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Bedriacum, but on the road from thence to Cremona,, was assigned to the tribe of Simeon. (Josh. xv. 28, and considerably nearer to the latter city: the as- xix. 2.) It is proverbial as the southernmost ex. sailing army having, in both instances, advanced tremity of the Land of Israel, and was in the fron Bedriacum. (Tac. Ilist. ii. 23, 39—44, 49, time of Eusebius a very extensive village twenty ii. 15, 20-25, 27; Plut. Otho, 8, 11–13; Jo. miles south of Hebron. It was then occupied by a seph. B. J. iv. 9. $ 9; Suet. Oth, 9; Eutrop. vii. Roman garrison. Its name is still preserved, and 17; Vict. Epit. 7; Juv. ii. 106, and Schol. ad loc.) | the site is marked by two fine ancient we!'s, and The position of Bedriacum has been the subject of extensive ruins. (Reland, . v.; Robinson, Bib. Res. much controversy. From the detailed narrative of vol. ii. pp. 301-303.) It is 12 hours, or more than Tacitus we learn that it was on the high road from 30 Roman miles, S. W. by W. of Hebron. [G.W.) Verona to Cremona; while the Tabula places Be- BEGORRI'TIS LACUS, mentioned only by Livy loriaco (evidently a mere corruption of Bebriaco) (xlii. 53), was situated in Eordaea in Macedonia, on the road from Cremona to Mantua, at the distance and probably derived its name from a town Begorra, of 22 M. P. from the former city. This distance Leake supposes Begorra to have been situated at coincides exactly with a point on the modern road Kaliuri, and the Begorritis Lacus to be the small from Cremona to Mantua, about 2 miles E. of lake of Kitrini. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. S. Lorenzo Guazzone, the same distance NW. of pp. 289, 316.) Bozzolo, and close to the village of Calvatone, from BELBINA (B6A siva : Eth. Bea Cuvions, Her., whence a perfectly direct line of road (now aban- | more correctly Beal.vtns, Steph. B.: St. George doned, but probably that of the Roman road) leads a small island, very lofty and difficult of access by Goito to Verona. If this position be correct situated at the entrance of the Saronic gulf, about Bedriacum was situated just at the point of sepa 10 miles from the promontory of Sunium. Although ration of the two roads from Cremona, one of which nearer Attica than the Peloponnesus, it was reckoned appears from Tacitus (Hist. iii. 21) to have been to belong to the latter. Hence, it was doubtless called the Via Postumia. Cluverius placed Be- inhabited by Dorians, and was probably a colony driacum at Canneto, a small town on the Oglio from Belemina (also written Belmina and Belbina), (Ollius) a few miles NW. of the place just suggested: a town on the confines of Laconia and Arcadia. Mannert fixes it at S. Lorenzo Guazzone : D'Anville (BELEMINA.] Themistocles quotes the name of at Cividale, about 3 miles S. of Bozzolo; but this this island as one of the most insignificant spots in is probably too near the Padus. The precise position Hellas. (Herod. viii. 125.) The island was inhabited must depend upon the course of the Roman road, in antiquity. On all the slopes of the hills there which has not been correctly traced. We learn from are traces of the ancient terraces; and on one of the Tacitus that, like the modern high roads through summits are remains of the ancient town. But neithis flat and low country, it was carried along anther inscriptions nor coins have yet been found on elevated causeway, or agger; both sides being oc- the island. (Scylax, p. 20; Strab. viii. p. 375, ix. cupied with low and marshy meadows, intersected p. 398; Steph. B. 8. v. ; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19; Ross, with ditches, or entangled with vines trained across Reisen auf den Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 172.) from tree to tree. (Cluver. Ital. pp. 259–262; BELEA, a place which is mentioned in the AnMannert, Italien, vol. i. p. 153 ; D'Anville, Geogr. tonine Itin., between Genabum, Orléans, and BrivoAnc. p. 48.)

[E.H.B.] durum (Briare). Its site is unknown. [G. L.] BEDU'NIA, BEDUNENSES. [ASTURES.

