Pha- purpose. Hippodamus laid out the town with broad lerum, The Phaleric bay was celebrated for its straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p. 397.)

which thus formed a striking contrast with the Dar.

row and crooked streets of Athens. (Hermann, B. Peiraeeus and Munychia.

Disputatio de Hippodamo Milesio, Marburg, 1841.)

The entrances to the three harbours of Peiraeeus 1. Division of Peiraecus and Munychia.—Pei. were rendered very narrow by means of moles, raeeus (lletpaieús: Eth. leipaleis) was a demus which left only a passage in the middle for belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained two or three triremes to pass abreast. These both the rocky heights of the peninsula, and was moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeus, separated from the plain of Athens by the low ground which ran down to either side of the months of called Halipedon, mentioned above. Munychia | the harbours; and the three entrances to the har. (Mouvuxía) was included in Peiraeeus, and did not bours (kleidpa Tŵr Aluévwv) thus formed, as form a separate demus. Of the site of Munychia it were, three large sea-gates in the walls. Either there can no longer be any doubt since the inves- end of each mole was protected by a tower; and tigations of Curtius (De Portubus Athenarum, across the entrance chains were extended in time Halis, 1842); Ulrichs also had independently assigned of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was ancients closed ports (KAEIGTON Atéves), and the the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill walls were called xnaai, or claws, from their stretchimmediately above the most easterly of the two ing out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is smaller barbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours This hill is now called Kaotéria. It is the highest of the Peiraeeus were closed ports (Hesych. s. r. point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet above Zéa; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 145; comp. Thuc. the sea; and at its foot is the smallest of the three | ii. 94; Plut. Demetr. 7; Xen. Hell. ii. 2. $ 4); and harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak in each of them we find remains of the chelae, or presently. Leake had erroneously given the name moles. Hence these three harbours cannot mean, of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half as Leake supposed, three divisions of the larger of the peninsula, that is, the part furthest from harbour since there are traces of only one set of Athens, and had supposed the greater height above chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum.

how it could have been divided into three closed ports. 2. Fortifications and Harbours. - The whole (i.) Phanári, the smallest of the three harbours, peninsula of Peiraeeus, including of course Muny- was anciently called MUNYCHIA, from the fortress chia, was surrounded by Themistocles with a strong rising above it. It was only used by ships of war; line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia and we learn, from the inscriptions already referred in circumference (Thuc. ü. 13), was intended to be to, that it contained 82 veccoLKO!, or ship-houses. impregnable, and was far stronger than that of the This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum; Asty. It was carried up only half the height which but it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thuc. i. being shut in by steep heights, and having no di93); and if Appian (Mithr. 30) is correct in stating rect communication with the Asty. Moreover, we that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 feet, can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so a height which was always found sufficient, we per blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and ceive how vast was the project of Themistocles. to have neglected the more commodious harbours of " In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were Stratiotiki and Dráko, in its immediate vicinity. exactly followed: two carts mecting one another The modern name of Phanári is probably owing to brought stones, which were laid together right and a lighthouse having stood at its entrance in the left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two Byzantine period. primary parallel walls. between which the interior (ii.) Stratiotiki (called Paschaliminiby Ulrichs). space (of course at least as broad as the joint breadth the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient ZEA of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in (Zéa), erroneously called by the earlier topographers the usual manner of the Greeks, but constructed, Munychia. (Timeaus, Lex., Plat.; Phot. Lez. 8. . through the whole thickness, of squared stones, Zéa.) It was the largest of the three harbours for cramped together with metal. The result was a ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, solid wall probably not less than 14 or 15 feet whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantharas only thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to have a height.” (Grote, vol. v. p. 335; comp. Thuc. i. been still in existence in the time of Pausanias; for 93.) The existing remains of the wall described by though he does not mention Zea, the veco OIKOA which Leake confirm this account. The wall surrounded he speaks of (i. 1. & 3) were apparently at this port. not only the whole peninsula, but also the small | This harbour probably derived its name froin Artemis, rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran who was worshipped among the Athenians under the between the great harbour and the salt marsh called surname of Zea, and not, as Meursius supposed, froin Halae. These fortifications were connected with the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Empion those of the Asty by means of the Long Walls, which rium in the great harbour.

