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road (o^o^iT<Si), which was carried across it. (Harpocrat., Suid. s. v. aXlrttov; Xen. Hell. u. 4. § 30.) Under these circumstances the only spot which the ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the south-eastern corner of the Phalcric bay, now called, as already remarked. Tpt?s Tlupyot, which is a round hill projecting into the sea. This was accordingly the site of Phalerum (QdAijpov, also ♦aAijpo's: Kth. <J>aATj,>f ?<,), a dermis belonging to the tribe Aeantis. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of Athens two advantages, which were not possessed by the harbours of the Pciraic peninsula: first, it was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, -which was built for the most part immediately sooth of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it was accessible at every Beason of the year by a perfectly dry road.

The true position of Phalerum is indicated by many circumstances. It is never included by ancient writers within the walls of Peiraeeusand Munychia. Strabo, after describing Peiraceus and Munychia, speaks of Phalerum as the next place in order along the shore (j«t& rhv Tlcipata 4>aAijp«ts Stj^os iv Tjj 4<pt£ris wapaAhj, ix. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalerum could have been situated before reaching Tp*is Tlvpyot, since the intervening shore of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (to taXipurtfr, PluL Vit. X. Oral. p. 844, Them. 12; Strab. ix. p. 400; ScboL ad Arutoph. Av. 1693). The account which

Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Spartans, who had landed at Phalerum, by the Thessalian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance with the open country which extends inland near the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable to the Bay of Phandri, which is completely protected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have already seen, was five stadia shorter than the two Long Walls. [See p. 259, b.]

That there was a town near St. George is evident from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and other nuns which Ulrichs found at this place; and we leam from another authority that there may still be Been under water the remains of an ancient mole, upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. (Westermann, in ZeiUehriftfur die Alterthumswiseenschaft, 1843, p. 1009.)

Cape Colias (KwAi'as), where the Persian ships were cast ashore after the battle of Salamis (Herod, viii. 9G), and which Pausanias states to have been 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. § 5), used to be identified with Tptls Tlvpyot, but must now be placed SE. at the present Cape of St. Kosmas: near the latter are some ancient remains, which are probably those of the temple of Aphrodite Colias mentioned by Pausanias.

The port of Phalerum was little used after the foundation of Peiraeeus; but the place continued to exist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer mentions among its monuments temples of Demeter Zeus, and Athena Sctras, called by Plutarch (TAe». 17) a temple of Scirus; and altars of the Unknown Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The sepulchre of Aristeides (Pint. Arist. 1) was at Phalerum. The Phaleric bay was celebrated for its fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p. 397.)

B. Peiraeeus and Munychia.

1. Division of Peiraeeut and Munychia.—Peiraeeus (Tlttpatfvs: Eth. Tletpaius') was a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained both the rocky heights of the peninsula, and was separated from the plain of Athens by the low ground called Halipedon, mentioned above. Munychia (Movnx'ta) was included in Pciraecus, and did not form a separato demus. Of the site of Munychia there can no longer be any doubt since the investigations of Curtius (De Portubus Athenarum, Halis, 1842); Ulrichs also had independently assigned to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill immediately above the most easterly of the two smaller harbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. This hill is now called KotrrcAAa, It is the highest point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet above the sea; and at its foot is the smallest of the three harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak presently. Leake had erroneously given the name of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half of the peninsula, that is, the part furthest from Athens, and had supposed the greater height above described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum.

2. Fortifications and Harbours. — The whole peninsula of Peiraeeus, including of course Munychia, was surrounded by Thcmistocles with a strong line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia in circumference (Thue. ii. 13), was intended to be impregnable, and was far stronger than that of the Asty. It was carried up only half the height which Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thue. i. 93); and if Appian (Milhr. 30) is correct in stating that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 feet, a height which was always found sufficient, we perceive how vast was tho project of Themistocles. "In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were exactly followed: two carts meeting one another brought stones, which were laid together right and left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two primary parallel walls, between which the interior space (of course at least as broad as the joint breadth of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in tho usual manner of the Greeks, but constructed, through tho whole thickness, of squared stones, cramped together with metal. The result was a solid wall probably not less than 14 or 15 feet thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual a height." (Grote, vol. v. p. 335; comp. Time. i. 93.) The existing remains of the wall described by Leako confirm this account. The wall surrounded not only the whole peninsula, but also the small rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran between the great harbour and tho salt marsh called Halae. These fortifications were connected with thorn of the Asty by moans of the Long Walls, which

