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Bedriacum, but on the road from thence to Cremona, and considerably nearer to the latter city: the asBailing army having, in both instances, advanced from Bedriacum. (tac. Hist, ii. 23, 39—44, 49, iii. 15, 20—25, 27; Plut. Otlio, 8, 11—13; Joseph. B. J. iv. 9. § 9; Suet. Oth. 9; Eutrop. vii. 17; Vict. Ejiit. 7; Juv. ii. 106, and Schol. ad he.) The position of Bedriacum has been the subject of much controversy. From the detailed narrative of Tacitus we learn that it was on the high road from Verona to Cremona; while the Tabula places Beloriaco (evidently a mere corruption of Bebriaco) on the road from Cremona to Mantua, at the distance of 22 M. P. from the former city. This distance coincides exactly with a point on the modern road from Cremona to Mantua, about 2 miles E. of S. Lorenzo Gvazzone, the same distance NW. of Bozzolo, and close to the village of Calvatone, from whence a perfectly direct line of road (now abandoned, but probably that of the Roman road) leads by Goito to Verona. If this position be correct Bedriacum was situated just at the point of separation of the two roads from Cremona, one of which appears from Tacitus (Hist, iii. 21) to have been called the Via Postumia. Cluverius placed Bedriacum at Canneto, a small town on the Oglio (Ollius) a few miles N \V. of the place just suggested: Mannert fixes it at S. Lorenzo Guazzone: D'Anville at Cividale, about 3 miles S. of Bozzolo; but this is probably too near the Padus. The precise position must depend upon the course of the Roman road, which has not been correctly traced. We learn from Tacitus that, like the. modern high roads through tills flat and low country, it was carried along an elevated causeway, or agger; both sides being occupied with low and marshy meadows, intersected with ditches, or entangled with vines trained across from tree to tree. (Cluvcr. Hal. pp. 259—262; Mannert, Italien, vol. i. p. 153; D'Anville, Geogr. Anc. p. 48.) [E.H.B.]


BEER (Brjpd), mentioned only once in Scripture (Judges, ix. 21). It is placed by Euscbius and St. Jerome in the great plain, ten miles north of Eleutheropolis (BeitJebrin), and a deserted village named el~ Bireh, situated near the site of Beth-Shemesh, serves to confirm their notice. It is sometimes supposed to be identical with the following, though they are distinguished by the above-cited authors. [G.W.]

BEEROTH (Bnpiie), the plural form of Beer, signifies Weill. It is placed by Eusebius at the distance of seven miles from Jerusalem, on the road to Nicopolis, or Emmaus (now 'Amicus). But St. Jerome's version of the Onomasticon places it on the road to Neapolis (Nablus) at the same distance from Jerusalem. This would correspond very nearly with the site of the modern village of el-Binh, which is about three hours, i. e. eight or nine miles, north of Jerusalem, on the high road to Nablus. "Many large stones, and various substructions testify to the antiquity of the site" (Robinson, Bib. lies. vol. ii. p. 130), and there are remains of two large reservoirs, formerly fed by a copious fountain, to which the city probably owed its name. It was one of the four cities of the Gibeonites, and fell to the lot of the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. ix. 17, xviii. 25; Reland, 1'alaest. pp 484, 618.) TG.W.]

BEERSHKBA (BijpffoS.l), "The Well of the Oath;" so named from an incident in the life of / Abraham (Gen. xxi. 25, Ac), and afterwards the eitc of a city, situated iu that part of Judali, which

was assigned to the tribe of Simeon. (Josh. xv. 28, xix. 2.) It is proverbial as the southernmost extremity of the Land of Israel, and was in the time of Euscbius a very extensive village twenty miles south of Hebron. It was then occupied by a Roman garrison. Its name is still preserved, and the site is marked by two fine ancient wells, and extensive ruins. (Reland, s. v.; Robinson, Bib. lies. vol. ii. pp. 301—303.) It is 12 hours, or more than 30 Roman miles, S. W. by W. of Hebron. [G. W.] BEGORRI'TIS LACUS, mentioned only by Livy (xlii. 53), was situated in Eordaca in Macedonia, and probably derived its name from a town Regorra. Leake supposes Begorra to have been situated at Kalidri, and the Begorritis Lacus to be the small lake of Kitrini. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 289, 316.)

