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moisture in the winter, and by a system of aqueducts during which he had been carried by the force os in the summer, its mineral wealth, its abundance in the winds into the outer sea, “ into which men no all species of useful animals; and the magnificent longer sail; where he came to desert islands, inhaworks of art with which it was adorned, especiaily bited by wild men with tails, whom the sailors, at the royal residences. We have also a full account having previously visited the islands, called Satyrs, of the people; their military order; their just and and the islands Satupides ” (i. 23. & 5, 6); whom simple government, and the oaths by which they some take for monkeys ; unless the whole narbound themselves to obey it; their laws, which en- | rative be an imposture on the grave traveller. joined abstinence from all attacks on one another, Another account is quoted by Proclus (ad Plat. and submission to the supremne dynasty of the family | Tim. p. 55) from the Aethiopica of Marcellus, that of Atlas, with many other particulars. For many there were seven islands in the Outer Sea, which generations, then, as long as the divine nature of were sacred to Persephone, and three more, sacred their founder retained its force among them, they to Pluto, Ammon, and Poseidon; and that the inhacontinued in a state of unbounded prosperity, based bitants of this last preserved from their ancestors the on wisdom, virtue, temperance, and mutual regard; memory of the exceedingly large island of Atlantis, and, during this period, their power grew to the height which for many ages had ruled over all the islands previously related. But at length, the divine element in the Atlantic Sea, and which had been itself sacred in their nature was overpowered by continual admixture to Poseidon. Other passages might be quoted, but with the human, so that the human character prevailed the above are the most important. in thein over the divine; and thus becoming unfit to The chief variations of opinion, in ancient and bear the prosperity they had reached, they sank into modern times, respecting these traditions, are the depravity: no longer understanding the true kind of following. As to their origin, some have ascribed life which gives happiness, they believed their glory them to the hypotheses, or purely fictitious invenand happiness to consist in cupidity and violence. tions of the early poets and philosophers; while Upon this, Jove, resolving to punish them, that they others have accepted them as containing at least might be restored to order and moderation, sum an element of fact, and affording, as the ancients moned a council of the gods, and addressed them in thought, evidence of the existence of unknown lands words which are lost with the rest of this dialogue in the Western Ocean, and, as some modern writers of Plato.

suppose, indications that America was not altogether The truth or falsehood, the origin and meaning, | unknown to the peoples of antiquity. As to the sigof this legend, have exercised the critical and spe- nificance of the legend, in the form which it received culative faculties of ancient and modern writers. from the imagination of the poets and philosophers,

That it was entirely an invention of Plato's, is some have supposed that it is only a form of the old hardly credible ; for, even if his derivation of the tradition of the “ golden age;" others, that it was a legend from Egypt through Solon, and his own symbolical representation of the contest between the assertion that the story is “strange but altogether primeval powers of nature and the spirit of art and true” (T'im. p. 20, d.) be set down to his dramatic science, which plays so important a part in the old spirit, we have still the following indications of its mythology; and others that it was merely intended antiquity. First, if we are to believe a Scholiast on by Plato as a form of exhibiting his ideal polity: Plato (Repub. p. 327), the victory of the Athenians the second of these views is ably supported by over the Atlantines was represented on one of the Proclus in his commentary on the Timaeus ; and pepli which were dedicated at the Panathenaea. has a great deal to be said in its favour. As to the Diodorus also refers to this war (iii. 53). Then, former question, how far the legend may contain an the legend is found in other forms, which do not element of fact, it seems impossible to arrive at any seem to be entirely copied from Plato.

certain conclusion. Those who regard it as pure Thus Aelian relates at length a very similar fiction, but of an early origin, view it as arising out story, on the authority of Theopompus, who gave it of the very ancient notion, found in Homer and as derived from a Phrygian source, in the form of a Hesiod, that the abodes of departed heroes were in relation by the satyr Silenus to the Phrygian Midas; the extreme west, beyond the river Oceanus, a loand Strabo just mentions, on the authority of Theo- | cality naturally assigned as beyond the boundaries pompus and Apollodorus, the same legend, in which of the inhabited earth. That the fabulous prosperity the island was called Meropis and the people Meropes and happiness of the Atlantines was in some degree (Meponis, Mépores, the word used by Homer and connected with those poetical representations, is very Hesiod in the sense of endowed with the faculty of probable; just as, when islands were actually disarticulate speech : Aelian, V. II. üi. 18, comp. the covered off the coast of Africa, they were called the Notes of Perizonius; Strab. vii. p. 299: comp. Ter Islands of the Blest. [FortunATAE INSULAE.) tull. de Palli