T L BELÈMI'NA, BELMI'NA, or BELBI'NA (BEBEER (Bnpá), mentioned only once in Scripture neuiva, Béduiva, Beativa: Eth. Bebivýtns, Steph. (Judges, ix. 21). It is placed by Eusebius and St. B.), a town in the NW.frontier of Laconia, the territory Jerome in the great plain, ten miles north of Eleuthe- of which was called Belminatis. (Beauivatis, Polyb. ropolis (Beit Jebrin), and a deserted village named el- | i. 54; Strab. viii. p. 343.) It was originally an Bireh, situated near the site of Beth-Shemesh, serves Arcadian town, but was conquered by the Lacedaeto confirm their notice. It is sometimes supposed monians at an early period, and annexed to their to be identical with the following, though they are territory; although Pausanias does not believe this distinguished by the above-cited authors. [G.W.] statement. (Paus. viii. 35. § 4.) After the battle

BEEROTH (Bnpúe), the plural form of Beer, of Leuctra Belbina was restored to Arcadia; most signifies Wells. It is placed by Eusebius at the of its inhabitants were removed to the newly founded distance of seven miles from Jerusalem, on the road city of Megalopolis; and the place continued to be a to Nicopolis, or Emmaus (now 'Amwis). But dependency of the latter city. (Paus. viii. 27. $ 4; St. Jeroine's version of the Onomasticon places it on | Plut. Cleom. 4; Polyb. ii. 54.) In the wars of the the road to Neapolis (Nablis) at the same distance | Achaean league, the Belminatis was a constant from Jerusalem. This would correspond very nearly source of contention between the Spartans and with the site of the modern village of el-Bireh, | Achaeans. Under Machanidas or Nabis, the tyrants which is about three hours, i. e. eight or nine miles, of Sparta, the Belminatis was again annexed to north of Jerusalem, on the high road to Nablús. | Laconia ; but upon the subjugation of Sparta by * Many large stones, and various substructions Philopoemen in B.c. 188, the Belminatis was once testify to the antiquity of the site” (Robinson, Bib. more annexed to the territory of Megalopolis. (Liv. Res. vol. ï. p. 130), and there are remains of two xxxviii. 34.) The Belminatis is a mountainous large reservoirs, formerly fed by a copious fountain, district, in which the Eurotas takes its rise from to which the city probably owed its name. It was many springs. (Strab. l. c.; Paus. iii. 21. $ 3.) one of the four cities of the Gibeonites, and fell The mountains of Belemina, now called Tzimbará, to the lot of the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. ix. 17, rise to the height of 4108 feet. Belemina is said xviii. 25; Reland, Palaest. pp 484, 618.) [G.W.] by Pausanias (l. c.) to have been 100 stadia from

BEERSHEBA (Bnpoaldi), “ The Well of the Pellana, and is pla ed by Leake on the summit of Oath;" so named from an incident in the life of Mount Khelmos, upon which there are Hellenic reAbraham (Gen. xxi. 25, &c.), and afterwards the mains. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 20; Peloponsite of a city, situated in that part of Judah, which nesiaca, pp. 203 234, 237 366.)


BELENDI, a people of Aquitania, mentioned by ) which would decide the matter, does not occur in the Pliny (iv. 19), whose name appears to be pre- Gallic war. But whether Belgium is a genuine forn served in that of Bélin, a small place in the Landes, or not, Caesar uses either Belgium or Belgae, in a between Bordeaux and Bayonne. The place is limited sense, as well as in the general sense of a called Belinum in some old documents, and the pas- third part of Gallia. For in v. 24, where he is dem sage of the river Pons Belini, Bélin is on the small scribing the position of his troops during the winter river Leyre, in the department of Les Landes, which of the year B. c. 54-53, he speaks of three legions runs through the dreary Landes into the Bassin being quartered in Belgium or among the Belgae, ď Arcachon.

[G. L. 1 while he mentions others as quartered among the BELE'RIUM, the Lands End, in Britain. Bele- Morini, the Nervii, the Essni, the Remi, the Treviri, rium is the form in Diodorus Siculus (v. 21). and the Eburones, all of whom are Belgae, in the Ptolemy (ii. 3. 83) has Bolerium : specially stat- wider sense of the term. The part designated by ing that Bolerium and Antivestaeum were synony- | the term Belgium or Belgae in v. 24, is the country mous.

