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COIN OF BARIUM.

BARNA (Bd>o, Arrian. Ind. 27), a small village at which the fl( et of Nearchus halted for a short time. It waa the next place to Balomum, and is probably the same as the Badara (BaSdpa r«Sp«aias) of Ptolemy, (vi. 21. § 5.) (Vincent, Navig. of Indian Ocean, vol. i. p. 250.) [V.]

BARNUS (Bapvovs), a town on the Via Egnatia, ami apparen ly upon the confines of lllyria and Macedonia, between Lychnidus and Heracleia. (Polyb. ap. Strab. vii. p. 322.) Leake, however, conjectures that it may be the same place as Arnissa, B being a common Macedonian prefix. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 316.) [arnissa.]

BABOMACI. [caesaromagus.]

BABSAHPSE (Bap<rdfxx\nj), a place mentioned by Ptolemy (v. 18. § 5) as being on the E. bank of the Euphrates. Lat. 36° 15', long. 72° 20'. Bitter (Erdkunde, vol. x. p. 1000) fixes its position S.E. of Betham-maria at the spot where the Euphrates makes a bend to the \V. opposite to the caves and ruins of El Akatin. The name is Syrian, and has been identified as Beth-Shemesh, or Temple of the Sun. [E.B.J.]

BARSITA. [borsippa.]

BAKYGA'ZA, BAUYGAZE'NUS SINUS. [inPi A.]

BASA or BASAG, a place on the south coast of Arabia, mentioned only by Pliny (vl. 28. s. 32), perhaps identical with Ptolemy's Abisa or Abissagi, a city situated on the Gulf of Salachitae, near the Straits of the Persian Gulf. This ancient site Forster identifies with Abissa, a town at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Bassas, between Hannin and Ras-al-Had, under the Palheiros Mountains, which he conceives to be the Didymi moiites of Ptolemy. (Arabia, vol. ii. pp. 182, 235.) [G. WJ

BASANI'TES MONS (Baaavirou \l8ov 6pos, PtoL It. 5. § 27), formed a portion of the rocky boundary of the Nile Valley to the east. It lay about Ut. 23° N., between Syene and Berenice on the Red Sea, In its immediate neighbourhood were probably the Castra Lapidarioruin of the Notitia Imperii. The stone (Batrtwos), from which the mountain derived its name, was the Lapis Lydius of Pliny (xxxvi. 20. § 22), and was used in architecture for cornices of buildings, for whetstones, and also in the assay of metals. Geologists doubt whether the Basanus were basalt or hornblende. [W. B. D.]

BASANTE, a town in Lower Pannonia, called ad Basante in Pcutingcr. Table, whereas in several Itineraries (Ant. p. 131,/fter. p.563) and by Ptolemy (ii. 16. § 8) it is called Bassiana (Baaaiava.) Ruins of the place are still existing near the village of Dobrincze. [L. S.]

BASHAN (Bavdv, Boo-orf-nr), sometimes represented as identical with Batanaea; but as Bashan was comprehended in the country called Peraea by Josephus, — which he extends frem Machaerus to

Pella, and even north of that—(for he reclcocu Gadara as tlie capital of Peraea, B. J. iv. 7. § 3), and Peraea is distinguished from Batanaea (Ant. xvii. 13. § 4, B. J. iii. 3. § 5), they are certainly distinct. It was inhabited by the Amorites at the period of the coming in of the children of Israel, and on the conquest of Og, was settled by the halftribe of Manasseh. (Numb. xxi. 33—35, xxxiL; Deut. iii. 1—17.) It extended from the brook Jabbok (Zurka) to Mount Hennon (Gebel-ctkSheikh), and was divided into several district*, of which we have particular mention of " the country of Argob," — afterwards named from its conqueror u Bashan-bavoth-Jair" (lb. v. 13,14),—and Edrei, in which was situated the royal city Astarodu (Deut. i. 4, Josh. xiii. 12, 29—31.) It was celebrated for the excellency of its pastures; and the sheep and oxen of Bashan were proverbial. (Devi. xxxii. 14; PsaX. xxii. 12; Ezek. xxxix. 18; Amat, iv. I.) For its civil history Bee Peraea. [Q.W.] BASI'LIA 1. (Basel, or Bale), in the Swiss canton of Bale, is first mentioned by Amraianus Marcellinus (xxx. 3), who speaks of a fortress, Robur, being built near Basilia by the emperor Valentinian I. A.D. 374. After the ruin of Augusta Rauracorum (Augst), Basilia became a place of importance, and in the Notitia it is named Civjtas Basiliensium. It is not mentioned in the Itineraries or the Table.

