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and there are casts from them in the British Museum. The subject of the eastern pediment appears to be the expedition of the Aeacidae or Aeginetan heroes against Troy under the guidance of Athena: that of the western probably represents the contest of the Greeks and Trojans over the body of Patroclus. Till comparatively a late period it was considered that this temple was that of Zeus Panhellenius, which Aeacus was said to have dedicated to this god. (Pans. B. 30. §§ 3, 4.) But in 1826 Stackelberg, in his work on the temple of Phigalia, started the hypothesis, that the temple, of which we have been speaking, was in reality the temple of Athena, mentioned by Herodotus (iii. 59); and that the temple of Zeus Panhellenius was situated on the lofty mountain in the S. of the island. (Stackelberg, Der Apottotempel zu Bataae in Arcadicn, Rom, 1826.) This opinion has been adopted by several German writers, and also by Dr. Wordsworth, but lias been ably combated by Leake. It would require more space than our limits will allow to enter into this controversy; and we must therefore content ourselves with referring our readers, who wish for information on the subject, to the works of Wordsworth and Leake quoted at the end of this article. This temple was probably erected in the sixth century B. c, and apparently before B. c. 563, since we have already seen that about this time the Aeginetans built at Naucrati8 a temple to Zeus, which we may reasonably conclude was in imitation of the great temple in their

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COISS OF AEQINA.

AEGI'NIUM (Aiyfoiov. Eth. Aiymtit, Aeginiensis: Stagus), a town of the Tymphaei in Thessaly, is described by Livy as a place of great strength and nearly impregnable (Liv. xxxii. 15). It is frequently mentioned in the Roman wars in Greece. It was given up to plunder by L. Aemilius Paulus for having refused to open its gates after the battle of Pydna. It was here that Caesar in his march from Apollonia effected a junction with Domitius. It occupied the site of the modern Stagus, a town at a short distance from the Peneus. At this place Leake found an inscription, in which Aeginium is mentioned. Its situation, fortified on two sides by perpendicular rocks, accords with Livy's account of its position. (Strab. p. 327; Liv. xxxii. 15, xxxvi. 13, xkv. 46, xlv. 27; Caes. B. C. iii. 79; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 421, seq.)

AEGIPLANCTUS. [megaris.]

AEGIROESSA (Aiyipfcaaa), a city which Herodotus (i. 149) enumerates among the 11 cities of Aeolis; but nothing is known of it. Forbiger conjectures that the historian may mean Aegeirus (AFyeipos), in the island of Lesbos. [G. L.]

AEGISSUS or AEGYPSUS (hlyuxaot, Hierocl. p. 637; Myunos, Procop. 4, 7; Aegypsus, Ov.), a . town in Moesia, near the month of the Danube. It is mentioned by Ovid as having been taken from the king of Thrace, at that time under the protection of Rome, by a sudden incursion of the Getae, and recovered by Vitellius, who was in command of a Roman army in that quarter. Ovid celebrates the valour displayed by his friend Vestalis upon the occasion. (Ep. ex Ponto,\. 8. 13, iv.7.21.) [H.W.]

AEGITHALLUS (MyWaKXoi, Diod.; AiytBctKos, Zonar.; AlyWapos, Ptol.) a promontory on the W. coast of Sicily, near Lilybaeum, which was occupied and fortified by the Roman consul L. Junius during the First Punic War (b. C. 249), with a view to support the operations against Lilybaeum, but was recovered by the Carthaginian general Carthalo, and occupied with a strong garrison. Diodoros tells us it was called in his time Acellum, bat it

is evidently the same with the Alyl6apoi txpa of

Ptolemy, which he piaces between Drepanum and Lilybaeum; and is probably the headland now called Capo S. Teodoro, which is immediately opposite to the island of Burrone. (Diod. xxiv. Exc. H. p. 50; Zonar. viii. 15; Ptol. iii. 4. § 4; Cluver. Sicil. p. 248.) [E. H. B.]

AEGI'TIUM (Alyirtov), a town in Aetolia Epictetus, on the borders of Locris, situated in the midst of mountains, about 80 stadia from the sea. Hera Demosthenes was defeated by the Aetolians, B.C. 426. Leake places it near Varnakova, where he found the remains of an ancient city. (Thuc. iii. 97; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 617.)