BELBINA (Bi\Siva: Eth. Be\gwhns, Her., more correctly BeXSi^/rnt, Steph. B.: St. George'}, a Bmall island, very lofty and difficult of access situated at the entrance of the Saronic gulf, about 10 miles from the promontory of Sunium. Although nearer Attica than the Peloponnesus, it was reckoned to belong to the latter. Hence, it was doubtless inhabited by Dorians, and was probably a colony from Belemina (also written Behnina and Belbina), a town on the confines of Laconia and Arcadia. [belemina.] Themistocles quotes the name of this island as one of the most insignificant spots in Hellas. (Herod, viii. 125.) The island was inhabited in antiquity. On all the slopes of the hills there are traces of the ancient ten-aces; and on one of the summits are remains of the ancient town. But neither inscriptions nor coins have yet been found on the inland. (Scylax, p. 20; Strab. viii. p. 375, ix. p. 398; Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19; Ross, Beisen auf den Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 172.)

BELEA, a place which is mentioned in the Antoninc Itin., between Genabum, Orle'ans, and Brivodurum (Briare). Its site is unknown. [G. L.] BELEMl'NA, BELMI'NA, or BELBI'NA (BfXeiuh'a, Bt\fLtva, BfA&'ra: Eth. BeA&Wjrijs, Steph. B.), a town in the NW.frontierof Laconia, the territory of wliich was called Belminatis. (Bthfiivaris, Polyb. ii. 54; Strab. viii. p. 343.) It was originally an Arcadian town, but was conquered by the Lacedaemonians at an early period, and annexed to their territory; although Pausanias does not believe this statement. (Paus. viii. 35. § 4.) After the battle of Leuctra Belbina was restored to Arcadia; most of its inhabitants were removed to the newly founded city of Megalopolis; and the place continued to be a dependency of the latter city. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4; Plut. Cleotn. 4; Polyb. ii. 54.) In the wars of tho Achaean league, the Belminatis was a constant source of contention between the Spartans and Achaeans. Under Macbanidas or Nabis, the tyrants of Sparta, the Belminatis was again annexed to Laconia; but upon the subjugation of Sparta by Philopoemen in B.C. 188, the Belminatis was once more annexed to the territory of Megalopolis. (Liv. xxxviii. 34.) The Belminatis is a mountainous district, in which the Eurotas takes its rise from many springs. (Strab. /. c.; Paus. iii. 21. § 3.) The mountains of Belemina, now called Tzimbarii, rise to the height of 4108 feet. Belemina is said i by Pausanias (I. c.) to have been 100 stadia from ! Pellana, and is pla ed by Leake on the summit of \ Mount Khelraos, upon which there are Hellenic rc■ mains. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 20; l'eloponnesuica, pp. 203 234, 237 366.)

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BELENDI, a people of Aquitania, mentioned by Pliny (iv. 19), whase name appears to be preserved in that of Belin, a small place in the Landes, between Bordeaux and Bayonne. The place is called Belinum in some old documents, and the passage of the river Pons Belini. Bclin is on the small river Let/re, in the department of Les Landes, which runs through the dreary Landes into the Bassin dArcaehon. [G. L.]

BELE'KIUM, the Land's End, in Britain. Bclerium is the form in Diodorns Siculus (v. 21). Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 3) has Bolerium; specially stating that Bolerium and Antivcstaeum were synonymous. [R. G. L.]