have been already described. [See p. 259, seq.J It is usually stated that the architect employed by Themistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippodamns of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought forward good reasons for believing that, though the fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themistocles, it was formed into a regularly planned town by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this purpose. Hippodamus laid out the town with brood straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, which thus formed a striking contrast with the narrow and crooked streets of Athens. (Hermann, Disputatio de Ilippodamo Miiesio, Marburg, 1841.)

The entrances to the three harbours of l'eiraeeos were rendered very narrow by means of moles, which left only a passage in the middle for two or three triremes to pass abreast. These moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeus, which ran down to either side of the mouths of the harbours; and the three entrances to the harbours (tcc K\ei0pa tuv Xipivuv) thus formed, as it were, three large sea-gates in the walls. Kither end of each molo was protected by a tower; and across the entrance chains were extended in time of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the ancients closed ports (kacio-toi \aiivti), and the walls were called xnAou, or claws, from their stretching out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours of the Peiraeeus were closed ports (Hcsych. P. V. Zta; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 145; cimip. Thue. ii. 94; Plut. Demetr. 7; Xen. Uell, ii. 2. § 4); and in each of them we find remains of the chelae, or moles. Hence these three harbours cannot mean, as Leake supposed, three divisions of the larger harbour since there are traces of only one set of chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand how it could have been divided into three closed ports.

(i.) Phandri, the smallest of the three harbours, was anciently called Munychia, from the fortress rising above it. It was only used by ships of war; and we learn, from the inscriptions already referred to, that it contained 82 vt&troucoi, or ship-houses. This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum; but it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, being shut in by steep heights, and having no direct communication with tie Asty. Moreover, wo can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and to have neglected the more commodious harbours of Stratiotiki and Drdko, in its immediate vicinity. Tho modern name of Phandri is probably owing to a lighthouse having stood at its entrance in the Byzantine period.

(ii.) Stratiotiki (called Paschalimdni by Ulrichs), the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient Zea (Zea), erroneously called by the earlier topographers Munychia. (Timcaus, Lex., Plat.; Phot Lex. s. r. Zea.) It was the largest of the three harbours for ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantharus only 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to have been still in existence in the timo of Pausanias; fa though he does not mention Zea, the vtwooucoi which he speaks of (i. 1. § 3) were apparently at this port. This harbour probably derived its name from Artemis, who was worshipped among the Athenians under the surname of Zea, and not, as Meursius supposed, from the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Emporium in the great liarbour.

'(iii.) DrdJco or rorto Leone, the latest of the three harbours, was commonly called by the ancients simply Pkwaekus (n«/jcu€6s), or The Harbour (<J \ifiyv). It derives its modern name from a colossal lion of white marble, which Spon and Wheler observed upon the beach, when they visited Athens; and which was carried to Venice, after the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. Drdko is the name used by the modern Greeks, since Sptbcwf, winch originally meant only a serpent, now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence applied to the marble lion.

Jt has been already stated that Leake and other writers, misled by a passage of the Scholiast on Aristophanes (/Vic. 145), divided the harbour of Peiraeeus into three separate ports, named Cantharus, Aphrodisium, and Zea, but the words of the Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:—6 Uttpattvs Mnivas $xfl rp^> T&yras K\.u<tto{>s' u*v 6 KavOdpou AifiijK— iv § rh vtwpia. «2ra To *A</>poWoiov clra KVKXcp rov Xi/upos oroal w4rrt. It is evident tliat the Scholiast does not intend to give the names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus; but, after mentioning Cantliarus, he proceeds to speak of the buildings in its immediate vicinity, of which the Aphrodisium, a temple of Aphrodite, was one; and then followed the five Stoae or Colonnades. Leake supposed Zea to be the name of the bay situated on the right hand after entering the harbour, Aphrodisium to be the name of the middle or great harbour, and Cantharus to be the name of the iimer harbour, now rilled up by alluvial deposits of the Cephissus. It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot never formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since between this marsh and the harbour traces of the ancient wall have been discovered; and it is very probable that this marsh is the one called Halae (*AAeu) by Xenophon. {Hell. ii. 4. § 34.)

