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and the former the secret harbour, mentioned by and there are casts from them in the British Museum, Pausanias. The walls of the city are still traced | The subject of the eastern pediment appears to be through their whole extent on the land side. They the expedition of the Aeacidae or Aeginetan heroes were about 10 feet thick, and constructed with against Troy under the guidance of Athena : that of towers at intervals not always equal. There appear the western probably represents the contest of the to have been three principal entrances.

Greeks and Trojans over the body of Patroclus. Till On the hill in the north-eastern extremity of the comparatively a late period it was considered that island are the remains of a magnificent temple of the this temple was that of Zeus Panhellenius, which Doric order, many of the columns of which are still Aeacts was said to have dedicated to this god.

(Paus. ii. 30. 88 3, 4.) But in 1826 Stackelberg, in his work on the temple of Phigalia, started the hypothesis, that the temple, of which we have been speaking, was in reality the temple of Athena, mentioned by Herodotus (iii. 59); and that the temple of Zeus Panhellenius was situated on the lofty mountain in the S. of the island. (Stackelberg, Der Apollotempel zu Bassae in Arcadien, Rom, 1826.) This opinion has been adopted by several German writers, and also by Dr. Wordsworth, but has been ably combated by Leake. It would require more space than our limits will allow to enter into this controversy; and we must therefore content ourselves with referring our readers, who wish for information on

the subject, to the works of Wordsworth and Leake RUINS OF THE TEMPLE OF AEGINA.

quoted at the end of this article. This temple was standing. It stood near the sea in a sequestered and probably erected in the sixth century B. C., and aplonely spot, commanding a view of the Athenian parently before B. C. 563, since we have already coast and of the acropolis at Athens. The beautiful seen that about this time the Aeginetans built at sculptures, which occupied the tympana of the pedi- Naucratis a temple to Zeus, which we may reasonably ment, were discovered in 1811, buried under the ruins conclude was in imitation of the great temple in their of the temple. They are now preserved at Munich, I own island.

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In the interior of the island was a town called the capital, and when the commerce and naval power OEA (Oin), at the distance of 20 stadia from the which drew population to the maritime site had not city of Aegina. It contained statues of Damia and yet commenced. On this supposition Leake supposes Auxesia. (Herod. v. 83; Paus. ii. 30. $ 4.) The that Oea occupied the site of Paleá-Khora, which position of Dea has not yet been determined, but its has been the capital in modern times whenever safety name suggests a connection with Oenone, the an- has required an inland situation. Pausanias (iü. 30. cient name of the island. Hence it has been conjec- $ 3) mentions a temple of Aphaea, situated on the tured that it was originally the chief place of the road to the temple of Zeus Panhellenius. The island, when safety required an inland situation for 1 Heracleum, or temple of Hercules, and Tripyrgia

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(Tpitupyla), apparently a mountain, at the distance is evidently the same with the Alyllapos dupa of of 17 stadia from the former, are both mentioned by Ptolemy, which he places between Drepanum and Xenophon (Hell. v. 1. $ 10), but their position is Lilybaeum; and is probably the headland now called uncertain. (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. Capo S. Teodoro, which is immediately opposite to p. 558, seq.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 431, seq., the island of Burrone. (Diod. xxiv. Exc. H. p. 50; Peloponnesiaca, p. 270, seq.; Wordsworth, Athens Zonar. viii. 15; Ptol. iü. 4. § 4; Cluver. Sicil. and Attica, p. 262, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches Géo- p. 248.)

[E. H. B.] graphiques, p. 64; Prokesch, Denkwürdigkeiten, AEGITIUM (Aiyítiov), a town in Aetolia Epicvol. ï. p. 460, seq.; Müller, Aegineticorum Liber, tetus, on the borders of Locris, situated in the midst Berol. 1817.)

of mountains, about 80 stadia from the sea. Here Demosthenes was defeated by the Aetolians, B.C. 426. Leake places it near Varnakova, where he found the remains of an ancient city. (Thuc. iii. 97; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ï. p. 617.)