| But still, important parts of the legend are thus left Diodorus, also, after relating the legend of the unaccounted for ; its mythological character, its island in a form very similar to Plato's story, adds derivation from the Egyptian priests, or other Orithat it was discovered by some Phoenician navi ental sources; and, what is in Plato its most imgators who, while sailing along the W. coast of portant part, the supposed conflict of the Atlantines Africa, were driven by violent winds across the with the people of the old world. A strong arguOcean. They brought back such an account of the ment is derived also from the extreme improbability beauty and resources of the island, that the Tyr- of any voyagers, at that early period, having found rhenians, having obtained the mastery of the sea, their way in safety across the Atlantic, and the planned an expedition to colonize the new land, but double draft upon credulity involved in the supposiwere hindered by the opposition of the Carthaginians. tion of their safe return; the return, however, being (Diod. v. 19, 20.) Diodorus does not mention the generally less difficult than the outward voyage. name of the island; and he differs from Plato by | But this argument, though strong, is not decisive referring to it as still existing. Prusanias relates | against the possibility of such a voyage. The orithat a Carian Euphemus had told him of a voyage nions of the ancients may be gathered up in a few

words. Proclus (ad Tim. p. 24) tells us that thesis, too, the war of the Atlantines and the Greeks Crantor, the first commentator on Plato, took the might possibly refer to some very ancient conflict account for a history, but acknowledged that he with the peoples of western Europe. (P.S.) incurred thereby the ridicule of his contemporaries. 1 ATLAS ("Atlas: adj. "Atlas, fem. 'Athartis: Strabo (ii. p. 102) barely mentions the legend, l'ATAAVTikós, Atlanticus, Atlantēus), a name transquoting the opinion of Poseidonius, that it was pos- ferred from mythology to geography, and applied to sibly true; and Pliny refers to it with equal brevity the great chain of mountains in the NW. of Africa, (vi. 31. 8. 36). But of far more importance than which we still call by the same name. But the apthese direct references, is the general opinion, which plication of the name is very different now from what seems to have prevailed more or less from the time it was with the ancients. It is now used to denote when the globular figure of the earth was established, the whole mountain system of Africa between the that the known world occupied but a small portion | Atlantic Ocean on the W. and the Lesser Syrtis on of its surface, and that there might be on it other the E., and between the Mediterranean on the N. islands, besides our triple continent. Some state- and the Great Desert (Sähăra) on the S.; while, in ments to this effect are quoted in the preceding the widest extent assigned to the name by the anarticle [ATLANTICUM MARE). Mela expressly cients, it did not reach further E, than the frontier affirms the existence of such another island, but he of Marocco; and within this limit it evidently has places it in the southern temperate zone (i. 9. $ 2). different significations. To understand the several Whether such opinions were founded on the vague meanings of the word, a brief general view of the records of some actual discovery, or on old mythical whole mountain chain is necessary. or poetical representations, or on the basis of sci-! The western half of North Africa is formed by a entific hypothesis, can no longer be deterinined; but, series of terraces, sloping down from the great desert from whatever source, the anticipation of the dis- table land of North Central Africa to the basin of the covery of America is found (not to mention other and Mediterranean; including in this last phrase that less striking instances) in a well-known passage of portion of the Atlantic which forms a sort of gulf Seneca's Medea, which is said to have made a deep between Spain and the NW. coast of Africa. These impression on the mind of Columbus (Act ii. v. 375, terraces are intersected and supported by mountain et seq.):

ranges, having a general direction from west to east, “ Venicnt annis saecula seris,

and dividing the region into portions strikingly dif

ferent in their physical characters. Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum

It is only of

late years that any approach has been made to an Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus, Tethysque novos detegat orbes;

accurate knowledge of this mountain system; and

great parts of it are still entirely unexplored. Nec sit terris ultima Thule."