[R. G. L.] of the Bellovaci (v. 46). In Hirtius (viii. 46, 47) BELGAE. Caesar (B. G. i. 1) makes the Belgae, the town of Nemetocenna (Arras), the chief place of by which he ineans the country of the Belgae, one of the Atrebates, is placed in Belgium. The position the great divisions of Gallia. The Belgae were se- of the Ambiani, between the Belloraci and the Atreparated from their southern neighbours the Celtae | bates, would lead to a probable conclusion that the by the Seine and the Marne (Matrona), a branch Ambiani were Belgae; and this is confirmed by a of the Seine. Their boundary on the west was the comparison with v. 24, for Caesar placed three legions Ocean; on the east and north the lower course of in Belgium, under three commanders; and though he the Rhine. Caesar's Gallia extends as far as the only mentions the place of one of them as being among outlets of the Rhine (B. G. iv. 10), and includes the the Bellovaci, we may conclude what was the posiInsula Batavorum [BATAVORUM INSULA] ; but tion of the other two from the names of the Ambiani there is a debated point or two about the outlets of and Atrebates being omitted in the enumeration in the Rhine, which is better discussed elsewhere v. 24. There was, then, a people, or three peoples, [RHENUS). Caesar does not fix the boundary of specially named Belgae, whom Caesar places between the Belgae between the source of the Marne and the the Oise and the upper basin of the Schelde, in the Rhine; but as the Lingones and the Sequani seem old French provinces of Picardie and Artois. We to be the most northern of the Celtae in these parts, might be inclined to consider the Caletí as Belgae, the boundary may have run from the source of the from their position between the three Belgic peoples Marne along the Côte d Or and the Faucilles to the and the sea; and some geographers support this conVosges (Vosegus Mons); and the Vosegus was the clusion by a passage in Hirtius (viji. 6), but this boundary from the north bank of the Doubs (Dabis) | passage would also make us conclude that the Auto its termination in the angle formed by the junc- | lerci were Belgae, and that would be false. ture of the Nahe and the Rhine, near Bingen,' In B. G. ii. 4, Caesar enumerates the principal with this exception that the Mediomatrici extended peoples in the country of the Belgae in its wider t') the Rhine (B. G. iv. 10). The people on the sense, which, besides those above enumerated, were: east of the Vosges were Germans, Vangiones, Neme- the Suessiones, who bordered on the Remi; the Metes, Tribocci, who occupied the plain of Alsace, and napii in the north, on the lower Maas, and bordering perhaps somewhat more. (Tacit. German. 28.) on the Morini on the south and the Batavi on the These three tribes, or a part of each, were in the north; the Caleti, at the mouth of the Seine; the Ve. army of Ariovistus. (Caes. B. G. i. 51.) As to locasses on the Seine, in the Vexin; the Veromandui, the Tribocci at least, their position on the left bank north of the Suessiones, in Vermandois, and the of the Rhine in Caesar's time, is certain (B. G. iv. Aduatuci on the Maas, and probably about the con10). Strabo (p. 194) speaks of them as having fluence of the Maas and Sambre. The Condrusi, crossed the Rhine into Gallia, without mentioning the Eburones, Caeraesi, and Paemani, who are also mentime of this passage. The Nemetes and Vangiones tioned in B. G. ii. 4, were called by the general name may have settled west of the Rhine afier Caesar's of Germani. They were all in the basin of the Maas, time, and this supposition agrees with Caesar's extending from Tongern, southwards, but chiefly on text, who does not mention them in B. G. iv. 12, the east side of the Maas; and the Eburones exwhich he should have done, if they had then beentended to the Rhine. The Aduatuci were said to be on the Gallic side of the Rhine. Caesar's military | Teutones and Cimbri. (B. G. ï. 29.) operations in Gallia did not extend to any part of | Besides these peoples, there are mentioned by the country between the Mosel and the Rhine. The Caesar (B. G. v. 5) the Meldi, who are not the Meldi battle in which he defeated Ariovistus was probably on the Seine, but near Bruges, or thereabouts; and fought in the plain of Alsace, north of Bâle; but the Batavi, in the Insula Batavorum. [BATAVORUM Caesar certainly advanced no further north in that INSULA.] The Segni, mentioned in B. G. vi. 32 direction, for it was unnecessary: he finished this with the Condrusi, were probably Germans, and siGerman war by driving the Germans into the Rhine. tuated in Namur. The Ambivareti (B. G. iv. 9, vii.