AE'GIUM (AXylov, Ašyelov, Athen. p. 606: Eth. Alyeús, Aegiensis : Vostitza), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the coast W. of the river Selinus, 30 stadia from Rhypae, and 40 stadia from Helice. It stood between two promontories in the corner of a bay, which formed the best harbour in Achaia next to that of Patrae. It is said to have been formed out of an union of 7 or 8 villages. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue; and, after the destruction of the neighbouring city of Helice by an earthquake, in B. C. 373 (HELICE], it obtained the territory of the latter, and thus became the chief

city of Achaia. From this time Aegium was COINS OF AEGINA.

chosen as the place of meeting for the League, and AEGI'NIUM (Aigivov: Eth. Aiguieus, Aegini- it retained this distinction, on the revival of the ensis: Stugús), a town of the Tymphaei in Thessaly, League, till Philopoemen carried a law that the is described by Livy as a place of great strength and meeting might be held in any of the towns of the nearly impregnable (Liv. xxxii. 15). It is frequently confederacy. Even under the Roman empire the mentioned in the Roman wars in Greece. It was Achaeans were allowed to keep up the form of given up to plunder by L. Aemilius Paulus for their periodical meetings at Aegium, just as the having refused to open its gates after the battle of Amphictyons were permitted to meet at TherPydna. It was here that Caesar in his march from mopylae and Delphi. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) The Apollonia effected a junction with Domitius. It meetings were held in a grove near the sea, called occupied the site of the modern Stagús, a town at a Homagyrium or Homarium, sacred to Zeus Hoshort distance from the Peneus. At this place magyrius or Homarius (Onayúplov, 'Opéprov; in Leake found an inscription, in which Aeginium is

Strab. pp. 385, 387, 'Ouápioy should be read in. mentioned. Its situation, fortified on two sides by stead of 'Apvéplov and Aivéplov). Close to this perpendicular rocks, accords with Livy's account of grove was a temple of Demeter Panchaea. The its position, (Strab. p. 327; Liv. xxxii. 15, xxxvi. words Homagyrium,“ assembly," and Homarium, 13, xliv. 46, xlv. 27; Caes. B. C. ii. 79; Leake, “union,” * have reference to those meetings, though Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 421, seq.)

in later times they were explained as indicating the AEGIPLANCTUS. [MEGARIS.]

spot where Agamemnon assembled the Grecian AEGIROESSA (Aiyipberra), a city which chieftains before the Trojan War. There were Herodotus (i. 149) enumerates among the 11 cities several other temples and public buildings at of Aeolis; but nothing is known of it. Forbiger Aegium, of which an account is given by Pausaconjectures that the historian may mean Aegeirus nias. (Hom. N. ii. 574; Herod. i. 145; Pol. i. (Alyelpos), in the island of Lesbos. [G. L.] 41, v. 93; Strab. pp. 337, 385, seq.; Paus. vii.

AEGISSUS or AEGYPSUS (AXYLOCOS, Hierocl. | 23, 24; Liv. xxxviii. 30; Plin. iv, 6.) Vostitza, p. 637; AXylotos, Procop. 4, 7; Aegypsus, Ov.), a which occupies the site of the ancient Aegium, is town in Moesia, near the mouth of the Danube. It a place of some importance. It derives its name is mentioned by Ovid as having been taken from from the gardens by which it is surrounded (from the king of Thrace, at that time under the pro- Bóota, Bootáni, garden). It stands on a hill, tection of Rome, by a sudden incursion of the Getae, terminating towards the sea in a cliff about 50 feet and recovered by Vitellius, who was in command of high. There is a remarkable opening in the cliff, a Roman army in that quarter. Ovid celebrates originally perhaps artificial, which leads from the the valour displayed by his friend Vestalis upon the occasion. (Ep. ex Ponto, i. 8. 13, iv.7.21.) (H.W.]

AEGITHALLUS (Aigloantos, Diod.; AiylDados, Zonar.; Alyllapos, Ptol.) a promontory on the W. coast of Sicily, near Lilybaeum, which was occupied and fortified by the Roman consul L. Junius during the First Punic War (B. C. 249), with a view to support the operations against Lilybaeum,

COIN OF ARGIUM. but was recovered by the Carthaginian general Carthalo, and occupied with a strong garrison. Diodorus * Respecting these words, see Welcker, Epische tells us it was called in his time ACELLUM, but it | Cyclus, p. 128.

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town to the ordinary place of embarkation. A the Greeks ń Ayuntos; and by the Copts Elgreat part of the town was destroyed by an earth- KEBIT, or inundated land. The boundaries of quake in 1819, of which an account is given under | Egypt have in all ages been nearly the same, — HELICE. The principal remains of the ancient to the S., Aethiopia; to the E., the Arabian Gulf, town have been lately discovered on a hill to the E. the Stony Arabia, Idumaea, and the southwestern of Vostitza. There are also several fragments of frontier of Palestine; to the N., the Mediterranean architecture and sculpture, inserted in the walls of Sea; and to the W., the Libyan desert. Homer the houses at Vostitza. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 1 (Od. iv. 477) calls the Nile itself ALYUTTOS; nor 185, seq.; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 459, is the appellation misapplied. For the Valley of seg.)