2. This name occurs in the Antoninc Itin. between Durocortorum (Rheims), and Axuenna [axuenna], and the distance is marked x. from Durocortorum and xii. from Axuenna. D'Anrille (Notice) makes a guess at its position. [G. L ]

BASI'LIA. The island which Pytheas called Abalus, Timaeus called Basilia. (Plin. xxxvii. 7. a, II.) It produced amber. On the other hand, the BaltU of Pytheas was the Basilia of Timaeus. Zeuss (p. 270) reasonably suggests that, although there is a confusion in the geography which cannot be satisfactorily unravelled, the word Basilia is the name of the present island Otsel. [baltia and MestoxoMOV.1 [R. G. L.]

BA'SILIS (BdVtAis, BcurtXis: Eth. BaffiAiTrjs;, a town of Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, on the Alpheius, said to have been founded by the Arcadian king Cypselus, and containing a temple of the Eleosinian Demcter. It is identified by Kiepert in his map with the Cypscla mentioned by Thucydides (v. 33). There are a few remains of Basilis near Ayparissia, (Paus. viii. 30. § 5; Athcn. p. 609, e,; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 293; Boss, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 89.) [ctpsela.j BASSAE. [phigalia.] BASSIANA [basante.] BASTA, a town of Calabria, described by Pliny (iii. 11. s. 16) as situated between llydruntum and the Iapygian Promontory. Its name is still retained by the little village of Vaste near Poggiardo? about 10 miles SW. of Otranto, and 19 from the Capo delta Leuca (the Iapygian Promontory). Galateo, a local topographer of the 16th century, speaks of the remains of the ancient city as visible in his time; while without the walls were numerons sepulchres, in which were discovered vases, anus, and ot her objects of bronze, as well as an inscription, curious as being one of the most considerable relics of the Messapian dialect. (Galateo, de Situ lapfffiae, pp. 96,97; Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 30,31; Grater, Inter, pp. 145-5; Mommsen, Unter JtalUchen Dialekte, p. 52—56.)

The Basterbini of Pliny, mentioned by him shortly afterwards among the " Calabrorom Mediterranei," must certainly be the inhabitants of Bnsta, though the ethnic form is enrious. [E. H. B.]

BASTARNAE (Bwrriprm) or BASTERNAE (Baariprai), one of the most powerful tribes of Sarmatia Europaea, first became known to the Romans in the wars with Philip and Perseus, kings of Macedonia, to the latter of whom they famished 20,000 mercenaries. Various accounts were given of their origin; but they were generally supposed to be of the German race. Their first settlements in Sarmatia seem to hare been in the highlands between the Theiss and March, whence they pressed forward to the lower Danube, as far as its mouth, where a portion of the people, settling in the island of Peuce, obtained the name of Peucini. They also extended to the S. side of the Danube, where they made predatory incursions into Thrace, and engaged in war with the governors of the Roman province of Macedonia. They were driven hack across the Danube by M. Crassus, in n. c. 30. In the later geographers we find them settled between the Tyras (Dniester) and Borysthenes {Dnieper), the Peucini remaining at the mouth of the Danube. Other tribes of them are mentioned under the names of Atmoni and Sidones. They were a wild people, remarkable for their stature and their courage. They lived entirely by war; and carried their women and children with them on waggons. Their main force was their cavalry, supported by a light infantry, trained to keep up, even at full speed, with the horsemen, each of whom was accompanied by one of these foot-soldiers (irapaSoTTir). Their government was regal. (Polyb. xxvi. 9; Strab. ii. pp. 93, 118, vi. pp. 291, 294, vii. p. 305, et seq.; Scymn. Fr. 50; Mcmnon, 29; Appian, Mithr. 69, 71, de Rtb. Maced. 16; Dion Cass, xxxiv. 17, li. 23, et seq.; V\\A.Aem. Paul. 12; Liv. xl. 5, 57, et seq., xliv. 26, et seq.; Tac. Ann. ii. 65, Germ. 46; Justin, xxxii. 3; 1'lin. iv. 12. s. 25; PtoL iii. 5. § 19; and many other passages of ancient writers; Ukert, Georg. d. Griech. u. Rom. vol. iii. pt. 2, pp. 427, 428.) [P. S.]