AE'GIUM (JCtytoy, Mytiw, Athen. p. 606: Eth. Alyuis, Aegiensis: Voetitza"), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the coast W. of the river Selinus, 30 stadia from Rhypae, and 40 stadia froni Hclice. It stood between two promontories in the corner of a bay, which formed the best harbour in Achaia next to that of Patrae. It is said to have been formed out of an union of 7 or 8 villages. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue; and, after the destruction of the neighbouring city of Helice by an earthquake, in B. c. 373 [helice], it obtained the territory of the latter, and thus became the chief city of Achaia. From this time Acgium was chosen as the place of meeting for the League, and it retained this distinction, on the revival of the League, till Philopoemen carried a law that the meeting might be held in any of the towns of the confederacy. Even under the Roman empire the Achaeans were allowed to keep up the form of their periodical meetings at Aegium, just as the Amphictyons were permitted to meet at Thermopylae and Delphi. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) Tho meetings were held in a grove near the sea, called Homagyrium or Jlomarium, sacred to Zeus Homagyrius or Homarius ('Ofiayvpiov, 'Opapiov; in Strab. pp. 385, 387, 'Qpiapiov should be read instead of 'Apvfyiov and Alvdpiov). Close to this grove was a temple of Deraeter Panchaea. Tho words Ilomagyrium, u assembly," and Jlomarium, "union," * have reference to those meetings, thouch in later times they were explained as indicating tho spot where Agamemnon assembled the Grecian chieftains before tho Trojan War. There were several other temples and public buildings at Aegium, of which an account is given by Panamas. (Horn. 11. ii. 574; Herod, i. 145; Pol. ii. 41, v. 93; Strab. pp. 337, 385, seq.; Paus. vii. 23,24; Liv. xxxviii. 30; Plin. iv. 6.) Voetitza, which occupies the site of the ancient Acgium, is a place of some importance. It derives its name from the gardens by which it is surrounded (from Poena, 0offrdivi, garden). It stands on a hill, terminating towards the sea in a cliff about 50 feet high. There is a remarkable opening in the cliff, originally perhaps artificial, which leads from tho

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town to the ordinary place of embarkation. A great part of the town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1819, of which an account is given under Helice. The principal remains of the ancient town have been lately discovered on a hill to the E. of VostiUa. There are also several fragments of architecture and sculpture, inserted in the walls of the houses at Vbstitza. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 185, seq.; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 459, seq.)

AEGOSPO'TAMI (Ai-voi noranol, Aegos flumen, Pomp. Mel. ii. 2; Plin. ii. 59: Eth. AlyocriroTa/iiT!|s), i. c. the Goat-River, a stream in the Chersouesus, with, at one time, a town of the same name upon it. It was here that the famous defeat of the Athenian fleet by Lysander took place, B. c. 405, which put a close to the Peloponnesian war. There seems, however, to have been no town there at this time, for it is mentioned as a great error on the part of the Athenian generals, that they remained at a station where they had no town at hand to supply a market for provisions. (Plut. Ale. 36; Diod. xiii. 105; Strab. p. 287; comp. Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. viii. p. 293.) In later times there must have been a town there, as the geographers especially mention it (Steph. Byz. t. v.), and there are coins of it extant. [H. \V.]

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AEGO'STHENA (t4 My6oBw. Eth. Aiyoo&tvWns: Ghermano), a town in Mcgaris, on the Alcyonian or Corinthian gulf, at the foot of Mount Cithaeron, and on the borders of Boeotia. It possessed a temple of the seer Melampus. Between Aegosthcna and Creuais, the port-town of Boeotia, there was no passage along the shore except a path on the mountain's side. The Lacedaemonians under Cleombrotus, in marching fromCreusis to Aegosthcna along this raid in the winter of B. c. 379—378, were overtaken by a violent tempest ; and such was the force of the wind, that the shields of the soldiers were wrested from their hands, and many of the asses that carried the burthens were blown over tho precipices into the sea. It was by this road that the Lacedaemonians retreated after their defeat at Leuctra in 371. There was a sweet wine grown at Aegosthcna. (Pans. i. 44. § 4, seq.; Xen. JlelL v. 4.