the absence of exact knowledge, both ancient and In modern times the discussion has been carried modern writers have fallen into the temptation of on with great ingenuity, but with no certain result. making out a plausible and symmetrical systern by All that has been said, or perhaps that can be said aid of the imagination. Thus Herodotus (ii. 32, iv. upon it, is summed up in the Appendix of Cellarius 181) divides the whole of N. Africa (Libya) W. of to his great work on ancient geography, “ De Novo the Nile-valley into three parallel regions: the inOrbe, an cognitus fuerit veteribus (vol. ii. p. 251– habited and cultivated tract along the coast; the 254), and in Alexander von Humboldt's Kritische Country of Wild Beasts (n Ampiádns) S.of the former; Untersuchungen über die historische Entwickelung and, S. of this, the Sandy Desert (dunos kalan der geographischen Kenntnisse der neuen Welt, Opos delv@s kal épñuos návrwv, comp. iv. 184, sub Berlin, 1826.

fin.), or, as he calls it in iv. 181, a ridge of sand, One point seems to deserve more consideration extending like an eyebrow (oopún yauuns) from than it has received from the disputants on either Thebes in Egypt to the Pillars of Hercules. A siside; namely, whether the stories of ancient voyagers, milar threefold division has been often made by mowhich seem to refer to lands across the Atlantic, dern writers, varying from that of Herodotus only in may not, after all, be explained equally well by sup naming the central portion, from its characteristic posing that the distant regions reached by these ad vegetation, the Country of Palms (Beled-el-Jerid); venturers were only parts of the W. shores of Europe and the parallel chains of the Great and Lesser Atlas or Africa, the connection of which with our continent have been assigned as the lines of demarcation on was not apparent to the mariners who reached them the S. and in the middle. Such views have just after long beating about in the Atlantic. By the enough foundation in fact to make them exceedingly earliest navigators everything beyond the Straits apt to mislead. The true physical geography of the would be regarded as remote and strange. The story region does not present this symmetry, either of ar. of Euphemus, for example, might be almost matched rangement or of products. It is true that the whole by some modern adventures with negroes or apes on region may be roughly divided into two portions, the the less known parts of the W. coast of Africa. It is cultivated land and the sandy desert (or, as the worthy of particular notice, that Plato describes At- Arabs say, the Tell and the Sähăra), between which lantis as evidently not far from the Straits, and allots the main chain of Atlas may be considered, in a very the part of it nearest our continent to Gadeirus, the general sense, as the great barrier; and that there twin brother of Atlas, the hero eponymus of the city are districts between the two, where the cultivation of Gades or Gadeira (Cadiz If this explanation of the soil ceases, and where the palm chiefly, but be at all admissible (merely as the ultimate core of also other trees, flourish, not over a continuous tract, fact round which the legend grew up), it is quite but in distinct oases: but even this general stateconceivable that, when improved knowledge had ment would require, to make it clear and accurate, & assigned the true position to the coasts thus vaguely more detailed exposition than lies within our pro indicated, their disappearance from their former sup- vince. In general terms, it may be observed that posed position would lead to the belief that they had the Tell, or corn-growing country, cannot be defined been swallowed up by the ocean. On this bypo- | by the limit of the Lesser or even the Great Atlas (terms themselves far from definite), but that it even the case in his time, the lion and other beasts of prey extends, in some places (as in Tunis), beyond the are now confined to the mountains, and do not venlatter chain; that the Sahara, or sandy desert, spreads ture down into the plains. The inhabitants of the itself, in patches of greater or lesser extent, far to Sahara are connected with the peoples N. of them the N. of the great desert table-land, which the name by race and by the interchange of the first necesis commonly understood to denote; that the palm- saries of life, receiving the corn of the Tell, and giygrowing oases (wadys) are found in all parts of the ing their fruits in return; while they are severed Sahara, on both sides of the Atlas, but chiefly from the peoples of the S. by race, habits, and the in series of detached oases, not only on the N., great barrier of the true sandy desert. A particular but also on the S. margin of the main chain of moun- description of the oases of the Sahara, and of the tains; and that, where any continuous tract can be other points only indicated here, will be found in the marked out as a belt of demarcation between the work just quoted. Tell and the Sahara, its physical character is that The only delimitation that can be made between of pasture-land, with numerous fruit-trees of various the Tell and the Sahara is assigned by the difference species. The Tell is formed by a series of valleys or of their products. But, even thus, there are some river-basins, lying for the most part in the mountains intervening regions which partake of the character near the coast, which form what is called the Lesser of both. Carette traces three principal basins of Atlas; and opening out, in the NW. of Marocco, this kind in Algeria : the eastern, or basin of lake into extensive plains, which, however, the larger Melrir, S. of Tunis and the E. part of Algeria, and they become, assume more and more of the desert W. of the Lesser Syrtis, characterized by the culture character, for the obvious reason that they are less both of corn and fruits; the central, or basin of Elcompletely irrigated by the streams flowing through Hodna, far NW. of the former, where both kinds of them. The lower mountain ridges, which divide culture are mixed with pastures; and the W., or these basins, seem generally well wooded; but, as basin of the upper Shelif (the ancient Chinalaph), they form the strongholds of the Berbers, they are where cultivation is almost superseded by paslittle known to the Europeans, or even to the Arabs. turage. The southern limit of the Tell cannot be defined by Such is a general view of the country formed any one marked chain of mountain; but in proportion by what we now call the Atlas system of mountains, as the main chain retires from the sea, so does the the main chain of which defines the S. margin of Sahara gain upon the Tell; and, on the other hand, the basin of the Mediterranean. The precise deterwhere, as in Tunis, the main chain approaches the mination of this main chain is somewhat difficult. sea, the Tell even reaches its southern side.