BASTETA'NI, BASTITA'NI, BASTUXI (Ba<rTTtrayoi, Bogtitcwoi, BaoTo&Aoi), according to Strabo, were a people of Hispania Baetica, occupying the whole of the S. coast, from Calpe on the W. to Barea on the E., which was called from them BasTetania (BaarnTaria). They also extended inland, on the E., along M. Orospeda. But Ptolemy distinguishes the Bastuli from the Bastctani, placing the latter E. of the former, as far as the borders of the Oretani, and extending the Bastuli W. as far as the mouth of the Baetis. They were a mixed race, partly Iberian and partly Phoenician, and hence Ptolemy speaks of them as Bootodaoi oi KoKov^itvoX Xloivoi, and Appian calls them BKaaroipolyiKts (Hup. 56). (Strab. iii. pp. 139, 155, 156, 162; Mela, iii. 1; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3; Ptol. ii. 4. §§ 6, 9; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1, pp.308,309,315,406). [P.S.]

BA'STIA. [meutesa Bastia.]

BATA (Bdra), a village and harbour in Sarmatia Asiatics, on the Euxine, 400 stadia S. of Sinda, and near the mouth of the river Psychrus. (Strab. xi. p. 496; Ptol. v. 9. § 8.)' [P. S.]

BATANA. [ecbataka.]

BATANAEA (BcnWa), a district to the NE. of Palestine, situated between Gaulonitis (which bounded Galilee on the east, and extended from the Sea of Tiberias to the sources of the Jordan) and Ituraea or Auranitis, having Trachonitis on the

north. (Reland, Palaest. p. 108.) It was added to the kingdom of Herod the Great by Augustus (Joseph. Ant. xv. 10. § 1), and afterwards comprehended with Ituraea (or Aulonitis) and Trachonitis, in the tetrarchy ot Philip (xvii. 13. § 4; comp. St. Luke, iii. 1; Keland, pp. 108, 202.) It is reckoned to Syria by Ptolemy (v. 15. § 25). [G. W.]

BATAVA CASTRA (Passau), also called Batavinum oppidum, a town or rather a fort in Vindelicia, at the point where the Aenus flows into the Danube, and opposite the town of Boiodurum. It derived its name from the fact that the ninth Batavian cohort was stationed there. (Eugipp. Vit Sever. 22. and 27; Notit. Tmper.) [L. S.]

BA'TAVI, or BATA'VI (botouoi, Botoouoi), for the Romans seem to have pronounced the name both ways (Juven. viii. 51; Lucan, i. 431), a people who are first mentioned by Caesar (B. G. iv. 10). The name is also written Vatavi in some MSS. of Caesar; and there are other varieties of the name. The Batavi were a branch, or part of the Chatti, a German people, who left their home in consequenco of domestic broils, and occupied an island in the Rhine, where they became included in the Roman Empire, though they paid the Romans no taxes, and knew not what it was to be ground by the Publicani: they were only used as soldiers. (Tac. Germ. i. 29, Hist. iv. 12.) They occupied this island in Caesar's time. B. c. 55, but we do not know how long they had been there. The Batavi were good horsemen, and were employed as cavalry by the Romans in their campaigns on the Lower Rhine, and in Britain (Tac. Hist. iv. 12), and also as infantry (Agric. 36). In the time of Vitellius (a. D. 69) Claudius Civilis, a Batavi an chief, who, or one of his ance>tors, as we may infer from his name, had obtained the titlo of a Roman citizen, rose in arms against the Romans. After a desperate struggle he was defeated, and the Batavi were reduced to submission. (Tac. Hist. iv. 12—37; 54—79, v. 14—26.) But as we learn from the passage of Tacitus already cited (67erm.29), they remained free from the visits of the Roman taxgatherer; and they had the sounding title of brothers and friends of the Roman people. Batavian cavalry are mentioned as employed by the emperor Hadrian, and they swam the Danube in full armour (Dion Cass. Ixix. 9; and note in the edition of Reimarus, p. 1482). During the Roman occupation of Britain, Batavi were often stationed in the island.