The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller one, occupying tne bay to the right hand of the entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon the shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury (AirAoOijmj) of Philo stood, containing arms for 1000 ships. (Strab. is. p. 395; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Cic. de Orat. i. 14; Vitruv. vii. Praef.; Appian, Mithr. 41.)

The remainder of the harbour, being about twothirds of the whole, was called Emporium, and was appropriated to merchant* vessels. (Timaeus, Lex. Plat.; Harpoerat. *. v. Auy/ia.) The surrounding shore, which was also called Emporium, contained the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned above, all of which were probably appropriated to mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Macra Stoa (puucpb trroa), or the Long Colonnade (Paus. i. 1. § 3); a second was the Deigma (Ac?7/*a), or place where merchants exhibited samples of their goods for sale (Harpoerat. s. v. Aiiyfw; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 974; Dem. c. Lacrit. p. 932); a third was the Alphitopolis ('AA^XTojrwAiy), or Com-Exchange, said to have been built by Pericles (Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 547): of the other two Stoae the names have not Leen preserved. Between the Stoae of the Emporium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodisium, or temple of Aphrodite, built by Conon after his victory at C nidus. (Paus. /. c.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. I. c.) The limits of the Emporium towards Can

tharus were marked by a boundary stone discovered in situ in 1843, and bearing the inscription:—

EMnOPIO
KA1HOAO
H0P02,

i. e., *Efivoplov Kal o5ou opo$. The forms of the letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus asper, prove that the inscription belongs to the period before the Peloponnesian war. The stone may have been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus by Themistocles, or when the town was laid out regularly by Hippodamus in the time of Pericles. It probably stood in a street leading from the Emporium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus.

3. Topography of Munychia and Peiraeeus. — The site of Munychia, which was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus, has been already explained. Remains of its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the hill, now called Castella, above the harbour of Phanari. From its position it commanded the whole of the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours (wroirnrroufri 5' avrt? AtfAtyts rptis, Strab. ix. p. 395); and whoever obtained possession of this hill became master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is said to have foreseen the importance of this position. (Plut Sol. 12; Diog. Lab'rt. i. 114.) Soon after the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled them to carry on operations with success against the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. Nell. ii. 4.) The successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian garrison in Munychia for a long period, and by this means secured the obedience of Athens. The first Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by Antipatcr after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, B. c. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4; Plut Bern. 28.) When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.C. 318, Munychia was also garrisoned by the latter; and it was by the support of these troops that Demetrius Phalcreus governed Athens for the next ten years. In B.C. 307 the Macedonians were expelled from Munychia by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but the latter, on his return from Asia in B. C. 299, again placed a garrison in Munychia, and in the Museium also. These garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius was deprived of the Macedonian kingdom in B.C. 287. (Paus. i. 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq.; Diod. xviii. 48, 74, xx. 45; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc. 31, seq.) During the greater part of the reign of Antigonus and of his son Demetrius II., the Macedonians had possession of Munychia; but soon after the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the departure of the Macedonian garrison by the payment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Arat. 34; Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (/. c.) speaks of the hill of Munychia as full of hollows and excavations, and well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and the hollows to which he alludes were probably the remains of cisterns. The sides of the hill sloping down to the great harbour appear to have been covered with houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Khodes, which was laid out by the same architect, and was also celebrated for its beauty.