Its general direction is not parallel to that of the To the S. of the Tell, the Sahara, in the Arab whole system; but it forms a sort of diagonal, runsense of the word, extends over a space which can ning about WSW. and ENE., and nearly parallel be tolerably well defined on the S. by a chain of to the line of oases mentioned above as the southern oases, running in the general direction of WSW. to limit of the system. The true W. extremity seems ENE. from the extreme S. of the empire of Marocco, to be C. Ghir or Ras Aferni, about 30° 35' N. lat.; in about 280 or 29° N. lat., to the bottom of the and the E. extremity is formed by the NE. point of Lesser Syrtis, between 33° and 34o. As far as can | Tunis, Ras Addar or C. Bon. At this end it combe judged from the very imperfect data we possess, municates, by branches thrown off to the S., with this series of oases marks a depression between the the mountain chain which skirts the eastern half of S. slopes of the Atlas system and the high table- the Mediterranean coast from the Lesser Syrtis to land of the Great Desert. It thus forms a natural | the Nile valley; but this latter range is regarded by boundary between the “Barbary States," or that the best geographers as a distinct system, and not a portion of North Africa which has always fallen part of the Atlas. The first part of the main chain, more or less within the history of the civilized here called the High Atlas, proceeds in the direction world, and the vast regions of Central Africa, peopled above indicated as far as Jebel Miltsin, S. of the city by the indigenous black tribes included under the of Marocco, where it attains its greatest height, and general names of Ethiopians or Negroes. To the S. whence it sends off an important branch to the S., of this boundary lies the great sandy desert which under the naine of Jebel Hadrar, or the Southern we commonly call the Sahara; to the N., the Sa- Atlas, which terminates on the Atlantic between C. hara of the Arabs of Barbary: the physical dis- Nun and C. Jubi. The main chain proceeds till it tinction being as clearly marked as that between an reaches a sort of knot or focus, whence several ranges ocean, with here and there an island, and an archi- branch out, in 31° 30' N. lat. and 4° 50' W.long. It pelago. The Great Desert is such an ocean of sand, here divides into two parts; one of which, retaining the with here and there an oasis. The Sahara of Bar- name of the High Atlas, runs N. and NE. along the bary is “a vast archipelago of oases, each of which W. margin of the river Mulwia (the ancient Malva presents to the eye a lively group of towns and vil- or Molochath), terminating on the W. of the mouth lages. Each village is surrounded by a large circuit of that river and on the frontier of Marocco. From of fruit-trees. The palm is the king of these plan- this range several lateral chains are thrown off to tations, as much by the height of its stature as the the N. and W., enclosing the plains of N. Marocco, value of its products; but it does not exclude other and most of them reaching a common termination species; the pomegranate, the fig, the apricot, the on the S. side of the Straits of Gibraltar: the one peach, the vine, grow by its side.” (Carette, l'Al skirting the N. coast is considered as the W. portion gérie Meridionale, in the Exploration Scientifique of the Lesser Atlas chain, to be spoken of presently. de l'Algérie, vol. ii. p. 7.) Such is the region con- From the usage of the ancient writers, as well as founded by some writers with the Desert, and vaguely the modern inhabitants of the country, this so-called described by others as the Country of Palms, a High Atlas has the best claim to be regarded as the term, by the bye, which the Arabs confine to the prolongation of the main chain. But, on the ground Tunisian Sahara and its oases. As for Herodotus's of uniformity of direction, and to preserve a continuity “ Country of Wild Beasts,” whatever may have been through the whole system, geographers assign that character to another range, which they call the Great of ATLAS seems never to have been extended by Atlas, running froin the same inountain knot, with an them beyond the original Mauretania (Tingitana), inclination more to the E., forming the SE. margin that is, not E. of the Molochath. The earliest of the valley of the Mulwia, and, after an apparent notices we find are extremely vague, and partake of depression about the frontier of Hurocco, where it is that fabulous character with which the W. extreinity little known, reappearing in the lofty group of Jebel of the known earth was invested. On the connecAmour, in the meridian of Shershell, and thence tion of the name with the mythical personage, continuing, in the direction already indicated, to nothing requires to be added to what has been said C. Bon. Parallel to this range, and near the coast under Arias in the Dictionary of Mythology and of the Mediterranean, from the mouth of the Mulwia Biography. to that of the Mejerdah (the ancient Bagradas) in As a purely geographical term, the name occurs Tunis, runs another chain, commonly called the first in Herodotus, whose Atlas is not a chain of Lesser Atlas, which may be regarded as an eastern mountains, but an isolated mountain in the line of prolongation of the High Atlas of N. Marocco; his imaginary crest of sand, which has been already while its ridges may also be viewed as the walls of mentioned, giving name to a people inhabiting one the terraces by which the whole system slopes down of the oases in that ridge. [ATLANTES.] He to the Mediterranean. These ridges are varied in describes it as narrow and circular, and so steep number and direction, and the valleys formed by that its summit was said to be invisible: the snow them constitute the greater portion of the Tell: the was said never to leave its top either in summer or varied positions and directions of these valleys may winter; and the people of the country called it the be at once seen by the courses of the rivers on any pillar of heaven (iv. 184). The description is so good map of Algeria. In few places is there any far accurate, that the highest summits of the Atlas, tract of level land between the north side of the in Marocco, are covered with perpetual snow; but Lesser Atlas and the coast. Besides the less the account is avowedly drawn from mere report, marked chains and terraces, which connect the and no data are assigned to fix the precise locality. Lesser Atlas with the principal chain, there is one With similar vagueness, and avowedly following well defined bridge, running WNW. and ESE. ancient legends, Diodorus (iii. 53) speaks of the lake from about the meridian of Algier (the city) to that TRITONIS as near Ethiopia and the greatest mounof Constantinch, which is sometimes described as tain of those parts, which runs forward into the the Middle Atlas; but this term is sometimes ap. ocean, and which the Greeks call Atlas. plied also to the whole system of terraces between It was not till the Jugurthine War brought the the Great and Lesser Atlas. In the N. of Tunis Romans into contact with the people W. of the Mo(the ancient Zeugitana) the two chains coalesce. lochath, that any exact knowledge could be obtained