Caesar gives to a part of the whole country, which 90) are of doubtful position. The Mediomatrici, he calls the country of the Belgae, the name of Bel- south of the Treviri, were included in Caesar's Belgae; gium (B. G. v. 12, 24, 25); a term which he might and also the Leuci, south of the Mediomatrici. The form after the fashion of the Roman names, Latium Parisii, on the Seine, were Celtae. These are the and Samnium. But the reading “Belgio” is some peoples included in Caesar's Belgae, except some what uncertain, for the final o and the s may easily few, such as those mentioned in B. G. v. 39, of whom have been confounded in the MSS.; and though the we know nothing. MSS. are in favour of " Belgio" in v. 12, 25, they | This division of Gallia comprehends part of the are in favour of “ Belgis" in v. 24. The form basin of the Seine, the basin of the Somme, of the * Belgio" occurs also in Hirtius (B. G. viii. 46, 49, | Schelde, and of the Maas; and the basin of the 54), in the common texts. The form “ Belgium," | Mosel, which belongs to the basin of the Rhine. 10 is a plain country, and contains no mountain range habits a little; all which expresses as great a degree except the Vosges. The hills that bound the basin of uniformity among peoples spicad over so large a of the Mosel are inconsiderable elevations. The surface as could by any possibility exist in the state tract of the Ardennes (the Arduenna Silva), is of civilization at that time. Strabo, besides the Comrugged, but not mountainous. There is also the mentarii of Caesar, had the work of Posidonius as hilly tract along the Maas between Dinant and I an authority, who had travelled in Gallia. Liège, and north and east as far as Aix-la-Chapelle. When Augustus made a fourfold division of Gallia, The rest is level, and is a part of the great plain of B. c. 27, which in fact subsisted before him in Northern Europe.

Caesar's time,- for the Provincia is a division of Caesar (B. G. i. 1) makes the Belgae distinct Gallia independent of Caesar's threefold division from the Celtae and Aquitani in usages, political con- (B.G. i. 1), — he enlarged Aquitania (AQUITANIA), stitution, and language; but little weight is due to and he made a division named Lugdunensis, of which this general expression, for it appears that those Lugdunum (Lyon) was the capital. Strabo's dewhom Caesar calls Belgae were not all one people; scription of this fourfold division is not clear, and it they had pure Germans among them, and, besides is best explained by considering the new division of this, they were mixed with Germans. The Remi Gallia altogether.' [Gallia.] Strabo, after detold Cacsar (B. G. ü. 4) that most of the Belgae scribing some of the Belgic tribes, says (p. 194), were of Gerinan origin, that they had crossed the “the rest are the peoples of the Paroceanitic Belgae, Rhine of old, and, being attracted by the fertility of among whom are the Veneti.” The word Paroccanthe soil, had settled in the parts about there, and ex- itic is the same as Caesar's Armoric, or the peoples pelled the Galli who were the cultivators of those on the sea. He also inentions the Osismi, who were parts. This is the true meaning of Caesar's text: neighbours of the Veneti. This passage has been a story of an ancient invasion from the north and used to prove (Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, Introd.) east of the Rhine by Germanic people, of which we that these Paroceanitic Belgae, the Vencti and their have a particular instance in the case of the Batavi neighbours, and the Belgae north of the Seine, were [BATAVI]; of the Galli who were disturbed, being at two peoples or confederations of the same race; and as that remote time an agricultural people, and of their the Veneti were Celts, so must the Belgae north of being expelled by the Germans. But Caesar's words the Seine be. It might be said that Strabo here do not admit any further inference than that these uses Belgae in the sense of the extended Belgian diGerman invaders occupied the parts near the Rhine. vision, for he clearly means to say that this division The Treviri and Nervii affected a German origin comprehended some part of the country between the (Tacit. German. 28), which, if it be true, must Loire and the Seine, the western part at least. But imply that they had some reason for affecting it; and his account of the divisions of Gallia is so confused also that they were not pure Germans, or they might that it cannot be relied on, nor does it agree with have said so. Strabo (p. 192) makes the Nervii that of Pliny. It is certain, however, that soine Germans. The fact of Caesar making such a river changes were made in the divisions of Gallia beas the Marne a boundary between Belgic and Celtic tween the time of Augustus and the time of Pliny. peoples, is a proof that he saw some marked distinc-| [Gallia.)