Within the fortress of Munychia was a temple of Artemis Munychia, who was the guardian deity of this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of awvlum for state criminals. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Paus. LI. § 4; Dem. de Coran. p. 222, Reiskc; I.ys. c. Agorat. pp. 400, 462, Keiske.) Near the preceding, and probably also within the fortress, was the Bendideium (BcpSttuar), or temple of the Thracian Artemis Bendis, whose festival, the Bendideia, was celebrated on the day before the lesser Panathenaea. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Plat. <le Rep. i. pp. 327,354.) On the western slope of the hill was the Dionysiac theatre, facing the great harbour: it must have been of considerable size, as the assemblies of the Athenian people were sometimes h?ld in it. (Thuc. viii. 93; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 32 ; Lys. c. Agorat. pp. 464, 479 ; comp. Dem. de Fids. Leg. p. 379.) It was in this theatre that Socrates saw a performance of one of the plays of Euripides. (Aelian, V. H. ii. 13.) Some modern writers distinguish between the theatre at Munychia and anotlier in Peiraeeus ; but the ancient writers mention only one theatre in the peninsula, called indifferently the Pciraic or the Munychian theatre, the latter name being given to it from its situation upon the hill of Munychia. The ruins near the harbour of Zea, which were formerly regarded as those of the Peiraic theatre, belonged probably to another building.

The proper agora of Peiraeeus was called the Hippodameian Agora ('lTnro8(tu«iof ayopa), to distinguish it from the Macra Stoa, which was also used as an agora. The Hippodameian Agora was situated near the spot where the two Long Walls joined the wall of Peiraeeus; and a broad street led from it up to the citadel of Munychia. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Audoc. de Myst. p. 23, Keiske; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1190.)

At the entrance to the great harbour there was on the right hand the promontory Alcimus ("A\Kijuos), on the left hand the promontory Ketionia ('HeTiaii'Za, or 'Hcriwveia). On Alcimus stood the tomb of Themistocles, whose bones are said to have been brought from Magnesia in Asia Minor, and buried at this place. (Plut. Them. 32; Paus. i. 1. § 2). Eetionia was a tongue of land commanding the entrance to the harbour ; and it was here that the Four Hundred in B.C. 411 erected a fort, in order to prevent more effectually the entrance of the Athenian fleet, which was opposed to them. (Thuc. viii. 90; Dem. c. Theocr. p. 1343; Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B. J. v. 'Heriittvua.') The small bay on the outer side of the promontory was probably the Kufbs Xipnv mentioned by Xenophon. (Hell. ii. 4. § 31.)

The buildings around the shore of the great harbour have been already mentioned. Probably bohind the Macra Stoa was the temenus of Zeus and Athena, which Pausanias (i. 1. § 3) mentions as one of the most remarkable objects in Peiraeeus, and which is described by other writers as the temple of Zeus Soter. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Lit. xxxi. 30; PJin. xxxjv. 8. s. 19. § 14.) Phreattys, which was one of the courts of justice for the trial of homicides, was situated in Peiraeeus; and as this court is described indifferently iv Z4a or iv ^pearrot, it must be placed either in or near the harbour of Zea. The accused pleaded their cause on board ship, while the judges sat upon the shore. (Paus. i. 28. § 11; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 645; Pollux, viii. liO; Becker, Anecd. Graec. i. p. 311.)

Peiraeeus never recovered from the blow inflicted upon it by its capture by Sulla, who destroyed its fortifications and arsenals. So rapid was its decline that in the time of Strabo it had become "a small

village, situated around the ports and the temple of Zeus Soter." (Strab. ix. p. 395.)

The most important work on the Topography of Athens is Col. Leake's Topography of Athens, London, 1841, 2nd edition. In common with all other writers on the subject, the writer of the present article is under the greatest obligations to Col. Leake, although he has had occasion to differ from him on some points. The other modern works from which most assistance have been derived are Porchhammer, Topographie von Atlim, in Kicler Philologische Sttidien, Kiel, 1841; Kruse, Hellas, vol. ii. pt. i., Leipzig, 1826; K. 0. Miiller, art. Attika in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopatlie, vol. ri., translated by I^ockhart, London, 1842; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, London, 1762—1816, 4 vols., fo. (2nd ed. 1825—1827); Dodwell, Tour throw/h Greece, vol. i. London, 1819; Prokesch, Denhwurdigkeiten, ifc., vol. ii., Stuttgart, 1836; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, voL ii. Edinburgh, 1842.