Egypt is emphatically the “ Gift of the Nile," AEGOSPOʻTAMI (Ainds motauoi, Aegos flu- without whose fertilising waters the tract from men, Pomp. Mel. ï. 2; Plin. ii. 59: Eth. Aiyoo Syene to Cercasorum would only be a deep furrow notauítos), i.e. the Goat-River, a stream in the in the sandy and gravelly desert running parallel Chersonesus, with, at one time, a town of the same with the Red Sea. name upon it. It was here that the famous defeat An account of the Nile is given elsewhere. of the Athenian fleet by Lysander took place, B. C. [Nilus.] Here it is sufficient to remark that the 405, which put a close to the Peloponnesian war. valley which it irrigates is generally, except in the There seems, however, to have been no town there Delta or Lower Egypt, a narrow strip of alluvial at this time, for it is mentioned as a great error on deposit, occupying less than half the space between the part of the Athenian generals, that they ré- the Arabian mountains and the Libyan desert. The mained at a station where they had no town at hand average breadth of this valley from one of these to supply a market for provisions. (Plut. Alc. 36; 1 barriers to the other, as far as lat. 30° N., is about Diod. xii. 105; Strab. p. 287; comp. Grote, Hist. 7 miles; while that of the cultivable land, dependof Greece, vol. viii. p. 293.) In later times there ing upon the overflow of the river, scarcely exceeds must have been a town there, as the geographers 51 miles. Between Cairo in Lower and Edjoo especially mention it (Steph. Byz. s. v.), and there (Apollinopolis Magna) in Upper Egypt the extreme are coins of it extant.

[H. W.]

breadth is about 11 miles: the narrowest part, including the river itself, is about 2 miles. But northward, between Edfoo and Assouan (Syene), the valley contracts so much that, in places, there is scarcely any soil on either side of the river, and the granite or limestone springs up from its banks a mural entrenchment. The whole area of the valley between Syene and the bifurcation of the Nile at Cercasorum contains about 2255 square miles, ex

clusive of the district of Fayoom (Arsinoe, Moeris), COIN OF ALGOSPOTAMI.

which comprises about 340. The Delta itself is

estimated at 1976 square miles between the main AEGO'STHENA (Aiyoodeva: Eth. Aiyo-branches of the river — the modern Danietta and Devítns : Ghermano), a town in Megaris, on the Rosetta arms. But both E. and W. of this tract Alcyonian or Corinthian gulf, at the foot of Mount stretches a considerable level of irrigated land, Cithaeron, and on the borders of Boeotia. It pos- which, including the Delta, embraces about 4500 sessed a temple of the seer Melampus. Between square miles. The length of Egypt froin Syene to Aegosthena and Creusis, the port-town of Boeotia, the Mediterranean is about 526 miles. The total there was no passage along the shore except a path surface of modern Egypt is somewhat larger than on the mountain's side. The Lacedaemonians under that of the country in ancient times, since, in spite Cleombrotus, in marching from Creusis to Aegosthena of a less regular system of irrigation, the inundaalong this road in the winter of B. C. 379-378, were tions of the Nile have increased since the eras of overtaken by a violent tempest ; and such was the the Pharaohs and the Ptolemies. force of the wind, that the shields of the soldiers Egypt, in its general configuration, is a long were wrested from their hands, and many of the asses rock-bound valley, terminating in a deep bay, and that carried the burthens were blown over the pre- resembling in form an inverted Greek upsilon (ul. cipices into the sea. It was by this road that the Its geological structure is tripartite. The NileLacedaemonians retreated after their defeat at Leuc- valley shelves down to the Mediterranean in a series tra in 371. There was a sweet wine grown at Ae- of steps, consisting of sandy or gravelly plateaus, gosthena. (Paus. i. 44. § 4, seq.; Xen. Hell. v. 4. separated by granite or limestone ridges, which the $5 16-18, vi. 4. SS 25-26 ; Athen. p. 440.; | river cuts diagonally. From Syene to Edfoo granite Steph. B. 8. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. or red sandstone prevails : at Edfoo limestone suc405.)

ceeds; until in lat. 30° 10' the rocks diverge NE. ALGU'SA. [AEG ATES.]