• (ii.) Dráko or Porto Leone, the largest of the tharus were marked by a boundary stone discovered three harbours, was cominonly called by the ancients in situ in 1843, and bearing the inscription:simply PEIRAEEUS (Ilespace Ús), or THE HARBOUR (d níuny). It derives its modern name from a

ΕΜΠΟΡΙΟ colossal lion of white marble, which Spon and

KAIHOAO Wheler observed upon the beach, when they visited

HOPOZ, Athens ; and which was carried to Venice, after i. e., 'Europlou kal ddow opos. The forms of the the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus asper, Dráko is the name used by the modern Greeks, prove that the inscription belongs to the period since Opáxwv, which originally meant only a serpent, before the Peloponnesian war. The stone may have now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence | been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus applied to the marble lion.

by Themistocles, or when the town was laid out It has been already stated that Leake and other regularly by Hippodamus in the time of Pericles. writers. misled by a passage of the Scholiast on It probably stood in a street leading from the EmAristophanes (Pac. 145), divided the harbour of porium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus. Peiraeeus into three separate ports, named Can- ' 3. Topography of Munychia and Peiraeeus. tharus, Aphrodisium, and Zea, but the words of the The site of Munychia, which was the Acropolis of Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:--lleipaleús Peiraeeus, has been already explained. Remains of Aquevas xet tpeis, adytas KAELOTOÚS: Els mèvó its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the Kavápov níuny veápia, elta TOAppo. hill, now called Castella, above the harbour of Phadionov elta kúkW TOû depévos oroal TÉVTE. It is nári. From its position it commanded the whole of evident that the Scholiast does not intend to give the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours (ÚTOthe names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus; but, TÍTOvoi ' aŭtoo Aquéves tpeis, Strab. ix. p. 395); after mentioning Cantharus, he proceeds to speak of and whoever obtained possession of this hill became the buildings in its immediate vicinity, of which the master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is Aphrodisium, a temple of Aphrodite, was one; and said to have foreseen the importance of this position. then followed the five Stoae or Colonnades. Leake (Plut. Sol. 12; Diog. Laërt. i. 114.) Soon after supposed Zea to be the name of the bay situated on the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizure of the right hand after entering the harbour, Aphro- Munychia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled disium to be the name of the middle or great harbour, them to carry on operations with success against and Cantharus to be the name of the inner harbour, the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4.) The now filled up by alluvial deposits of the Cephissus. successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot garrison in Munychia for a long period, and by this never formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since means secured the obedience of Athens. The first between this marsh and the harbour traces of the Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by ancient wall have been discovered ; and it is very Antipater after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, probable that this marsh is the one called Halae B. C. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4; Plut. Dem. 28.) ('Alai) by Xenophon. (Hell. ii. 4. § 34.)

When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.c. 318, The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been Munychia was also garrisoned by the latter; and it was divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller by the support of these troops that Demetrius Phaleone, occupying the bay to the right hand of the reus governed Athens for the next ten years. In B.C. entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It 307 the Macedonians were expelled from Munychia was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of by Demetrius Poliorcetes ; but the latter, on his war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon return from Asia in B. c. 299, again placed a garthe shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury rison in Munychia, and in the Museiumn also. These (ST100nxn) of Philo stood, containing arms for garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the 1000 ships. (Strab. ix. p. 395; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius Cic. de Orat. i. 14; Vitruv. vii. Praef.; Appian, was deprived of the Macedonian kingdom in B.c. 287. Mithr. 41.)