BELGAE. Caesar (B. G. i. 1) makes the Belgae, by which he means the country of the Belgae, one of the great divisions of Gallia. The Belgae were separated from their southern neighbours the Ccltae by the Seine and tho Marne (Matrona), a branch of the &;ine. Their boundary on the west was the Ocean; on the east and north the lower course of the IVdne. Caesar's Gallia extends as far as the outlets of the Rhine (/?. G. iv. 10), and includes the Insula Batavortun [batavorum Insula]; but there is a debated point or two about the outlets of the Rhine, which is better discussed elsewhere [rhenus]. Caesar does not fix the boundary of the Belgno between the source of the Manic and the Rhine; but as the Lingones and the Scquani seem to be the most northern of the Celtae in these parts, the boundary may have run from the source of the Marne along the Cote dOr and the Fauciiles to the Vosges (Vosegus Mons)* and the Vosegns was the boundary from the north bank of the Doubs (Dnbis) to its termination in the angle formed by tho juncture of the Nahe and the Rhine, near Bingen, with this exception that the Mediomatrici extended to the Rhine (B. G. iv. 10). The people on the east of tho Vosges were Germans, Vangiones, Neinetes, Tribocci, who occupied the plain of Alsace, and perhaps somewhat more. (Tacit. German. 28.) These three tribes, or a part of each, were in the army of Ariovistus. (Caes. B. 0. i. 51.) As to the Tribocci at least, their position on the left bank of the Rhine in Caesar's time, is certain (/i. G. iv. 10). Strabo (p. 194) speaks of them as having crossed the Rhine into Gallia, without mentioning t lie time of this passage. The Nemetes and Vangionos may have settled west of the Rhine after Caesars time, and this supposition agrees with Caesar's text, who does not mention them in B. G. iv. 12, which he should have done, if they had then been on the Gallic side of the Rhine. Caesar's military operations in Gnllia did not extend to any part of the country between the Motel and the Rhine. The battle in which he defeated Ariovistus was probably fought in the plain of Alsace, north of BSle; but Caesar certainly advanced no further north in that direction, for it was unnecessary: he finished this German war by driving the Germans into the Rhine.

Caesar gives to a part of the whole country, which he calls the country of the Belgae, the name of Belgium (/?. G. v. 12, 24, 25); a term which he might form after the fashion of the Roman names, Latium and Sarnnium. But the reading " Bclgio" is somewhat uncertain, for the final o and the s may easily have been confounded in the MSS.; and though the MSS. arc in favour of " Belgio" in v. 12,25, they are in favour of " Belgis" in v. 24. The form "Belgio" occurs also in Hirtius (B. G. viii. 46, 49, 54), in the common texts. The form " Belgium,"

which would decide the matter, does not occur in tin Gallic war. But whether Belgium is a genuine form or not, Caesar uses either Belgium or Belgae, in a limited sense, as well as in the general sense of a third part of Gallia. For in v. 24, where he is describing the position of his troops during the winter of the year n. c. 54—5.3, he speaks of three ledons being quartered in Belgium or among the bVipe. while he mentions others as quartered anion? the Morini, the Ncrvii, the Essni, the Remi, the Treviri, and the Eburones, all of whom are Belgae, in the wider sense of the term. The part designated by the term Belgium or Belgae in v. 24, is the country of the Bellovaci (v. 46). In Hirtius (viii. 46,4") the town of Nemetocenna {A rrai), the chief place of the Atrebates, is placed in Belgium. The position of the Ambiani, between the Bellovaci and the Atrebates, would lead to a probable conclusion that tie Ambiani were Belgae; and this is confirmed by a comparison with v. 24, for Caesar placed three legions in Belgium, under three commanders; and though he only mentions the place of one of them as beira: among the Bellovaci, wo may conclude what was the position of the other two from the names of the AmbUni and Atrebates being omitted in the enumeration in v. 24. There was, then, a people, or three peoples, specially named Belgae, whom Caesar p laces between the Oitc and the upper basin of the Scheldt, in the old French provinces of ficardie and Arlois. Me might be inclined to consider the Caleti as Befae, from their position between the three Belgic peoples and the sea; and some geographers support this conclusion by a passage in Hirtius (viii. 6), hut 'hi* passage would also make us conclude that the Aulerci were Belgae, and that would be false.

In B. G. ii. 4, Caesar enumerates the principal peoples in the country of the Belgae in its wider sense, which, besides those above enumerated, were: the Suessiones, who bordered on the Remi; the Menapii in the north, on the lower Moat, and bordering on the Morini on the south and the Batavi on the north; the Caleti, at the mouth of the Seine; the Velocasses on the Seine, in the Vexin; the Veromandni, north of the Suessiones, in Vermaniois, and the Aduatuci on the Maas, and probably abont the confluence of the Moat and Sombre. The Condrusi, Eburones, Caeraesi.and Paemani, who are also mentioned in B. G. ii. 4, were called by the general name of Gennani. They were all in the basin of the Afaa*, extending from Tongern, southwards, but chieff? on the east side of the Moat; and the Eburones extended to tho Rhine. The Aduatuci were said to be Teutoncs and Cimbri. (B. G. ii. 29.)