The principal chain divides the waters which run of the mountains of Mauretania; but from that time into the Mediterranean (and partly into the Atlantic) to the end of the Civil Wars the means of such from those which flow southwards towards the Great knowledge were rapidly increased. Accordingly tho Desert. The latter, excepting the few which find geographers of the early empire are found speaking their way into the Mediterranean about the Lesser of the Atlas as the great mountain range of MaureSyrtis, are lost in the sands, after watering the oases tania, and they are acquainted with its native name of the Sahara of Barbary. Of the former, several of Dyrin (A úpu), which it still bears, under the perform the same office and are absorbed in the same form of Idrár-n-Deren, in addition to the cormanner; but a few break through the more northern rupted form of the ancient name, Jebel. Tedla. The chains and flow into the Mediterranean, thus form- name of Deren is applied especially to the part W. ing the only considerable rivers of N. Africa: such of the great knot. are the Mulwia (Molochath) and Mejerdah (Ba- Strabo (xvii. p. 825) says that on the left of a gradas). Of the waters of the Lesser Atlas, some person sailing out of the staits, is a mountain, which flow S. and form oases in the Sahara; while others the Greeks call Atlas, but the barbarians Dyrin; find their way into the Mediterranean, after a cir- from which runs out an offset (apótous) forming cuitous course through the longitudinal valleys de- the NW. extremity of Mauretania, and called Cotes. scribed above; not to mention the smaller streams [AMPELUSIA). Immediately afterwards, he menalong the coast, which fall directly down the N. tions the mountain-chain extending from Cotes to face of the mountains into the sea. Reference has the Syrtes in such a manner that he may perhaps already been made to the common error, which seem to include it under the name of Atlas, but he assumes to determine the physical character of the does not expressly call it so. Mela is content to country by lines of demarcation drawn along the copy, almost exactly, the description of Herodotus, mountain ranges. On this point, Carette remarks with the addition from the mythologers “caelum et (p. 26) that "in the east and in the centre, the sidera non tangere modo vertice, sed sustinere region of arable culture passes the limits of the quoque dictus est” (iii. 10. $ 1). Pliny (v. 1) basin of the Mediterranean; while on the west, it places the Atlas in the W. of Mauretania, S. of the does not reach them.”