(Paus. i. 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq. ; Diod. xviii. The remainder of the harbour, being about two- 48, 74, xx. 45; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc. thirds of the whole, was called Emporium, and 31, seq.) During the greater part of the reign of was appropriated to merchant vessels. (Timaeus, | Antigonus and of his son Demetrius II., the MaceLex. Plat.; Harpocrat. 8. v. Aliqua.) The sur-donians had possession of Munychia ; but soon after rounding shore, which was also called Emporium, | the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the decontained the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned parture of the Macedonian garrison by the payabove, all of which were probably appropriated to ment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Arat. 34; mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (l. c.) speaks of the hill Macra Stoa (uakpå otoà), or the Long Colon of Munychia as full of hollows and excavations, and nade (Paus. i. 1. $3); a second was the Deigma well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of (Ariyua), or place where merchants exhibited Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and samples of their goods for sale (Harpocrat. 8. v. the hollows to which he alludes were probably the Aeiyua; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 974; Dem. remains of cisterns. The sides of the hill sloping c. Lacrit. p. 932); a third was the Alphitopolis down to the great harbour appear to have been ('ANPITOT@Ais), or Corn-Exchange, said to have covered with houses rising one above another in the been built by Pericles (Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Rhodes, 547): of the other two Stoae the names have not which was laid out by the same architect, and was been preserved. Between the Stoae of the Em- also celebrated for its beauty, porium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodisium, or Within the fortress of Munychia was a temple of temple of Apbrodite, built by Conon after his victory Artemis Munychia, who was the guardian deity of at Cnidus. (Paus. I. c.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of I. c.) The limits of the Emporium towards Can. | asylum for state criminals. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11: Paus. i. 1. $ 4; Dem, de Coron. p. 222, Reiske ; | village, situated around the ports and the temple Lys, C. Agorat. pp. 460, 462, Reiske.) Near the of Zeus Soter.” (Strab. ix. p. 395.) preceding, and probably also within the fortress, was The most important work on the Topography of the Bendideium (Bedidelov), or temple of the Athens is Col. Leake's Topography of Athens, Thracian Artemis Bendis, whose festival, the Ben- | London, 1841, 2nd edition. In common with all dideia, was celebrated on the day before the lesser other writers on the subject, the writer of the Panathenaea. (Xen. Hell. . 4. $ 11; Plat. | present article is under the greatest obligations to de Rep. i. pp. 327, 354.) On the western slope Col. Leake, although he has had occasion to differ of the hill was the Dionysiac theatre, facing the from him on some points. The other modern great harbour : it must have been of considerable works from which most assistance have been desize, as the assemblies of the Athenian people were rived are Forchhammer, Topographie von Athen, sometimes held in it. (Thuc. vüx. 93 ; Xen. Heu. in Kieler Philologische Studien, Kiel, 1841; Kruse, ii. 4. $ 32 ; Lys. C. Agorat. pp. 464, 479; comp. | Hellas, vol. ii. pt. i., Leipzig, 1826; K. O. Müller, Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 379.) It was in this theatre art. Attika in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopädie, that Socrates saw a performance of one of the plays vol. vi., translated by Lockhart, London, 1842 ; of Euripides. (Aelian, V. 7. ii. 13.) Some modern Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; writers distinguish between the theatre at Munychia Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, London, and another in Peiraeeus ; but the ancient writers 1762–1816, 4 vols., fo. (2nd ed. 1825-1827); mention only one theatre in the peninsula, called Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. London, 1819; indifferently the Peiraic or the Munychian theatre, Prokesch, Denkwürdigkeiten, gc., vol. ii., Stuttgart, the latter name being given to it from its situation 1836; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. ii. upon the hill of Manychia. The ruins near the Edinburgh, 1842. harbour of Zea, which were formerly regarded as those of the Peiraic theatre, belonged probably to another building.

The proper agora of Peiraeeus was called the Hippodameian Agora ("Introdáueros a yopá), to distinguish it from the Macra Stoa, which was also used as an agora. The Hippodameian Agora was situated near the spot where the two Long Walls joined the wall of Peiraeeus; and a broad street led from it up to the citadel of Munychia. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. 11; Andoc. de Myst. p. 23, Reiske; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1190.)

At the entrance to the great harbour there was on the right hand the promontory Alcimus ("AX

ITEV: Kiuos), on the left hand the promontory Eetionia ('Hetiwvia, or 'HETIÁVELA). On Alcimus stood the tomb of Themistocles, whose bones are said to have been brought from Magnesia in Asia Minor, and buried at this place. (Plut. Them. 32; Paus, i, I. $ 2). Eetionia was a tongue of land commanding the entrance to the harbour ; and it was here that the Four Hundred in B. C. 411 erected a fort, in order to prevent more effectually the entrance of the

COINS OF ATHENS. Athenian fleet, which was opposed to them. (Thuc.

ATHENAEON ('Aonvalóv: Sudak or Sugdaja!) viii. 90 ; Dem. c. Theocr. p. 1343 ; Harpocrat., 1

ocrat., | also called "a harbour of the Scythotauri," was a Suid., Steph. B. 8. v. 'HETIÁvela.) The small bay

port on the south coast of the Tauric Chersonesus. on the outer side of the promontory was probavy (Anon. Peripl. 0. 6.) the kapos Ríuny mentioned by Xenophon. (Hell.