Besides tliese peoples, there are mentioned by Caesar (B. G. v. 5) the Meldi, who arc not the Mekb on the Seine, but near Bruges, or thereabouts; and the Batavi, in tho Insula Batavorum. [batavow" Insui.a.] The Scgni, mentioned in B. G. vi.« with the Condrusi, were probablv Germans, and situated in Namur. The Ambivareli (B. G. iv. 9, TM 90) arc of doubtful position. The Mediomamn. south of the Treviri, were included in Caesar's Wg"! and also the Leuci, south of the Mediomatrici lj* Parisii, on the Seine, were Celtae. These arc » peoples included in Caesar's Belgae, except some few, such as those mentioned in B. G. v. 39, of *'m we know nothing. .

This division of Gallia comprehends part of W basin of the Seine, the basin of the Somme, of tw

Schelde, and of the Mam; and the basin Motel, which belongs to the basin of the .A*"6

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is a plain country, and contains no mountain range 1 except the Vosgea. The hills that bound the basin of the Mosel are inconsiderable elevations. The tract of the Ardennes (the Arducnna Silva), is rugged, but not mountainous. There is also the hilly tract along the Maas between JJinant and JAege, and north and east as far as Aix-la-Chapelle. The rest is level, and is a part of the great pun of Northern Europe.

Caesar (B. G. i. 1) makes the Belgae distinct from the Celtae and Aquitani in usages, political constitution, and language; but little weight is due to this general expression, for it appears that those whom Caesar calls Belgae were not all one people; they had pure Germans among them, and, besides this, they were mixed with Germans. The Itemi told Caesar (B. G. ii. 4) that mo*t of the lielgae were of German origin, that they had crossed the Rhine of old, and, being attracted by the fertility of the soil, had settled in the parts about there, and expelled the Galli who were the cultivators of those j«.rts. This is the true meaning of Caesar's text: a story of an ancient invasion from the north and east of the Rhine by Germanic people, of which we have a particular instance in the case of the Batavi [batavi]; of the Galli who were disturbed, being at tliat remote time an agricultural people, and of their being expelled by the Germans. But Caesar's words do not admit any further inference than that these German invaders occupied the parts near the Rhine. The Treviri and Ncrvii affected a German origin (Tacit. German. 28), which, if it bo true, must imply that they had some reason for affecting it; and also that they were not pure Germans, or they might have said so. Strabo (p. 192) makes the Nervii Germans. The fact of Caesar making such a river as the A fame a boundary between Belgic and Celtic peoples, is a proof that he saw some marked distinction between Belgae and Celtae, though there were many points of resemblance. Now, as most of the Belgae were Germans or of German origin, as the liemi believed or said, there must have been some who were not Germans or of German origin; and if we exclude the Menapii, the savage Ncrvii, and the pure Germans, we cannot affirm that any of the remainder of the Belgae were Germans. The name of the Morini alone is evidence that they are not Germans; for their name is only a variation of the fonn Armorici.

Within the time of man's memory, when Caesar was in Gallia, Divitiacus, a king of the Suessiones, was the most powerful prince in all Gallia, and had established his authority e\en in Britain (B. G. ii. 4). Belgae had also passed into Britain, and settled there m the maritime parts (/if. G. v. 12), and they retained the names of the peoples from which they came. The direct historical conclusion from the ancient authorities as to the Belgae, is this: they were a Celtic people, some of whom in Caesar's time were mixed with Germans, without having lost their national characteristics. Caesar, wanting a name under which he could comprehend all the peoples north of the Seine, took the name of Belgae, which seems to have been the general name of a few of the most jwwerful peoples bordering on the Seine. Strabo (p. I7G), who makes a marked distinction between the Aijuitani and the rest of the people of Celtica or Gallia Transalpina, states that the rest have the Gallic or Celtic physical choracteristics, but that they have not all the same language, some differing a little in tongue, and iu their political forms and!