river Sala, (or, as he elsewhere says, S. of the river As to elevation, the whole system declines con- Fut) and the people called Autololes, through whom, siderably from W. to E., the highest summits in he says, is the road “ ad montem Africae vel fabia Marocco reaching near 13,000 feet; in Tunis, not losissimum Atlantem." He describes it as rising 5000. In its general formation, it differs from the up to heaven out of the midst of the sand, rough mountains on the N. margin of the Mediterranean and rugged, where it looks towards the shores of the basin, by being less abrupt and having a tendency ocean to which it gives its name, but on the side rather to form extensive table-lands than sharp looking to Africa delightful for its shady groves, crests and peaks.

abundant springs, and fruits of all kinds springing The portion of this mountain system E. of the up spontancously. In the day-time its inhabitants Molochath was known to the ancients by various were said to conceal themselves, and travellers were names. [MAURETANIA: Numidia.] The name filled with a religious horror by the silence of its

solitudes and its vast height, reaching above the cessary: moreover, in some of the later editions of clouds and to the sphere of the moon. But at night, Ptolemy, the word is spelt Biját pa. The ruins of fires were seen blazing on its crests, its valleys were Al llathr, which are very extensive, and still attest enlivened with the wanton sports of Aegipans and the former grandeur of the city, have been visited Satyrs, and resounded with the notes of pipes and by Mr. Layard in 1846, who considers the remains fiutes and with the clang of drums and cymbals. as belonging to the Sassanian period, or, at all He then alludes to its being the scene of the ad- events, as not prior to the Parthian dynasty. ventures of Hercules and Perseus, and adds that the (Nineveh and ils Remains, vol. i. p. 110.) Mr. distance to it was immense. On the authority of Ainsworth, who visited Al Hathr in company with the voyage of Polybius, he places it in the extreme Mr. Layard in the spring of 1840, has given a very S. of Mauretania, near the promontory of Hercules, full and interesting account of its present state, opposite the island of Cerne. (Cornp. vi. 31. s. 36.) which corresponds exceedingly well with the short After Ptolemy, king of Mauretania, had been de notice of Ammianus. (Ainsworth, Res. vol. ii. posed by Claudius, a war arose with a native chief- c.35.) It appears from Dion Cassius (preserved tain Aedemon, and the Roman arms advanced as far in Xiphilinus) that Trajan, having descended the as Mt. Atlas. In spite, however, of this opportunity, Tigris and Euphrates, and having proclaimed Parand of the resources of five Roman colonies in the thamaspates king of Ctesiphon, entered Arabia province, Pliny insinuates that the Romans of eques- against Atra, but was compelled to retire, owing to trian rank, who commanded the expedition, were the great heat and scarcity of water; and that Sepmore intent on collecting the rich products of the timius Severus, who also returned by the Tigris from country, to subserve their luxury, than on making Ctesiphon, was forced to raise the siege of the city inquiries in the service of science: they collected, after sitting twenty days before it, the machines of however, some information from the natives, which war having been burnt by “ Greek fire," which Mr. Pliny repeats. His own contemporary, Suetonius | Ainsworth conjectures to have been the bitumen so Paulinus, was the first Roman general who crossed common in the neighbourhood. Its name is supthe Atlas:--a proof, by the bye, that the Marocco posed by Mr. Ainsworth to be derived from the mountains only are referred to, for those of Algeria Chaldee Hutra, “a sceptre"-i.e. the seat of gohad been crossed by Roman armies in the Jugur-vernment.