16—18, vi. 4. §§ 25—26 ; Athen. p. 440.; Steph. B. «. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 405.)

AKGU'SA. [aeoates.]

AEGYPSUS. [aeoissus.]

AEGYPTUS (h Af-vim-rot: Eth. AiVurior, Aegyptius). I. Names and boundaries of Egypt. Egypt, properly so called, is that portion of the valley of the Nile which lies between lat. 24° 3' and lat. 31° 37' N., or between the islands of Philac and Elephantine, and the Mediterranean Sea. In the language of '.he earliest inhabitants it was entitled Chemi, or the Black Earth; by the Hebrews it was called Mizkaim; by the Arabians Mesh (coinp. Mt'crrpTj, Joseph. Antiq. i. 1); by

the Greeks f) Af-ywrror; and by the Copts Et^Kkbit, or inundated land. The boundaries of Egypt have in all ages been nearly the same,— to the S., Aethiopia; to the E., the Arabian Gulf, the Stony Arabia, Idumaea, and the southwestern frontier of Palestine; to tho N., the Mediterranean Sea; and to the W., the Libyan desert. Homer (Od. iv. 477) calls the Nile itself i Afvwroj; nor is the appellation misapplied. For the Valley of Egypt is emphatically the "Gift of the Nile," without whose fertilising waters the tract from Syene to Cercasorum would only be a deep furrow in the sandy and gravelly desert running parallel with the Red Sea.

An account of the Nile is given elsewhere. [nilus.] Here it is suflicient to remark that the valley which it irrigates is generally, except in the Delta or Lower Egypt, a narrow strip of alluvial deposit, occupying less than half the sjjace between the Arabian mountains and the Libyan desert. The average breadth of this valley from one of these barriers to the other, as far as lat. 30° N., is about 7 miles; while that of the cultivable land, depending upon the overflow of the river, scarcely exceeds 5 J miles. Between Cairo in Lower and Edfoo (Apollinopolis Magna) in Upper Egypt the extreme breadth is about 11 miles: the narrowest part, including the river itself, is about 2 miles. But northward, between Edfoo and Assouan (Syene), tho valley contracts so much that, in places, there is scarcely any soil on either side of the river, and the granite or limestone springs up from its banks a mural entrenchment. The whole area of the valley between Syene and the bifurcation of the Nile at Cercasorum contains about 2255 square miles, exclusive of the district of Fayoom (Arsinoe, Moeris), which comprises about 340. The Delta itself is estimated at 1976 square miles between the main branches of the river — the modern Damietta and Rosetta arms. But both E. and W. of this tract stretches a considerable level of irrigated land, which, including the Delta, embraces about 4500 square miles. The length of Egypt from Syene to the Mediterranean is about 526 miles. The total surface of modem Egypt is somewhat larger than that of the country in ancient times, since, in spite of a less regular system of irrigation, the inundations of the Nile have increased since the eras of the Pharaohs and the Ptolemies.

Egypt, in its general configuration, is a long rock-bound valley, terminating in a deep bay, and resembling in form an inverted Greek npsilon [j,]. Its geological structure is tripartite. The Nilevalley shelves down to the Mediterranean in a scries of steps, consisting of sandy or gravelly plateaus, separated by granite or limestone ridges, which the river cuts diagonally. From Syene to Edfoo granite or red sandstone prevails: at Edfoo limestone succeeds; until in lat. 30° 10' the rocks diverge NE. and N\V., and the alluvial Delta fills up an embayed triangle, whose apex is at Cercasorum, and whose base is the sea,