ATHENAEUM ('A Onvaiov). 1. A fortress in ji, 4. $ 31.)

the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of MegaThe buildings around the shore of the great

| lopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in harbour have been already mentioned. Probably

| advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier (eufori) Tils behind the Macra Stoa was the temenus of Zeus and Armwrene) and near Beleming. It was fortihed Athena, which Pausanias (i. I, § 3) mentions as

| by Cleomenes in B.c. 224, and was frequently taken one of the most remarkable objects in Peiraeeus, land retaken in the wars between the Achaean and which is described by other writers as the

League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it temple of Zeus Soter. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Liv, xxxi.

occupied the summit of Mount Tzimbarú, on which 30, Plin. xxxiv, 8, s. 19. § 14.) Phreattys, which

there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. In was one of the courts of justice for the trial of ho- thor

that case it must have been a different place from micides, was situated in Peiraeeus ; and as this

| the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanias on the road court is described indifferently èv Zég or ev peatro, from

05, from Megalopolis to Asen, and 20 stadia from the it must be placed either in or near the harbour of

latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46, 54, iv. 37, 60, Zea. The accused pleaded their cause on board ship,

"P, 81; Paus. viii. 44. $$ 2, 3; Leake, Peloponnesiacit, while the judges sat upon the shore. (Paus. i. 28.

p. 248.) $11; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 645; Pollux, viii. 120;

2. A fortress in Athamania in Epeirus, described Becker, Anecd. Graec. i. p. 311.)

| by Livy as “ finibus Macedoniae subjectum," and Peiraeens never recovered from the blow inflicted

| apparently near Gomphi. Leake places it on a upon it by its capture by Sulla, who destroyed its height: a little above the deserted village of A páno fortifications and arsenals. So rapid was its decline | Porta, or Porta Panaghia. (Liv. xxviii. 1, xxxix. 25; that in the time of Strabo it had become "a small | Leake. Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 212, 525.)

[graphic]
[graphic]

ATHENOʻPOLIS, a city on the coast of Gallia 1 According to Pliny (iv. 10. 8. 17. $ 37, Sillig), Narbonensis, dependent on Massilia. (Mela, ii. 5; / the length of the peninsula is 75 (Roman) miles, Plin. iii. 4.) Stephanus (s. v. 'Aonvaı) mentions an and the circumference 150 (Roman) miles. Its real Athenae of the Ligystii, which may be this place. length is 40 English miles, and its average breadth There are no measures for determining the position about four miles. The general aspect of the peninsula of Athenopolis. D'Anville observes, that Pliny and is described in the following terins by a modern traMela seem to place this Massaliot settlement south veller:-" The peninsula is rugged, being intersected of Forum Julii (Fréjus); and yet in his map hel by innumerable ravines. The ground rises almost imfixes it north of Fréjus, at a place called Agay. mediately and rather abruptly from the isthmus at Walckenaer, at a guess, places it at St. Tropez, the northern end to about 300 feet, and for the first which is on a bay nearly due south of Fréjus. The twelve miles maintains a table-land elevation of about Athenaeopolitae of Varro (L. L. viii. 35) are as- | 600 feet, for the most part beautifully wooded. At sumed to be the inhabitants of this place. [G. L.] this spot the peninsula is narrowed into rather less