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COINS OF ATHENS.

ATHENAEON Ckenmuiv: Sudaior SugdajaT) also called "a harbour of the Scythotauri," was > port on the south coast of the Tauric Chcrsonesus. (Anon. Peripl. p. 6.)

ATHENAEUM ("A envaiov). 1. A fortress in the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier (lfi€aKii rrj* Aajcufiff^s), and near Belcmina. It was fortitieJ by Cleomenes in B.C. 224, and was frequently taken and retaken in the ware between the Achaean League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it occupied the summit of Mount Tzimbani, on wluVk there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. that case it must have been a different place mm the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanias on the nod from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from Um latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46, 54. iv. 37. 60, 81; Paus. viii. 44. §§ 2, 3; Leake, Pclopomtsiac*, p. 248.)

2. A fortress in Athamania in Epeirus, described by Livy as "finibns Macodoniac subjectum," and apparently near Gomphi. Leake places it <*> 4 height, a little above the deserted village of Apino Porta, or Porta Panaghia. (lit. xxviii. 1, xxxix.25; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 212,525.)

ATHENOTOLIS, a city on the coast of Gallia Narboncnsis, dependent on Massilia. (Mela, ii. 5; Pun. iii. 4.) Stephanus (*. v. 'Adijvai) mentions an Athenae of the Ligystii, which may be this place. There are no measures for determining the jKwiiion of Athenopolis. D'Anvillo observes, that Pliny and Mela seem to place this Massaliot settlement &outh of Forum Julii (Frejus); and yet in his map he fixes it north of Frejus, at a place called Agay. Walckenaer, at a guess, places it at St. Trope*, which is on a bay nearly due south of Frejus. The Athenaeopolitae of Varro (L. I,, viii. 35) are assumed to be the inhabitants of this place. [G. L/J

A'THESIS ('attjowx, Strab.; 'Arwtfr, Plut.), one of the principal rivers of Northern Italy, now called the Adige. It rises in the Khaetian Alps, in a small lake near the modern village of Reschen, and after a course of about 50 miles in a SE. direction, receives the waters of the Atagis or Eisach, a stream almost as considerable as its own, which descends from the pass of the Bremer. Their united waters flow nearly due S. through a broad aud deep valley, passing under the walls of Tridcntum (Trenlo), until they at length emerge into the plains of Italy, close to Verona, which stands on a kind of peninsula almost encircled by the Athesis. (Verona Athcsi circumflua, Sil. Ital. viii. 597.) From hence it pursues its course, first towards the SE., and afterwards due E. through the plains of Venetia to the Adriatic, which it enters only a few miles from the northernmost mouth of the Padus, but without having ever joined that river. From its source to the sea it has a course of not less than 200 miles; and in the volume of its waters it is inferior only to the Padus among the rivers of Italy. (Strab. iv. p. 207, where there is little donbt that the names * Attj ffiy6s and* ladpas have been transposed; Plin. iii. 16. s. 20; Virg. A en. ix. 680; Claudian, de VI. Cons. Hon. 196.) Servius (ad Aen. I.e.) and Vibiua Sequester (p. 3) erroneously describe the Athesis as falling into the Padus; a very natural mistake, as the two rivers run parallel to each other at a very short interval, and even communicate by various side branches and artificial channels, but their main streams continue perfectly distinct.

It was in the plains on the banks of the Athesis, probably not very far from Verona, that Q. Catulus was defeated by the Cimbri in B. C. 101. (Liv. Epit. lxviii.; Flor. iii.3; Plut. Alar. 23.) [E.H.B-1

ATHMO'NIA, ATHMONUM. [attica.]