The Batavi were employed in the Roman armies as late as the middle of the fourth century of the Christian aera; and they arc mentioned on one occasion as being in garrison at Sirmium in Pannonia. (Zosim. iii. 35.)

The Batavi were men of large size (Tac. Hist. iv. 14, v. 18), with light or red hair (Martial, xiv. 176; Auricomus Batavus, Sil. iii. 608).

The Batavi were included within the limits of Galliafes Gallia is defined by Caesar (B. G. iv. 10), who makes the Rhine its eastern boundary from its source in the Alps to its outlet in the Ocean. The names of the places within the limits of their settlement appear to show that this country was originally Gallic. The Batavi occupied an island (Insula Batavorum, Caesar, B. G. iv. 10). Caesar was informed, for ho only knew it by hearsay, that the Mosa received a branch from the Rhine; this branch was called Vahalis, or Vacalus, according to some of the best MSS. of Caesar, now the Waal. The meaning of the passage of Caesar, in which ho describes the " Insula Batavorum," appears to be that the island of tho Batavi was formed by the Waal, or the branch from the Rhine, the Mosa, and the main stream of the Rhino, so that the Ocean would bound the island on the west; but this is not what he says, according to some texts (see Schneider's Caesar, iv. p. 326). Tacitus (Ann. ii. 6) describes the Rhine as dividing into two streams at the point where the Batavian territory begins (apud principium agri Batavi), and continuing its rapid course, under the same name, to the Ocean. The stream on the Gallic side, which is wider and less rapid, receives from the natives the name Vahalis, which name is sonn changed to that of Mosa, by tlio outlet of which river it enters the same Ocean as the Rhine —We may infer from this passage that Tacitus conceived the island as formed by tho main branch of the Rhine, by the other branch called the Vahalis, which flows into the Mosa, by the course of the Mosa to the sea, after it had received the Vahalis, and by the Ocean on the west. And the interpretation, which is the true meaning of his words, is confirmed by another passage (Hist. iv. 12), in which he says that the Ocean was the western boundary of the island (a fronte). Pliny (iv. 15) makes the Insula Batavorum nearly 100 M. P. in length, which is about the distance from the fort of Sehenkenschanz, where the first separation of the Rhine takes place, to the mouth of the Maas. This fort was built on the site of a fort named Hcrispick, which place, as we learn from a writer of tho ninth century, was at that time tho point of separation of the Rhine and Waal, which are described as surrounding the "Provincia Batua." (Walckcnaer, Geog. &c, vol. i. p. 493.) The result of all these authorities appears to be that the island was formed by the bifurcation of the Rhine, the northern branch of which enters the sea at Katwyck, a few miles north of Leydcn, by the Waal, and the course of tho Maas after it has received the Waal, and by the sea. The Waal seems to have undergone considerable changes, and the place of its junction with tho Maas may have varied. Walckenner, following Oudendorp's text, endeavours to explain the passage in Caesar, who, according to that text, says that the " Mosa .... having received a portion of the Rhine, which is called Vahalis, and makes the Insula Batavorum, flows into the Ocean, and it is not further from the Ocean than lxxx. M. P., that it passes into the Ehenus." But Walckcnaer's attempt is a failure, and he helps it out by sliglitly altering Oudendorp's text, which ho professed to follow. Though Caesar's text is uncertain, it is hardly uncertain what he means to say.

The first writer who calls this island Batavia is Zosimns (iii. 6), and he says that in tho time of Constantins (a. D. 358), this island, which was once Roman, was in the possession of the Salii, who were Franks. Batavia was no doubt the genuino name, which is preserved in Betwce, the nan% of a district at the bifurcation of the Rhine and the Waal. The Cannincfates, or Cannincfates (Plin. iv. 15; Tac. Hist iv. 15), a people of the same race as the Batavi, also occupied the island, and as the Batavi seem to have been in the eastern part, it is supposed that the Cannincfates occupied the western part. The Cannincfates were subdued by Tiberius in tho reign of Augustus. (Veil. Pat ii. 105.) The chief place was Lugdunum (Leyden). This name, Lugdunum, is Celtic as well as Batavodurum, the other chief town of the island, which confirms the supposition that the Celtic nation

originally extended as far north as the mouth and lower courso of the Rhine; and Tacitus (Hist iv. 12) states this distinctly. In tho time of Nero (Tac. Ann. x. 20) the Roman commander Corbulo, who was in the island, employed his soldiers who had nothing to do, in digging a canal to unite the Rhine aud the Maas. It was 23 M. P. in length, or 170 stadia according to Dion Cassias (Ix. 30). It ran from Lugdunum past Drift to the Mais below Rotterdam, and entered the Maas at or near Vlaandingen. A Roman road ran from Leydn through Trajectum (Utreeht) to Bnrginatio, apparently a word tliat contains the Teutonic element, burg; and the site of Bnrginatio seems to be that of Schenken-schanz. [G. L.]