[V. thine War. He confirmed the accounts of its great! ATRAX ("Atpat, also 'Atpakia, Steph. B.; Ptol. height and of the perpetual snow on its summit, ii. 13. $ 42: Eth. 'Arpárlos), a Perrhaebian town and related that its lower slopes were covered with in Thessaly, described by Livy as situated above the thick woods of an unknown species of tree, some- river Peneius, at the distance of about 10 miles from what like a cypress. He also gained some informa- Larissa. (Liv. xxxii. 15, comp. xxxvi. 13.) Strabo tion respecting the country S. of the Atlas, as far says that the Peneius passed by the cities of Tricca, as the river GER. Pliny adds that Juba II. had Pelinnaeum and Parcadon, on its lcft, on its course given a similar account of the Atlas, mentioning to Atrax and Larissa. (Strab. ix. p. 438.) Leake especially among its products the medicinal herb places Atrax on a height upon the left bank of the euphorbia. Solinus (c. 24) repeats the account of Peneius, opposite the village of Gúnitza. On this Pliny almost exactly.

height, which is now called Sidhiro-péliko (Zionpo. Ptolemy mentions, among the points on the W. TÉAlkos), a place where chippings of iron are found, coast of Mauretania Tingitana, a mountain called | Leake found stones and fragments of ancient pottery, Atlas Minor (Atlas énáttwv) in 6o long, and and in one place foundations of an Hellenic wall. 33° 10' N. lat., between the rivers Duus and Cusa (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 368, vol. iv. (iv. 1. $ 2); and another mountain, called ATLAS | p. 292.) MAJOR ('Atlas uel(wv), the southernmost point of ATRE'BATES or ATREBATI ('ArpéSator, the province, S. of the river Sala, in 8° long. and Strab. p. 194), one of the Belgic nations (Caesar, 36° 30' N. lat. (ib. $ 4). These are evidently pro- B. G. ii. 4), or a people of Belgium, in the limited montories, which Ptolemy regarded, whether rightly sense in which Caesar sometimes tises that term. or not, as forming the extremities of portions of the They were one of the Belgic peoples who had sent chain; but of the inland parts of the range he gives settlers to Britannia, long before Caesar's time (B. G. no information. (Shaw, Travels, fc.; Pellissier, v. 12); and their name was retained by the AtreMémoires historiques et géographiques sur l'Algérie, bates of Britannia. The Atrebates of Belgium were in the Exploration, gc., vol. vi. pp. 316, foll.; between the rivers Somme and the Schelde, and the Jackson, Account of Marocco, p. 10; Ritter, Erd- position of their chief town Nemetocenna (B. G. viii. kunde, vol. i. pp. 883, foll.)

' [P. S.] 46) or Nemetacum, is that of Arras, in the modern ATRAMI'TAE. [ADRAMITAE.)

French department of Pas de Calais, on the Scarpe. ATRAE or HATRAE (*Arpai, Herodian iii. 28; The Morini were between the Atrebates and the sea. Steph. Byz, s. v.; Arpa, Dion Cass. lxvii. 31, Their country in Caesar's time was marshy and lxxxv. 10; Hatra, Amm. sxv. 8; Eth. Atphvor: wooded. The name Atrebates is partly preserved in Al Fathr, Journ. Geog. Soc., vol. ix. p. 467), a Arras, and in the name of Artois, one of the antestrong place, some days' journey in the desert, west revolutionary divisions of France. In the middleof the Tigris, on a small stream, now called the age Latin Artois is called Adertisus Pagus. But it Tharthar (near Libanae, Steph. B. 8. v. Bavai). is said that the limits of the Atrebates are not indiHerodianus (l. c.) describes it as a place of consi-cated by the old province of Artois, but by the exderable strength, on the precipice of a very steep tent of the old diocese of Arras. Atrecht, the hill; and Ammianus (l. c.) calls it Vetus oppidum German name of Arras, is still nearer to the form in media solitudine positum olimque desertum. | Atrebates. Zonaras calls it módiv 'Apáblov. Mannert (v. 2) In Caesar's Belgic War, B. c. 57, the Atrebates suggests that perhaps the Bructpa of Ptolemy supplied 15,000 men to the native army (B. G. (v. 18. § 13) represents the same place, it being a ii. 4), and they were defeated, together with the corruption for Bet-atra; but this seems harilly ne- Nervii, by Caesar, in the battle on the banks of

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