ATHOS {'A0utt *A8w, Ep. 'A06ws, gen. *A0J«; Eth. 'Admrrjs), the lofty mountain at the extremity of the lung peninsula, running out into the sea from Chalcidice in Macedonia, between the Singitic gulf aud the Aegaean. This peninsula was properly called Acte (akt^, Thuc iv. 109), but the name of Athos was also given to it, as well as to the mountain. (Herod, vii. 22.) The peninsula, as well as the mountain, is now called the Holy Mountain (jAytov "Opos, Monte Santo), from the great number of monasteries and chapels with which it is covered. There are 20 of these monasteries, most of which were founded during the Byzantine empire, and some of them trace their origin to the time of Constantino the Great. Each of the different nations belonging to the Greek Church, has one or more monasteries of its own; and the spot is visited periodically by pilgrims from Russia, Soma, Bulgaria, as well as from Greece and Asia Minor. Ho female, even of the animal kiud, is permitted to enter the peninsula.

According to Pliny (iv. 10. s. 17. § 37, Sillig), the length of the peninsula is 75 (Human) miles, and the circumference 150 (lioman) miles. Its real length is 40 English miles, and its average breadth about four miles. The general aspect of the peninsula is described in the following terms by a modem traveller:—" The peninsula is rugged, being intersected by innumerable ravines. The ground rises almost immediately and rather abruptly from the isthmus at the northern end to about 300 feet, and fur the first twelve miles maintains a table -land elevation of about 600 feet, for the most part beautifully wooded. At this spot the peninsula is narrowed into rather less than two miles in breadth. It immediately afterwards expands to its average breadth of about four miles, which it retains to its southern extremity. From this point, also, the land becomes mountainous rather than hilly, two of the heights reaching respectively 1700 and 1200 feet above the sea. Four miles farther south, on the eastern slope of the mountain ridge, and at a nearly equal distance from the east and west shores, is situated the town of Karyts, picturesquely placed amidst vineyards and garden?,.

Immediately to the southward of Karyis

the ground rise* to 2200 feet, whence a rugged broken country, covered with a forest of dark-leaved foliage, extends to the foot of the mountain, which rears itself in solitary magnificence, an insulated cone of white limestone, rising abruptly to the height of 6350 feet above the Bea. Close to the cliffs at the southern extremity, we learn from Captain Copeland's late survey, no bottom was found with 60 fathoms of line." (Lieut Webber Smith, in Journal of Royal Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 65.) The lower bed of the mountain is composed of gneiss and argillaceous slate, and the upper part of grey limestone, more or less inclined to white. (Sibthorp, in Wal polts Travels, $c. p. 40.)

Athos is first mentioned by Homer, who represents Hera as resting on its summit on her flight from Olympus to Lemnos. (//. xiv. 229.) The name, however, is chiefly momorable in history on account of the canal which Xerxes cut through the isthmus, connecting the peninsula with Chalcidice. (Herod, vii. 23, seq.) Thi3 canal was cut by Xerxes fur the passage of his fleet, in order to escape the gales and high seas, which sweep around the promontory, and which had wrecked the fleet of Mardonius in it. c. 492. The cutting of this canal has been rejected as a falsehood by many writers, both ancient and modern; and Juvenal (x. 174) speaks of it as a. specimen of Greek mendacity:

"creditnr ollm Velificatus Athos, et quidquid Graecia mcudax. Audet in historia."

Its existence, however, is not only attested by Herodotus (/. c), Thucydides (I. c), and other ancient writers, but distinct traces of it have been discovered by modern travellers. The modern name of the isthmus is Provlaka, evidently the Romaic form of Upoav\a^, the canal in front of the peninsula of Athos, The best description of the present condition of the canal is given by Lieut. Wolfe: — "The canal of Xerxes is still most distinctly to tie traced all the way across the isthmus from the Gulf of Monte Santo (the ancient Singitic Gulf) to the Bay of Erso in the Gulf of Contessa, with the exception of about 200 yards in the middle, where the ground bears no appearance of having ever been touched. But as there is no doubt of th» whold

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