habits a little; all which expresses as great a degreo of uniformity among peoples spi cad over so large a surface as could by any possibility exist in the stato of civilization at that time. Strabo, besides the Commentarii of Caesar, had the work of Posidonius as an authority, who had travelled in Gallia,

When Augustus made a fourfold division of Gallia, B. c. 27, which in fact subsisted before him in Caesar's time,—for the Provincia is a division of Gallia independent of Caesar's threefold division (B. G. i. 1),—he enlarged Aouitania [aquitania], and he made a division named Lugdunensis, of which Lugdunum (/-yon) was the capital. Strabo's description of this fourfold division is not clear, and it is best explained by considering the new division of Gallia altogether. [gallia.] Strabo, after describing some of the Belgic tribes, says (p. 194), "the rest are the peoples of the Paroccanitic Belgae, among whom are the Veneti." The word Paroccanitic is the same as Caesar's Armoric, or the peoples on the sea. He also mentions the Osismi, who were neighbours of the Veneti. This passage has been used to prove (Thierry, Hist, des Gqulois, fntrod.) that these Paroccanitic Belgae, the Veneti and their neighbours, and the Belgae north of the Seine, were two peoples or confederations of the same race; and as the Veneti were Celts, so must the Belgae north of the Seine be. It might bo said that Strabo here uses Belgae in the sense of the extended Belgian division, for he clearly means to say that this division comprehended some part of the country between the Loire and the Seine, the western part at least. But his account of the divisions of Gallia is so confused that it cannot be relied on, nor docs it agree with that of Pliny. It is certain, however, that somo changes were made in the divisions of Gallia between the time of Augustus and the time of Pliny. [gallia.] [G. L,]

BELGAE. KBritish population, is first mentioned under the name of Belgae by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 28) Caesar's notice extends only to the fact of the interior of the island being inhabited " by those who are recorded to have been born in the island itself; whereas the sea-coast is the occupancy of immigrants from the country of the Belgae, brought over for the sake of either war or plunder. All these are called by names nearly the same as those of the states they came from—names which they have retained in the country upon which they made war, and in the land whereon they settled." (/?. G. v. 12.)

How far do Caesar and Ptolemy notice the same population? Ptolemy's locality, though the exact extent of the area is doubtful, is, to a certain degree, very definitely fixed. The Belgae lay to the south of the Dobuni, whose chief town was Cormcum (Cirencester). They also lay to the east and north of the Durotrigcs of Dor-sctshire. Venta(B'tnchester) was one of the towns, and Aquae Sulis (Bath) another. Calleva (Sitrhester) was not one of them; on the contrary, it belonged to the Attrebatii. This coincides nearly with the county of Wilts, parts of Somerset and Hants being also included. It must be observed that the Belgae of Ptolemy agree with those of Caesar only in belonging to the southern part of Britain. They are chiefly an inland population, and touch the sea only on the south and west; not on the east, or the part more especially opposito Belgium. It must also be observed that Wilts is the county where the monumental remains of tho ancient occupants of Britain are at once the most numerous and characteristic.


But the Belgic area of Britain may be carried further eastwards by considering the Attrebatii as a Belgic population; in which case Belgae is a generic term, and Attrebatii the specific name of one of the divisions it includes; and by admitting the evidence of Richard of Cirencester wc may go further still. [bmiroci.] To this line of criticism,however, it may be objected, that it is as little warranted by the text of Caesar as by that of Ptolemy.

The Belgae <if Caesar require itent and Sussex as their locality: those of Ptolemy, Wilt* and Somerset. The reconciliation of these different conditions has been attempted. An extension westward between the times of the two writers has given one hypothesis. But this is beset with difficulties. To say nothing about the extent to which the time in question was the epoch of conquests almost exclusively Roman, the reasons for believing the sources of Ptolemy to have been earlier than the time of Caesar are cogent.

In the mind of the present writer, the fact that Ptolemy's authorities dealt with was the existence in Britain of localities belonging to populations called Belgae and Attrebatii; a fact known to Caesar also. Another fact known to Caesar was, the existence of Belgic immigrants along the shores of Kent and Sussex. Between these there is as little necessary connection as there is between the settlements of the modern Germans in London, and the existence of German geographical names in -sted, -hurst, &c, in Kent. But there is an apparent one; and this either Caesar or his authorities assumed. Belgae and Attrebates he found in Kent, just as men from Dclmcn-Aorjf may probably be found at present; and populations called Belgae and Attrebates he heard of in parts not very distant just as men of Gnuld-/i«rs( or WuX-hurst may be heard of now. He connected the two as nine ethnologists out of ten, with equally limited data, would have done,—logically, but erroneously.