BATAVODU'RUM, a place on the Rhine (Tac HisL v. 20), where the Romans had a legion, the Secunda, during the war with Civilis. The name Batavo-dur, um means a Batavian place on a stream. The site is generally supposed to be what was called Dorestade in the middle ages, and now Wyck-te-Durstede, which is in the angle formed by the Leek and the Kromme Rhyn, a position which is consistent with the attempt of the German auxiliaries of Civilis to destroy a bridge at Batavodurum, if we suppose that they came from the German or north side of the Rhine to attack the place. Some geographers fix Batavodurum at Noviomagus, generally supposed to be Nymegen, in favour of which something may be said. [G. L.J

BATAVO'RUM INSULA. [batavi.]

BATAVO'RUM O'PPIDUM, is mentioned in Tacitus (Hist. v. 19), as it stands in most texts. Civilis, after being defeated by the Romans at Vetera, and not being able to defend the "Batavornm Oppidum" retreated into the Batavorum Insula. If Nymegen were Batavodurum, the Batavorum Oppidum and Batavodurum might be the same pbce. If we read in Tacitus (Hist. v. 19) "Oppida Batavoram," as one MS. at least lias, there must have been Batavian towns out of the Insula as well as in it; and this may bo so, as Lipsius contends, and cites in support of his opinion Tacitus (HisL iv. 12). Batenburg, on the right bank of the Maas, and nearly due west of Nymegen, will suit very well the position of the Oppidum Batavorum, so far as the events mentioned in Tacitus show; and in this case also we have a Batavian town which is not within the Insula. [G. I..]

BATHIXUS, a river of Dalmatia in Ulyricum, the situation of whichis unknown. (Veil. Pat.ii. 114.)

BATHOS (Bdfloj), a place of Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, between Trapezus and Basilis. Near to a neighbouring fountain called Olympias fire was seen to issue from the ground. In the ravine, which Pausanias indicates by the name bathos, the earth burnt for several years about 30 or 40 years ago, but without any flames. (Paus. viii. 29. § 1; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 90.)

BATHY'NIAS (BoSwior), a river in Thrace, emptying itself into the Propontis not far from Byzantium. (Plin. iv. 18; Ptol. iii. 11. § 6.) This river is probably tho same as the one called Bathyrsus by Theophanes (vol. v. p. 340, ed. Bonn), and Bithyas by Appian (Mithril. 1). [L. S.]

PATHVS (Boflys), a small river on the coast of Pontus, 75 stadia north of the Acampsis (ait. p. 7), and of course between that river and the Phasis. It is also mentioned by Pliny (vi. 4), who places only one stream between it and the Phasis.' [G. L.]

BATOYS TORTUS. [Auus.]

BATIAE (Bar/ai), a town of Thesprotia in Epeirus, mentioned along with Elateia, and situated m the interior in the neighbourhood of Pandemia. (Strab. vii. p. 324; Theopomp. ap. Harpocrat. s. v. 'Exdrtta; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 74.)

BATIA'NA, in Gallia Narbonensis, ia placed in the Table between Acunum (Ancone) and Valentia ( Valence). It appears in the geographer of Ravenna, under the name Vatiana. D'Anville fixes the position at Baix, on the west bank, of the Rhone; but Walckenaer (Geog. &c, vol. ii. p. 204) places it opposite to Baix, at a place named Bancs, which is the same name as the Vancianis of the Jerusalem Itin. Probably there was a road on both sides of the river between Valentia and Acunum. [G. L.]

BATI'NI (BaT«iKof), a German tribe, which Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 20) places between Mount Sudeta and Asciburgius. Some believe the Batini to have been the same as the Butoncs, who, together with other tribes, were subdued by Maroboduus. (Strab. vii. p. 290, where however Cramer reads rovTwvfs.) Modern writers connect the names Budissin or BudU with the ancient Butini. (See Kruse, Budorgis, p. 113.) [L. S.]