The political and physical divisions of Egypt so nearly coincide that we may treat of them under one head. From Syene to Cercasorum tho whole of the Nile-valley was denominated Upper Egypt: with the fork of the river Lower Egypt began. This was indeed a natural division between the primitive and the alluvial regions: and the distinction was recognised from the earliest times by different monumental symbols — natural and

conventional. The common lotus (Nymphaca), rising out of a clod of earth, represented the Upper country; the root of the papyrus, upon a clod, the Lower. Sebcna was the goddess of the Upper, Neith of the Lower country. A white crown denoted the former, a red crown the latter; white and red crowns united composed the diadem of the king of all the land. The Upper country, however, was generally subdivided into two portions, (1) Upper Egypt Proper, or the Thebaid (i OriSats, ol &vu Totoi), which extended from Syene to Hermopolis Magna, iu lat. 28° N.: and (2) Middle Egypt, also called Heptanomia, or the Seven Cantons (y aeraty X'fy'": 'etttoi'ouij), which reached from the neighbourhood of Hermopolis to the apex of the Delta. This threefold partition has been adopted by the Arabs, who denominated Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt respectively, Said, Wiutdni, and EURif.

The traveller who ascends the Nile from its mouths to Syene passes through seven degrees of latitude, and virtually surveys two distinct regions. Lower Egypt is an immense plain: Upper Egypt, a narrowing valley. The former, in the main, resembles the neighbouring coastland of Africa; tho latter is more akin to Nubia, and its climate, its Fauna and its Flora, indicate the approaching tropic. The line of demarcation commences about the 27th degree of N. latitude. Rain rarely falls in tho Thebaid: the sycamore and the acacia almost disappear; the river plants and mollusca assume new types: tho Theban or Dhoum palm, with its divaricated branches, grows beside the date palm: the crocodile, the jackal, the river-horse, and hyena become more numerous.

We must now return to the general boundaries of Egypt which affected, in various degrees, the climate, the population, and the social and political character of the Nile-valley.

1. The Eastern boundary. In this region lay the principal mineral wealth of Egypt, including the quarries, which furnished matorals for this land of monuments. Beginning with the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, and along the frontier of Stony Arabia, we find the barren and level region of Casiotis, whose only elevation is the ridge or table land of Mt. Casing (6 Kdffio*, Strab. pp. 38, 50, 55, 58, &c; Mela, i. 10; Plin. v. 11, xii. 13; Lucan. viiL 539, x. 433). The Egyptian Casius (El Kas or El Kattih) is, according to Strabo (xvi. 2), a round sandstone ridge (\6<pos dipwSfls). It contained the grave of Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and a temple of Zeus Casius. At a very early period the Egyptians established colonies upon the Idumaean and Arabian border. Copper, mixed with iron ore, and heaps of scoriae from Egyptian smelting-houses, are still found on the western flank of Mt. Sinai, and inscriptions at Wady-Magara in this district, and hieroglyphics and fragments of pottery at SurabitEl-Kadim, on the modern road from Suez to Sinai, attest the existence of settlements coeval with at least the 18th dynasty of kings. Ascending from the head of the Delta, and about 50 miles from the Arabian Sea, we come upon a range of tertiary limestone hills (TpwiKov kidov 5pos, Ptol.; aAaSuarpirov tpos, id.) parallel with the Hcptanomis, running north and south, and sloping westward to the Nile, and eastward to the Red Sea (ipr\ To 'ApaSixi, Herod, ii. 8). A region of basalt and porphyry begins in the parallel of Antaeopolis, and extends to that of Tentyra or Coptos (Tlop<pvphov Spot, id.). This is again succeeded by limestone at Aias or Aeas (Afcu, id.; Plin. vL 29. § 33),

and at Acabc ('aico'sti, Ptol.), where, nearly opposite Latopolis, are vast quarries of whito marble. From Mt. Smaragdus, which next follows, the Egyptians obtained the fine green breccia (Verde a? Egitto), and emeralds in abundance. The breccia quarries, as inscriptions testify, were worked as far back as the 6th dynasty of kings (Manetho). The principal quarry was at Mount Zaburah. From Berenice southward are found, in various proportions, limestone and porphyry again. Mt. Basanitcs (Bacavirov \ldov opos, Ptol.), consisting of a species of hornblcnd, terminated the eastern boundary of the Nile-valley. Beyond this, and of uncertain extent, are the gold mines SE. of the Thebaid. They are about ten days' journey SE. from Apolli • nopolis Magna, in the present Bithdree desert. The process of gold-washing appears to be represented on tombs of the age of Osirtasen. Silver and lead were also found, and sulphur abounded in this mineral region.