The professed Keltic scholar may carry the criticism further, and probably explain the occurrence of the names in question—and others like them—upon the principle just suggested. He may succeed in showing that the forms lielg- and Attrebat-, have a geographical or political signification. The first is one of importance. The same, or a similar, combination of sounds occurs in Blatum IJulff-iuw, a station north of the Sol way; in the Numerus Abulc-oram stationed at Anderida; and in the famous Yw-bolgs of Ireland. Two observations apply to these last Like the Attacotti [attaCotti], they occur only in the fabulous portion of Irish history. Like the -libet in such words as quodlibet, qnibus-/(6f(, the Bolg is unficcted, the Jir- only being declined—so that the forms are Fir-Bolg (Belgae), Feroib-Bolg (Belgis). This is against the word being a true proper name. Lastly, it should be added, that, though the word Belgae in Britain is not generic, it is so in Gaul, where there is no such population as that of the Belgae, except so far as it is Nervian, Attrebatian, Menapian, &c.

That the Belgae of Britain were in the same ethnological category with the Belgae of Gaul, no more follows from the identity of name, than it follows that Cainbro-Briton and Italian belong to the same family, because each is called Welsh. The truer evidence is of a more indirect nature, and lies in the fact of the Britannic Belgae being in the same category with the rest of the Britons, the rest of the Britons being as the Gauls, and the Gauls as the continental Belgae. That the first and last of

these three propositions has been doubted is well known; in other words, it is well known that good writers have looked upon the Belgae as Germans, The Gallic Belgae, however, rather than the Britannic, are the tribes with whom this question rests. All that need be said here is, that of the three Belgic towns mentioned by Ptolemy (Ischalis, Aquae Sulis, and Venta), none is Germanic in name, whilst one is Latin, and the third eminently British, as may be seen by comparing the Venta Silurum and the Venta Icenorum with the Venta Belgarum. [K. G. L.]

BE'LGICA. [gallia.]

BKLGINUM. [gallia.]

BE'LGIUM. [beloae.]

BKLIAS. [balissus.]

BE'LION. [gallaecia.]

BELISAMA (Acstuarium), in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 2) as south of Morecambe (Morecame Bay), and, consequently, most probably the mouth of the Kibble, though Horsley identifies it with that of the Mersey. [R. G. L.]

BELLI (BeAAof), one of the smaller tribes of the Celtiberi, in Ilispania Tarraconensis, with the powerful city of Segeda (2ry^07j), the revolt of which commenced the Celtiberian War. (Polyb. xxxv. 2; Appian. de Beb. IIisp. 44, 45.) * [P. S.]

BELLINTUM, a place in Gallia, marked ia the Jerusalem Itin. between Avignon and Aries. The distance identities it with Barbentane, according to D'Anville, and with Lauzac, according to others. [G. L]

BELLOC ASSES. [velloc Asses.]

BELLOTACI (BfAAocUoi, Strabo, p. 195), a Belgic people, the first of the Belgae in numbers and influence (B. G. ii. 4, 8; vii. 59). It was reported to Caesar that they could muster 100,000 armed men. [belgae.] Their position was between the Somme (Samara) and the Seine, S. of the Ambiani, E. of the Caleti, and W. of the Suessones. It is conjectured that the small tribe of the Sylvanectcs, E. of the Oise, who are not mentioned in Caesar, were in his time included among the Bellovaci. The whole extent of the territory of the Bellovaci probably comprehended the dioceses of Beauvais and of Sen lis. Ptolemy mentions Caesaromagus (Beauvais) as the capital of the Bellovaci in his time. The only place that Caesar mentions is Bratuspantium. [bbati*sPANT1PM.] [G. L.]