BATIXUS, a river of Picenum, mentioned only by Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who places it between the Voumnus (Vomano), and the Truentus (Tronto). There can be little doubt that it was the river now called the Tordino, which flows by Teramo (Interamna), and enters the Adriatic near Giulia Nuova. [E. H. B.]

BATNAE (Bdr^eu: Eth. Barvatos). 1. A town of Osroene. This name of Syriac origin is found in the Arabic, and means a place in a valley where waters meet. (Milman, note on Gibbon's Decl. and Fall, vol. iv. p. 144; St. Martin, note on Le Beau, vol. iii. p. 56.) According to Amm. Marcellinus (xiv. 3. § 3) it was a municipal town in the district of Anthemusia, built by the Macedonians at a little distance from the Euphrates. Many opulent traders resided here, and during the month of September a large fair was held, which was attended by merchants from India and China. Dion Cassius mentions that Trnjan, after his capture of Batnae and Nisibis, assumed the name of Parthicus. At Batnae it is recorded that the emperor Julian met with one of those disastrous presages which had so much influence upon him. (Amra. Marc, xxiii. 2.) Zosimus (iii. 12) merely mentions his march from it to Carrhae. Procopius (if. P. ii. 12) describes it as a small and unimportant town at about a day's journey from Edessa, which was easily taken by Chosroes. Justinian afterwards fortified it, and it became a place of some consideration. (Procop. De Aedif. xii. 8.) The Syrian Christians called this city Batna Sarugi, or Batna in Sarugo. (Assemanni. Bibl. Orient, vol. i. p. 285.) Afterwards the name of Batnae seems to have given way to that of Sarug; and under that title its later history is fully given in Assemann (Bibliotkeca Orientalis). In the Peutinger Tables it appears under the name of Batnis, between Thiar (Deoera) and Charris (Carrhae), and the Antonine Itinerary places it at 10 M. P. from Edessa; the unintelligible affix of "Mari" to the name being, according to Wesseling, an abbreviation of " Municipium." This place Li mentioned also by Hierocles. Colonel Chesney speaks of remains of this city, and describes two colossal unfinished lions at A tilan Tdgh, about 8 miles S. of Batnae, as of peculiar interest. (Exped. Euphrat. voL i. p. 114.)

The ruins of which Lord Pollmgton (Journal Geoff. Soc. vol. x. p. 451) speaks as being on the road from Edessa to Bir, are conjectured by Ritter to belong to this place. (Erdkunde, vol. xi. p. 282.)

2. A village of Syria, which has often been confounded with the city of the same name on the other side of the Euphrates; according to the Antonine Itinerary it was situated between Beroea and Hierapolis, 54 M. P. from the former, and 21 M. P., or, according to the Peutinger Tables, 18 M. P. from the latter. It is to this place that the well-known description of Julian, Bap€apucbv tvopjx Tovto, Xwpiov i<rr\v 'ewtjviksv (Epist. 27), applies. The emperor describes it as situated in a grove of cypresses, and prefers it to Ossa, Pelion, and Olympus. Abulfeda {Tab. Syr. p. 192) speaks of it in a manner to justify these praises. [E. B. J.]

BATRASABBES (or Batrasaves), a town of the Omani (now Oman) in Arabia, at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, and near to Cape Mussendom (Plin. vi. 28. s. 32), identical in situation with the Black Mountains and Cape of Asabi, and still marked by a town and district named Sabee, close to C. Mussendom. (Forster, Arabia, vol. ii. p. 225.) [G. W.]

BATULUM, a town of Campania, mentioned by Virgil (Aen. vii. 739) in conjunction with Rufrao and Celenna; and by Silius Italic us (viii. 566), who associates it with Macrae and Bovianum. The latter author clearly regards it as a Samnite city; but Virgil seems to be enumerating only places which adjoined the Campanian plain, and Servius in his note on the passage calls both Rufrae and Batulum "castella Campaniae, a Samnitibus condita." The name is not mentioned by any other author, and its site is wholly unknown. [E. H. B.]