and NW., and the alluvial Delta fills up an embayed AEGYPSUS." (AEGISSUS.]

triangle, whose apex is at Cercasorum, and whose AEGYPTUS ( Ayu TOS : Eth. AiyttiOS, base is the sea. Aegyptius). I. Names and boundaries of Egypt. The political and physical divisions of Egypt Egypt, properly so called, is that portion of the 80 nearly coincide that we may treat of them valley of the Nile which lies between lat. 24° 3' | under one head. From Syene to Cercasorum the and lat. 31° 37' N., or between the islands of whole of the Nile-valley was denominated Upper Philae and Elephantine, and the Me literranean Sea. Egypt: with the fork of the river Lower Egypt In the language of :he earliest inhabitants it was began. This was indeed a natural division between entitled Chem, or the Black Earth; by the He- the primitive and the alluvial regions : and the brews it was called MIZRAIM ; by the Arabians distinction was recognised from the earliest times MESR (comp. Méotpn, Joseph. Antiq. i. 1); by | by different inonumental symbols — natural and conventional. The common lotus (Nymphaea), ) and at Acabe ('Arden, Ptol.), where, nearly opporising out of a clod of earth, represented the Upper site Latopolis, are vast quarries of white marble. country; the root of the papyrus, upon a clod, the From Mt. Smaragdus, which next follows, the EgypLower. Sebena was the goddess of the Upper, Neith tians obtained the fine green breccia (Verde d of the Lower country. A white crown denoted the Egitto), and emeralds in abundance. The breccia former, a red crown the latter; white and red crowns quarries, as inscriptions testify, were worked as far united composed the diadem of the king of all the back as the 6th dynasty of kings (Manetho). The land. The Upper country, however, was generally principal quarry was at Mount Zaburah. From subdivided into two portions, (1) Upper Egypt Berenice southward are found, in various proporProper, or the Thebaid onlats, oi ävw TÓNOI), I tions, limestone and porphyry again. Mt. Basanites which extended from Syene to Hermopolis Magna, (Bao avítov Aldov opos, Ptol.), consisting of a spein lat. 28° N.; and (2) Middle Egypt, also called | cies of hornblend, terminated the eastern boundary Ileptanomis, or the Seven Cantons (ń metaču xúpa: of the Nile-valley. Beyond this, and of uncertain 'Entavouis), which reached from the neighbour- extent, are the gold mines SE. of the Thebaid. hood of Hermopolis to the apex of the Delta. This They are about ten days' journey SE. from Apolli. threefold partition has been adopted by the Arabs, nopolis Magna, in the present Bisharee desert. who denominated Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt | The process of gold-washing appears to be reprerespectively, Said, Wustáni, and El-Rif.

sented on tombs of the age of Osirtasen. Silver The traveller who ascends the Nile from its and lead were also found, and sulphur abounded in mouths to Syene passes through seven degrees of this mineral region. latitude, and virtually surveys two distinct regions. The eastern frontier was mostly arid and barren, Lower Egypt is an immense plain: Upper Egypt, a | but neither uninhabited nor unfrequented by tranarrowing valley. The former, in the main, re- vellers. More than one caravan track, whose bearsembles the neighbouring coastland of Africa; the ings are still marked by ruined cisterns and brick latter is more akin to Nubia, and its climate, its pyramids, followed the gorges of the hills; and occaFauna and its Flora, indicate the approaching tropic. sional temples imply a settled population in towns The line of demarcation commences about the 27th or villages. The sides and passes of the moundegree of N. latitude. Rain rarely falls in the The- tains afforded also pasture for flocks and herds, baid: the sycamore and the acacia almost disappear; and wild deer, wolves, &c. found here their abode. the river plants and mollusca assume new types: the Two principal roads, diverging from Coptos on the Theban or Dhoum palm, with its divaricated branches, Nile — the northern leading to Philoteras (Kosseir), grows beside the date palm: the crocodile, the jackal, lat. 26° 9', and Myos Hormos or Arsinoe; the the river-horse, and hyena become more numerous. southern to Berenice penetrated the mountain

We must now return to the general boundaries of barrier, and connected the Nile-valley with the Red Egypt which affected, in various degrees, the cli- Sea. The population of this district was more Aramate, the population, and the social and political bian than Coptic, and its physical characteristics character of the Nile-valley.