BELON (BcW, Strab. iii. p. 140, Stcph. B.: Ktfi. Bf\u>vios, comp. s. v. B7]Aos), or BAELON (Bai\wv, PtoL ii. 4. § 5; Marc. Herac. p. 40; Geogr. Rav. iii. 42; coins), a city on the S. coast of Ilispania Bactica, at the mouth of a river of the same name (probably the Barbate), which Marcian places between 150 and 200 stadia S. E. of the Prom. Junonis (C. Trafalgar). The city was a considerable port, with establishments for salting fish; and it is C in. p. W. of Mellaria and 12 E. of BKSirro (Itin. Ant. p. 407, where it has the surname Claudia), at the entrance of the Fret urn Gft* ditanum (Straits of Gibraltar) from the Atlantic (Mela, ii. 6; Plin. iii. 3. s. 1), directly opposite to Tingis, in Mauretania, and was the usual place »« embareation for persons crossing over to that city (Strab. J. c.)f the distance to which was reckoned 30 Roman miles (Plin. v. 1), or 220 stadia (Bin. Ant. p. 495). Its ruins are still seen at the place called Behmxa, or BoUmia, 3 Spanish miles W. of Tarifa. There is a coin with the epigraph nAii-O. (Philas. Trans, vol. xxx. p. 922; Florez, Med. de Esp. vol. ii. p. 635, vol. hi. p. 152; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 7, Snppl. vol. i. p. 14; Sestini, p. 33; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 16; Ukert, vol. ii. pt 1, pp. 295, 343.) [P. S.]

BELSI'XUM, a place market! in the Antonine Itin. between Cliinberris (-4«cA)and LugdumimConvenanim (St. Bertrand de Comminges). Belsinum is probably the Besino of the Table. D'Anville supposes that the site may be Bernet; others take it to be Masseure: but neither distances nor names seem to enable us to fix the site with certainty. [G. L.]

BELSI NUM (B«Airuw, PtoL ii. 6. § 58), a city of the Ccitiberians, in Hispania Tarraconensis, afterwards called Vivarium. Its site is marked at VtveL, near Segarbe in Valencia, by Roman ruins and inscriptions. (Labonle, Itin.deVEspagne, vol. ii. p.346, 3rd ed.) "[P. S.]

BELU'XUM or BELLUNUM (J&*\ov*ov), a considerable town in the interior of Venetia, still called Belluno. It was situated in the upper valley of the Plavis (Piave), about 20 miles NE. of Feltria, and almost on tlie borders of Rhaetia. It was probably in ancient as well as modern times the capital of the surrounding district. (PIin. Hi. 19. s. 23; Ptol. iii. 1. § 30; P. Diac. vi. 26; Orell. Inter. G9.) [E.H.B.]

BELUS (BriMvi), called also Pagida by Pliny (v. 19), a small river of Palestine, described by Pliny as taking its rise from a hike named Cendevia, at the roots of Mount Carmel, which after running five miles enters the sea near Ptolemais (xxxvi. 2G) two stadia from the city, according to Josephus. (B.J. ii. 2. § 9.) It is chiefly celebrated among the ancients for its vitreous sand, and the accidental discovery of the manufacture of glass is ascribed by Pliny to the banks of this river, which he describes as a sluggish stream, of unwholesome water, but consecrated by religious ceremonies. (Comp. Tac. Hist. v. 7.) It is now called Nahr Na'man; but the lake Ccndevia has disappeared. It is an ingenious conjecture of Rcland that its ancient appellation may be the origin of the Greek name for glass, 6eA6s, or va\6s, (Balaest. p. 290.) [G. W.]

BEMBINA. [xemka.]