BAUDOBRICA is placed in the Table, where it is named Bontobrice, above Confluentes (Coblenz) at the junction of the Rhine and Mosel. The Notitia places it between Coblenz and Bint/en. It is twice mentioned in the Antonine Itin., under the name of Baudobrica; but it is erroneously placed between Antunnacum (AndernacK) and Bonn. The distances in the Table and the column of Tongern, where it is named Bondobrica, fix the site at Boppart, which is on the west bank of the Rhine, between Oberwesel and Coblenz. The name Boppart is the same as the name Bobardia, which occurs in mediaeval documents. [G. L.]

BAULI (BaOAoi), a place on the coast of Campania, between Baiae and Cape Misennm. It was merely an obscure village before it became, in common with the neighbouring Baiae, a place of resort for wealthy Romans; but late writers absurdly derived its name from Boaulia (BoavKia), and pretended that Hercules stabled his oxen there; whence Silius Italicus calls it11 Herculei Bauli." (xii. 156; Serv. ad A en. vi. 107; Symmach. Ep. i. 1.) The orator Hortensius had a villa here with some remarkable fish-ponds, which were the wonder of his contemporaries; they afterwards passed into the possession of Antonia, the wife of Drusus. (Varr. R. R. iii. 17; Plin. ix. 55. s. 81.) It is in this villa that Cicero lays the scene of his supposed dialogue with Catulus and Lucullus, which forms the second book of the Academics. (Cic. Acad. ii. 3, 40.) Nero afterwards had a villa here, where Agrippina landed, and was received by him just before he caused her to be put to death. Dion Cassius represents it as the actual scene of her murder, but, from the more detailed narrative of Tacitus, it appears that she proceeded from thence to Bniae, and there embarked with the view of returning to Bauli; and when the attempt to drown her on the passage failed, took refuge in her own villa near the Lucrine Lake, where she was soon after assassinated. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 4—8; Suet. A'er. 34; Dion Cass, lxi. 13; Mart. iv. 63.) Wo learn from a letter of Symmachua that Bauli had lost nothing of its pleasantness, and was still occupied by numerous villas, as late as the reign of Theodosius; but we have no subsequent account of it. The modem village of Bacoh stands on a ridge of hill at some height above the sea, but it is evident, both from the expression of Silius Italicns, " ipso in litore " ([ c), and from the narrative of Tacitus, that the ancient Bauli was close to the sea-shore; the range of villas probably joining those of Baiac, so that the two names are not unfrequently interchanged. There still exist on the shore extensive ruins and fragments of ancient buildings, which have every appearance of having belonged to the palace-like villas in question. Adjoining these are a number of artificial grottoes or galleries, commonly called Le Cento Camerelle, opening out to the sea; the precise object of which is unknown, but "which were doubtless connected with some of the villas here. On the hill above is an immense subterranean and vaulted edifice, which appears to have been a reservoir for water; probably designed for the supply of the fleet at Misenum. It is one of the greatest works of the kind now extant, and is commonly called La Piscina Mirabile. (Eustace's Clan. Tour, vol. ii. p. 417; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 510.) [E. H.B.]

BAUTAE is placed in the Antonine Itin., on a road from Dantntasia (.l/ou/ierj en Tarentaise) to Geneva. D'Anville fixes Bautae at Yieux Annecy, a little distance north of the town of Annecy in Savoi/. [G. L.]

BAUTES, BAUTIS, or BAUTISUS (Baurr/r, TSavriaoi; Iloang-ho or Yellow River), one of the two chief rivers of Sekica, rising, according to Ptolemy, from three sources, one in the Casii M., another in the Ottocorras M., and a third in the Emodi M.; and flowing into the country of the Sinae. (Ptol. vi. 16. § 3; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.) The three sources of l'tolemy have not been identified with any certainty.' [P. S.]

BAUZANUM (Botzen), a town in' Rhaetia. (Paul. Diac. v. 36.)

BAVO (Plin. iii. 26. s. 30), or BOA (Cod. Thcod. 16. tit. 5. s. 53; also Boae, Amm. Marc, xxii. 3; Boia, Ant. Itin, p. 523, Wess.: Baa), an island off the coast of Dalmatia in lllyricum, used as a place of banishment under the emperors.

BAZl'RA (to Bi(ipa) or BEZl'BA, a fort of the Assaceni, at the S. foot of M. Paropamisus, taken by Alexander on his march into India. (Arrian, Anab. iv.27,28; Curt. viii. 10. § 2.) It is usually identified with Bajore or Buhore, NW. of Pethawer; but it is by no means certain that this is the true sins. [P. S.]