The eastern frontier was mostly arid and barren, but neither uninhabited nor unfrequented by travellers. More than one caravan track, whose bearings are Btill marked by ruined cisterns and brick pyramids, followed the gorges of tho hills; and occasional temples imply a settled population in towns or villages. The sides and passes of the mountains afforded also pasture for flocks and herds, and wild deer, wolves, &c. found here their abode. Two principal roads, diverging from Coptos on the Nile — the northern leading to Philotcras (Kosaeir), lat. 26° 9', and Myos llormos or Arsinoe; tho southern to Berenice — penetrated the mountainbarrier, and connected the Nile-valley with the Red Sea. The population of this district was more Arabian than Coptic, and its physical characteristics were Arabian, not Libyan.

2. The Western boundary of Egypt is more particularly described under Oasis. The Libyan desert is not, as the ancients believed, merely an ocean of drifting sand, tenanted by serpents, and swept by pestilential blasts (Lucan, ix. 7G5): on the contrary, its gravelly surface presents considerable inequalities, and the blasts are noxious only in relaxing the human frame, or by obliterating the traveller's path with eddies of bunding sand. Everywhere this plateau rests upon a limestone basis, and descends in shelves to the Mediterranean.

3. The Northern boundary is the Mediterranean. From tho western limit of Egypt to Pclusium tho coast-Une extends to about 180 geographical miles, and presents the convex form common to the alluvial deposit* of great rivers. From the depression of its shore, the approach to Egypt is dangerous to the navigator. He finds himself in shallow water almost before he detects tho low and sinuous mud banks which mask tho land. Indeed, from Paraetonium in Libya to Joppa in Syria, Pharos afforded the only secure approach, and the only good anchorage (Diod. ii. 31). Nor is it probable that any considerable advance of the shore has taken place within historical times.

4. The Southern boundary is spoken of under Acthiopia.

II. Inhabitants.

The ancient Egyptians believed themselves to be autochthonous. Tins was no improbable conception in a land yearly covered with the life-teeming mud of the Nile. When the conquests of Alexander had rendered the Greeks acquainted with Western India they inferred, from certain similarities of doctrine and usages, that the Indians, Ethiopians or Nubians, and Egyptians were derived from the same stock (Anion, Indie, vi. 9); and Diodorus, who had conversed with Aethiopian envoys in Egypt about B. C. 58, derives both the Egyptians and their civilisation from Meroe (iii. 11). Both opinions have found numerous supporters in ancient and modem times, and Hecren has constructed upon Diodorus a theory of a priestly colonisation of Egypt from Meroe, which is interesting without being convincing.

No nation has bequeathed to us so many or such accurate memorials of its form, complexion, and physiognomy as the Egyptian. We have in its mummies portraits, and upon its tombs pictures of its people as they looked and lived, individually and socially. That the Egyptians were darker in hue than cither the Greeks or even the neighbouring Asiatics, is shown by the terms in which Greek, Latin, and Hebrew writers mention them. To their progenitor the Hebrews gave the name of Ham, or adust {Genet, x. 6): Herodotus, speaking of the Colchians, says that they were an Egyptian colony because they were black in complexion (fjL(\tkyxpots')t and curly-haired (o&AdVpix**, ii. 104): Lucian, in his Navigium (vol. viii. p. 155, Bipont ed.), describes a young Egyptian mariner as like a negro: and Ammianus (xxii. 16. § 23) rails them subfusculi ct atrati. But the Egyptians were not a negro race — a supposition contradicted alike by osteology and by monumental paintings, where negroes often appear, but always either as tributaries or captives. It is probable, indeed, that the Nile-valley contained three races, with an admixture of a fourth. On the eastern frontier the Arabian type prevailed: on the western, the Libyan; while the fourth variety arose from intermarriages between the Egyptians Proper and the Nubians or Acthiopians of Meroe. The ruling caste, however, was an elder branch of the SyroArabian family, which in two separate divisions descended the Tigris and the Euphrates; and while the northern stream colonised the land of Canaan and the future empires of Babylon and Nineveh, the southern spread over Arabia Felix, and entered Egypt from the cast. This supposition, and this alone, will account for the Caucasian type of the Coptic skull and facial outline, and corresponds with the Mosaic ethnology in the 10th chapter of Genesis, which derives the Egyptians from Ham. We may allow, too, for considerable admixture, even of the ruling castes, with the cognate races to the south and east; and hence, on the one hand, the fullness of lips, and, on the other, tbo elongated Nubian eye, need not compel us to define the inhabitants of the Nile-valley as an African rather than an Asiatic race. The Egyptians may be said to be intermediate between the Syro-Arabian and the Ethiopic type; and as at this day the Copt is at once recognised in Syria by his dark hue (un peau noirdlre, Volney, Voyage, vol. i. p. 114), the duskier complexion — brown, with a tinge of red — of the ancient Egyptians may be ascribed solely to their climate, and to those modifying causes which, in the course of generations, affect both tho osteology and the physiology of long-settled races. Nor does their language contradict this statement, although tho variations between the Coptic and Syro-Arabian idioms are more striking than those of form and colour. The Coptic, the language of the native Christian population of Egypt, is now universally acknowledged to be sub