BEXA'CUS LACUS (Bfrwror tifivy, Strab.: Baivaxas, Ptol.), a lake in Cisalpine Gaul, at the foot of the Alps, formed by the river Mincius, now called the Lago di Garda. (Plin. iii. 19. s. 23; Virg. Aen. x. 205.) It is the largest of all the lakes in Italy, greatly exceeding both the Lacus Larius and Verbanus in breadth and superficial extent, though inferior to them in length. Strabo, on the authority of Poly bins, states its length at 500 stadia, and its breadth at 130 (iv. p. 209): but the former distance is greatly exaggerated, its real length being less tlian 30 G. miles, or 300 Btadia: its greatest breadth is nearly 10 G. miles. The northern half of it, which is pent in between lofty and very precipitous mountains, is however comparatively narrow: it is only the southern portion which expands to the considerable breadth above stated. The course of the lake is nearly straight from NNE. to SSW., so that the north winds from the high Alps sweep down it with unbroken force, and the storms on its surface exceed in violence those on any other of the Italian lakes. Hence Virgil justly speaks of it as rising into waves, and roaring like the sea. (Fluct'tbns et Jremitn assurgrns Benace marino, Virg. G. ii. ICO ; Serv. ad he.') The shore at its southern extremity is comparatively low, being bounded only by gently sloping lulls, from which projects a narrow tongue of land, forming the beautiful peninsula of Sikmio, which divide:;

this part of the lake into two nearly equal portions. The river Mincius issues from its SE. extremity, where stood the town of Audbuca, on the site of the modern fortress of Peschiera. Most ancient writers speak of the Mincius as having its source iu the lake Benacus (Serv. ad Aen. x. 205; Vib. Seq. pp. 6, 14; Isidor. Orig. xiii. 19), but Pliny tells us that it flowed through the lako without allowing their waters to mix, in the same manner as the Addua did through the Larian Lake, and the Khono through the Lacus Lemannus. (ii. 103. s. 106.) It is evident, therefore, that ho must have considered the river which enters the lake at its northern extremity, and is now called the Sarca, as being the same with the Mincius, which would certainly bo correct in a geographical point of view, though not in accordance with cither ancient or modern usage. According to the same author vast quantities of eels were taken at a certain season of the year where the Mincius issued from the lake. (Plin. ix. 22. s. 38.)

Several inscriptions have been found, in which the name of the Bejjacenses occurs, whence it has been supposed that there was a town of the name of Benacus. But it is more probable that this name designates the population of the banks of the lake in general, who would naturally combine for various purj>oses, such as the erection of honorary statues and inscriptions. The greater part of these have been found at a place called Toscolano, on the W. bank of the lake, about 5 miles N. of Said; the ancient name of which is supposed to have been Tusculanum. (See however Orelli, 2183.) It appears to have had a temple or sanctuary, which was a place of common resort from all parts of the lake. The name of Benacus occurs in an inscription found at S. Vigilio on the opposite shore, as that of the tutelary deity of the lake, the " Pater Benacus" of Virgil. (Rossi, Mcniorie di Brescia, pp. 200, 201; Cluver. Ital. p. 107.) The modern town of Gttrda, from whence the lake derives its present api*'llation, appears from inscriptions discovered there to have been inhabited in Koman times, but its ancient name is unknown. [E. H. B.]

BEXAMERIUM (Bnvyaptap^/A), a village of Palestine to the north of Zorah (q. c.) mentioned only by Euscbius and St. Jerome. (Onwntist. s. v. NcK-np'tp, lege Nf/wp//*.) [G. \V.]

B E X A V E XT A. [ Isanm Avati A .]

BENE (B^yn: Eth. Brjvatos), a town of Crete, in the neighbourhood of Gortyn, to which it was subject, only known as the birthplace of the poet Rhianus. (Steph. B. s. v. B-f\vn; Suid. s. v. 'Ptav6s.)

BEXEHAKXUM, a place first mentioned in the Antonine Itin. It is placed 19 Gallic leagues, or 284 M. P., from Aquae Tarbellicae (Vox), on the road to Tutdouse. But the road was circuitous, for it pa«>ed through Aquae Cunvenarum; and between Beneharnum and Aquae Convenarum the Itin. places Oppidum Novum (Naye on the Gave), 27 M. P. from Beneharnum. Another road from Caesar Augusta (Saragassa) to Beneharnum, passes through Aspa Luca (Pont VEsquW) and Iluro (Oleron), on the Gave dOleron. Iluro is 18 M. P. from Beneharnum. If then we join Oleron and Naye by a straight line, we have the respective distances 18 and 27 M. P. from Oleron and Naye to Beneliamum, as the other sides of the triangle. Walckenaer, on the authority of these two routes and personal observation, places Beneharnum at Vieille Tour to the E. of Maslac; Reichard, at Navarreins; and D'Anville places it near Orthez, Walckcnaer's site is at Cus

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