were Arabian, not Libyan. 1. The Eastern boundary. In this region lay | 2. The Western boundary of Egypt is more parthe principal mineral wealth of Egypt, including the ticularly described under OASIS. The Libyan desert quarries, which furnished materials for this land of is not, as the ancients believed, merely an ocean of monuments. Beginning with the Pelusiac mouth of drifting sand, tenanted by serpents, and swept by the Nile, and along the frontier of Stony Arabia, we pestilential blasts (Lucan, ix. 765): on the contrary, find the barren and level region of Casiotis, whose its gravelly surface presents considerable inequalities, only elevation is the ridge or table land of Mt. Ca- and the blasts are noxious only in relaxing the sius (8 Kários, Strab. pp. 38, 50, 55, 58, &c.; human frame, or by obliterating the traveller's path Mela, i. 10; Plin. v. 11, xii. 13; Lucan. viii. 539, with cddies of blinding sand. Everywhere this x. 433). The Egyptian Casius (El Kas or El plateau rests upon a limestone basis, and descends Katish) is, according to Strabo (xvi. 2), a round in shelves to the Mediterranean. sandstone ridge (160os Divódns). It contained the 3. The Northern boundary is the Mediterranean. grave of Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and a temple of From the western limit of Egypt to Pelusium the Zeus Casius. At a very early period the Egyptians coast-line extends to about 180 geographical miles, established colonies upon the Idumaean and Ara- and presents the convex form common to the allubian border. Copper, mixed with iron ore, and vial deposits of great rivers. From the depression heaps of scoriae from Egyptian smelting-houses, are of its shore, the approach to Egypt is dangerous still found on the western flank of Mt. Sinai, and to the navigator. He finds himself in shallow water inscriptions at Wady-Magara in this district, and almost before he detects the low and sinuous mud hieroglypbics and fragments of pottery at Surabit- banks which mask the land. Indeed, from ParaeEl-Kadim, on the modern road from Suez to Sinai, tonium in Libya to Joppa in Syria, Pharos afforded attest the existence of settlements coeval with at the only secure approach, and the only good anleast the 18th dynasty of kings. Ascending from chorage (Diod. ii. 31). Nor is it probable that any the head of the Delta, and about 50 miles from the considerable advance of the shore has taken place Arabian Sea, we come upon a range of tertiary within historical times. limestone hills (TpWikoû Nidou õpos, Ptol.; àras 4. The Southern boundary is spoken of under buotpivov špos, id.) parallel with the Heptanomis, | Aethiopia. running north and south, and sloping westward to

II. Inhabitants. the Nile, and eastward to the Red Sea (ópn 'Apabiká, Herod. ii. 8). A region of basalt and The ancient Egyptians believed themselves to be porphyry begins in the parallel of Antaeopolis, and autochthonous. This was no improbable conception extends to that of Tentyra or Coptos (Tloppupítov in a land yearly covered with the life-teeming mod õpos, id.). This is again succeeded by limestone of the Nile. When the conquests of Alexander had at Aias or Aeas (Alas, id.; Plin. vi. 29. § 33), / rendered the Greeks acquainted with Western India

they inferred, from certain similarities of doctrine stantially the same as the old Egyptian. It is and usages, that the Indians, Ethiopians or Nubians, imperfectly understood, since it has long ceased to and Egyptians were derived from the same stock be a living speech. Yet the ultimate analysis of (Arrian, Indic. vi. 9); and Diodorus, who had con- | its elements shows it to have been akin to the Se. versed with Aethiopian envoys in Egypt about B. c. mitic, and derived from a common source. 58, derives both the Egyptians and their civilisation from Meroë (ii. 11). Both opinions have found

III. Population. numerous supporters in ancient and modern times, 1 Many causes combined to give the Greek and and Heeren has constructed upon Diodorus a theory Roman writers an exaggerated conception of the of a priestly colonisation of Egypt from Meroë, which population of Egypt, — the great works of masonry, is interesting without being convincing.