BAZ1UM (Baf«w txpov, PtoL iv. 5. § 8), a pro montory which formed the southern extremity of Foul Bay (Sinus Immundus), and appears to be the modem Bat ei Naschef. It was in lat, 24° 5' N., in the Regio Troglodytica, and was the northernmost projection of Aethiopia Proper on the coast of the Red Sea. [W. B. D.]

BEA'TTA (Inter.), BIA'TIA (Biai-.'a, PtoUi. 6. § 9), or VI A'TIA (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4), a city of the Oretani in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the frontier of Buc

tica: now Bneza, on the upper Guadalquivir. (Flore?, vii. p. 97; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 408.) [P. S.]

BE'BU MONIES. [illyicicum.]

BEBRY'CES (B«6>ui«j, their country B*Bpvuia). 1. A nation on the Pontus in Asia. Stephanos («. p. BvaraTot) also mentions the Bysnaei as a tribe of Bebryces. Strabo (p. 295) supposes the Bebryces to have been of Thrat ian stock, and that their first place of settlement in Asia was Mysia. Dionysius Pcriegctes (805; and see the commentary of Eustathius) places the Bebryces where the river Cius enters the Propontis, that L*, about the Gulf of Cius. Eratosthenes (Plin. v. 30) enumerates the Bebryces among the Asiatic nations that had perished. In fact, the Bebryces belong to mythology rather than to history. [G. L.]

2. An Iberian people, regarded as aboriginal, dwelling on both sides of the Pyrenees. They were wild and uncivilized, and subsisted on the produce of their flocks and herds. (Avien. Or. Marit. 485; Sil. Ital. iii. 420—443, xv. 494; Tzetz. ad Ijgcopkr. 516, 1305; Zonar. viii. 21; Humboldt, die Urbewohner Hitpanient, p. 94.) [P. S.]

BECHE1RES (B(X«p«, B«x«poi), a barbarous tribe on the coast of the Pontus (Apull. Rhod. ii. 396, 1246; Dionys. Perieg. 765), mentioned with the Macrones, and as cast of the Micrones. Scylax, following the coast from east to west, names the Bccheires, and then the Macrocephali, supposed by Cramer to be the Macrones; hut Pliny (vi. 3) distinguishes the Macrones and Macrocephali. Pliny's enumeration of names often rather confuses than helps us; and it is difficult to say where he places the Becheires. But we might infer from Pliny and Mela (i. 19) that they were west of Trapezus, and cast of the Thermodon. [G. L.]

BEDA, a position placed on the road between Augusta Trevirorum (Trier) and Cologne. 12 Gallic leagues from Trier. It appears to be a place called Bidburg. The name Pagus Bedensis occurs in the notice of the division made A.d. 870 of the possessions of Lothaire between his brothers Louis the German and Charles the Bald. [G. L.]

BEDAIUM or B1DAIUM (BaSoxor), a town in tsoricum. (PtoL ii. 14. § 3; Itin. Ant. pp. 236, 257, 258; Tab. Penting.) Modem geographers identify it with Bamburg or with Burghauten near the point where the Salzach flows into the Danube. (Comp. Orelli, Intcript. No. 1694, where a god Bedaius is mentioned, who was probably worshipped at Bedaium.) [L. S.]

BEDRIACUM or BEBRIACUM (the orthography of the name is very uncertain, but the best MSS. uf Tacitus give the first form: Br/fyiawoV, Joseph.; BrtrptcutSv, Plut; Eth. Bedriacensis), a village or small town (vicus) of Cisalpine Gaul, situated between Verona and Cremona. Though in itself an inconsiderable place, and not mentioned by any of the ancient geographers, it was celebrated as the scene of two important and decisive battles, the first in A. r>. 69, between the generals of Vitellius, Cacctna and Fabius Valens, and those of Otho; which ended in the complete victory of the former: the second, only a few months later, in which the Yitellian generals were defeated in their turn by Antonius Primus, the lieutenant of Vespasian. But the former battle, from its being immediately followed by the death of Otho. obtained the greatest note, and is generally meant when the u pugna Bedriacensis" is mentioned. Neither of the two actions was, however, in fact, fought at, or close to,

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