stantially the same as the old Egyptian. It is imperfectly understood, since it has long ceased to be a living speech. Yet the ultimate analysis of its dements shows it to have been akin to the Semitic, and derived from a common source.

III. Population.

Many causes combined to give the Greek and Roman writers an exaggerated conception of the population of Egypt, — the great works of masonry, the infinitesiinal cultivation of the soil, and the fact that, the kings and higher order of priests excepted, every Egyptian was either a husbandman or a manufacturer. To these causes, implying a vast amount of disposable labour, yet arguing also a complete command of it by the government, must be added the cheapness of food, and the small quantity of it consumed by tho people generally. Health and longevity were common in a land where the climate was salubrious, diet simple, and indolence almost unknown. Tho Egyptian women were unusually fruitful; thongh we can hardly give credence to the statements of ancient writers, that five children at a birth were common (Aristot. BisL Anim. vii. 5), and that even seven were not reckoned prodigious (Plin. B. If. vii. 3; Strab. xvi. 605). Still there is reason to think that the population fell short of the estimates transmitted by ancient writers.

That a census was periodically taken, is probable from the fact that Sesostris caused the land to be accurately surveyed, and Amasis, towards the end of the monarchy, compelled every male to report to a magistrate his means of livelihood. (Herod, ii. 109, 177.) Herodotus, however, gives no estimate of the population, nor has any record of a census been hitherto discovered on the native monuments. Diodorus (i. 31) says that it amounted, in the Pharaonic era, to seven millions, and that it was not less in his own day (b. c. 58). Germanicus (Tac. Ann. ii. 60; compare Strab. p. 816) was informed, in A. D. 16, by the priests of Thebes, that Egypt, in the reign of Barneses Sesostris, contained 7Q0.OOO men of the military age. If that age, as at Athens, extended from eighteen to sixty, and j be allowed for adults between those periods of life, the entire population (5 x 700,000) will amount to 3,500,000. Allow 500,000 for error, and add J for slaves and casual residents, and 6,000,000 will be the maximum of the census of Egypt. In the Macedouiaa and Roman eras, 300,000 must be included for tho fixed or floating population of Alexandria (Joseph. B.J. u. 16). According to Herodotus (ii. 177), there were, in the reign of Amasis, 20,000 inhabited towns, and Diodorus (/. c.) says that 18,000 towns were entered on the register. Many of these, however, were probably little more than walled villages, nor have we any means of knowing their average area or population. Yet it should be remembered that, even allowing for the less perfect system of embankment and irrigation in modem times, tho extent of productive soil has not decreased. Two centuries ago the population of modem Egypt was loosely estimated at 4 millions. During tbo French occupation of the country in 1798—1801, it was computed at 2} millions. Sir Gardner Wilkinson {Modern Egypt and Thebes, vol. i. p. 256) reduces it to 1J million.

IV. The Nome*.

The Nile-valley was parcelled ont into a number of cantons, varying in size and number. Each of

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