the infinitesimal cultivation of the soil, and the fact No nation has bequeathed to us so many or such that, the kings and higher order of priests excepted, accurate memorials of its form, complexion, and every Egyptian was either a husbandman or a manuphysiognomy as the Egyptian. We have in its facturer. To these causes, implying a vast amount mummies portraits, and upon its tombs pictures of disposable labour, yet arguing also a complete of its people as they looked and lived, individually command of it by the government, must be added and socially. That the Egyptians were darker in the cheapness of food, and the small quantity of it hue than either the Greeks or even the neighbour-consumed by the people generally. Health and ing Asiatics, is shown by the terms in which Greek, longevity were common in a land where the climate Latin, and Hebrew writers mention them. To was salubrious, diet simple, and indolence almost their progenitor the Hebrews gave the name of unknown. The Egyptian women were unusually Ham, or adust (Genes. x. 6): Herodotus, speak- fruitful; though we can hardly give credence to the ing of the Colchians, says that they were an Egyp- statements of ancient writers, that five children at tian colony because they were black in complexion a birth were common (Aristot. Hist. Anim. vii. 5), (uedáyxpoes), and curly-haired (oúrótpixes, ii. J and that even seven were not reckoned prodigious 104): Lucian, in his Navigium (vol. viii. p. 155, (Plin. H. N. vi. 3; Strab. xvi. 605). Still there Bipont ed.), describes a young Egyptian mariner is reason to think that the population fell short of as like a negro: and Ammianus (xxii. 16. § 23) the estimates transmitted by ancient writers. calls them subfusculi et atrati. But the Egyptians That a census was periodically taken, is probable were not a negro race- & supposition contradicted from the fact that Sesostris caused the land to be alike by ostcology and by monumental paintings, accurately surveyed, and Amasis, towards the end where negroes often appear, but always either as of the monarchy, compelled every male to report to tributaries or captives. It is probable, indeed, that a magistrate his means of livelihood. (Herod. ii. the Nile-valley contained three races, with an ( 109, 177.) Herodotus, however, gives no estimate admixture of a fourth. On the eastern frontier of the population, nor has any record of a census the Arabian type prevailed : on the western, the been hitherto discovered on the native monuments. Libyan; while the fourth variety arose from inter- Diodorus (i. 31) says that it amounted, in the marriages between the Egyptians Proper and the Pharaonic era, to seven millions, and that it was not Nubians or Aethiopians of Meroë. The ruling less in his own day (B. C. 58). Germanicus (Tac. caste, however, was an elder branch of the Syro- | Ann. ii, 60; compare Strab. p. 816) was informed, Arabian family, which in two separate divisions in a. D. 16, by the priests of Thebes, that Egypt, in descended the Tigris and the Euphrates; and while the reign of Rameses Sesostris, contained 700,000 the northern stream colonised the land of Canaan men of the military age. If that age, as at Athens, and the future empires of Babylon and Nineveh, the extended from eighteen to sixty, and be allowed southern spread over Arabia Felix, and entered for adults between those periods of life, the entire Egypt from the east. This supposition, and this population (5 x 700,000) will amount to 3,500,000. alone, will account for the Caucasian type of the Allow 500,000 for error, and add for slaves and Coptic skull and facial outline, and corresponds with J casual residents. and 6.000.000 will be the maxithe Mosaic ethnology in the 10th chapter of Genesis, mum of the census of Egypt. In the Macedonian which derives the Egyptians from Ham. We may and Roman eras, 300,000 must be included for the allow, too, for considerable admixture, even of the fixed or floating population of Alexandria (Joseph. ruling castes, with the cognate races to the south B.J. ü. 16). According to Herodotus (i. 177), and east; and hence, on the one hand, the fullness there were, in the reign of Amasis, 20,000 inhabited of lips, and, on the other, the elongated Nubian eye, towns, and Diodorus (l. c.) says that 18,000 towns need not compel us to define the inhabitants of the were entered on the register. Many of these, howNile-valley as an African rather than an Asiatic ever, were probably little more than walled villages, race. The Egyptians may be said to be intermediate nor have we any means of knowing their average between the Syro-Arabian and the Ethiopic type; area or population. Yet it should be remembered and as at this day the Copt is at once recognised that, even allowing for the less perfect system of in Syria by his dark hue (un peau noirâtre, Volney, embankment and irrigation in modern times, tho Voyage, vol. i. p. 114), the duskier complexion — extent of productive soil has not decreased. Two brown, with a tinge of red — of the ancient Egyp-centuries ago the population of modern Egypt was tians may be ascribed solely to their climate, and to loosely estimated at 4 millions. During the French those modifying causes which, in the course of gene occupation of the country in 1798—1801, it was rations, affect both the osteology and the physiology computed at 2 millions. Sir Gardner Wilkinson of long-settled races. Nor does their language (Modern Egypt and Thebes, vol. 1, p. 256) reduces contradict this statement, although the variations it to 1} million. between the Coptic and Syro-Arabian idioms are inore striking than those of form and colour. The Coptic,

IV. The Nomes. the language of the native Christian population of The Nile-valley was parcelled out into a number Egypt, is now universally acknowledged to be sub- of cantons, varying in size and number. Each of

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