A'THESIS ('Atno uvos, Strab.; 'Ariáv, Plut.), than two miles in breadth. It immediately afterwards one of the principal rivers of Northern Italy, now expands to its average breadth of about four miles, called the Adige. It rises in the Rhaetian Alps, in which it retains to its southern extremity. From a small lake near the modern village of Reschen, this point, also, the land becomes mountainous rather and after a course of about 50 miles in a SE. direc than hilly, two of the heights reaching respectively tion, receives the waters of the Aragis or Eisach, a 1700 and 1200 feet above the sea. Four miles stream almost as considerable as its own, which de- / farther south, on the eastern slope of the mountain scends froin the pass of the Brenner. Their united ridge, and at a nearly equal distance from the east waters flow nearly due S. through a broad and and west shores, is situated the town of Karyés, deep valley, passing under the walls of Tridentum picturesquely placed amidst vineyards and gardens. (Trento), until they at length emerge into the plains ..... Immediately to the southward of Karyés of Italy, close to Verona, which stands on a kind of the ground rises to 2200 feet, whence a rugged peninsula almost encircled by the Athesis. (Verona broken country, covered with a forest of dark-leared Atbesi circumflua, Sil. Ital. viii. 597.) From hence foliage, extends to the foot of the mountain, which rears it pursues its course, first towards the SE., and itself in solitary magnificence, an insulated cone of afterwards due E. through the plains of Venetia to white limestone, rising abruptly to the height of the Adriatic, which it enters only a few miles from 6350 feet above the sea. Close to the cliffs at the the northernmost mouth of the Padus, but without | southern extremity, we learn from Captain Copehaving ever joined that river. From its source to land's late survey, no bottom was found with 60 the sea it has a course of not less than 200 miles; fathoms of line." (Lieut. Webber Sunith, in Journal and in the volume of its waters it is inferior only to of Royal Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 65.) The lower the Padus among the rivers of Italy. (Strab. iv. bed of the mountain is composed of gneiss and argilp. 207, where there is little doubt that the names laceous slate, and the upper part of grey limestone, 'Arnoiós and 'loápas have been transposed; Plin. / more or less inclined to white. (Sibthorp, in Wal iii. 16. 8. 20; Virg. Aen. ix. 680; Claudian, de VI. pole's Travels, fc. p. 40.) Cons. Hon. 196.) Servius (ad Aen. l. c.) and Vi Athos is first mentioned by Homer, who represents bius Sequester (p. 3) erroneously describe the Athesis Hera as resting on its summit on her flight from as falling into the Padus; a very natural mistake, Olympus to Lemnos. (. xiv. 229.) The name, as the two rivers run parallel to each other at a very however, is chiefly memorable in history on account short interval, and even communicate by various of the canal which Xerxes cut through the isthmus, side branches and artificial channels, but their main connecting the peninsula with Chalcidice. (Herodi, streams continue perfectly distinct.

vii. 23, seq.) This canal was cut by Xerxes for the It was in the plains on the banks of the Athesis, passage of his fleet, in order to escape the gales and probably not very far from Verona, that Q. Catulus high seas, which sweep around the promontory, and was defeated by the Cimbri in B. c. 101. (Liv. Epit. | which had wrecked the fleet of Mardonius in B. C. Lxviii.; Flor. iii. 3; Plut. Mar. 23.) [E.H.B.] 492. The cutting of this canal has been rejected

ATHMONIA, ATHMONUM. [ΑTTICA.] as a falsehood by many writers, both ancient and

ATHOS ("Aows, "Adwv, Ep. 'Allows, gen. 'Alów: modern; and Juvenal (x. 174) speaks of it as a Eth. 'AOwinns), the lofty mountain at the extremity specimen of Greek mendacity: of the long peninsula, running out into the sea from

“creditur olim Chalcidice in Macedonia, between the Singitic gulf Velificatus Athos, et quidquid Graecia mendax and the Aegaean. This peninsula was properly Audet in historia." called Acte ('AKTń, Thuc. iv. 109), but the name of Athos was also given to it, as well as to the Its existence, however, is not only attested by mountain. (Herod. vii. 22.) The peninsula, as Herodotus (l. c.), Thucydides (1. c.), and other well as the mountain, is now called the Holy ancient writers, but distinct traces of it have been Mountain (“Aglov "Opus, Monte Santo), from the discovered by modern travellers. The modern name great number of monasteries and chapels with which of the isthmus is Próvlaka, evidently the Romaic it is covered. There are 20 of these monasteries, form of lipoatras, the canal in front of the peninmost of which were founded during the Byzantine sula of Athos. The best description of the present empire, and some of them trace their origin to the condition of the canal is given by Lieut. Wolfe :time of Constantine the Great. Each of the different “ The canal of Xerxes is still most distinctly to be nations belonging to the Greek Church, has one or traced all the way across the isthmus from the Gulf more monasteries of its own; and the spot is visited of Monte Santo (the ancient Singitic Gulf) to the periodically by pilgrims from Russia, Servia, Bul. Bay of Erso in the Gulf of Contessa, with the garia, as well as from Greece and Asia Minor. No exception of about 200 yards in the middle, where female, even of the animal kind, is permitted to enter the ground bears no appearance of having ever been the peninsula.

| touched. But as there is no doubt of the whola

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