[G. L.] tion between Belgae and Celtae, though there were BELGĀE. A British population, is first mentioned many points of resemblance. Now, as most of the under the name of Belgae by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 28) Belgae were Germans or of German origin, as the Caesar's notice extends only to the fact of the inteRemi believed or said, there must have been some rior of the island being inhabited " by those who who were not Germans or of Gerinan origin; and are recorded to have been born in the island itself; if we exclude the Menapii, the savage Nervii, and whereas the sea-coast is the occupancy of immigrants the pure Germans, we cannot affirın that any of from the country of the Belgae, brought over for the the remainder of the Belgae were Germans. The sake of either war or plunder. All these are called name of the Morini alone is evidence that they are by names nearly the same as those of the states they not Germans; for their name is only a variation of came from— names which they have retained in tlie the form Armorici.

country upon which they made war, and in the land Within the time of man's memory, when Caesar whereon they settled.” (B. G. v. 12.) was in Gallia, Divitiacus, a king of the Suessiones, How far do Caesar and Ptolemy notice the same was the most powerful prince in all Gallia, and had population ? Ptolemy's locality, though the exact established his authority er en in Britain (B. G. ii. 4). extent of the area is doubtful, is, to a certain degree, Belgae had also passed into Britain, and settled there very definitely fixed. The Belgae lay to the south in the maritime parts (B. G. v. 12), and they re- of the Dobuni, whose chief town was Corincum tained the names of the peoples from which tliey (Cirencester). They also lay to the east and nortii came. The direct historical conclusion from the an- of the Durotrigcs of Dor-setshire. Venta (Wincient authorities as to the Belgae, is this: they were chester) was one of the towns, and Aquae Sulis a Celtic people, some of whoin in Caesar's time were (Bath) another. Calleva (Silchester) was not one of mixed with Germans, without baving lost their na-them; on the contrary, it belonged to the Attrebatii. tional characteristics. Caesar, wanting a name under This coincides nearly with the county of Wilts, parts which he could comprehend all the peoples north of of Sonierset and Hants being also included. It the Seine, took the name of Belgae, which seems to must be observed that the Belgae of Ptolemy agree have been the general name of a few of the most with those of Caesar only in belonging to the southern powerful peoples bordering on the Seine. Strabo part of Britain. They are chiefly an inland popula(p. 176), who makes a marked distinction between tion, and touch the sea only on the south and west; the Aquitani and the rest of the people of Celtica or not on the cast, or the part more especially opposite Gullia Transalpina, states that the rest have the Belgium. It must also be observed that Wilts is Gullie or Celtic physical characteristics, but that the county where the monumental remains of the they have not all the same language, some differing ancient occupants of Britain are at once the most a little in tongue, and in their political forins and numerous and characteristic.


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But the Belgic area of Britain may be carried fur- | these three propositions has been doubted is well ther eastwards by considering the Attrebatii as a known; in other words, it is well known that good Belgic population; in which case Belgae is a generic writers have looked upon the Belgae as Germans. term, and Attrebatii the specific name of one of the The Gallic Belgae, however, rather than the Bridivisions it includes; and by admitting the evidence tannic, are the tribes with whom this question rests. of Richard of Cirencester we may go further still. All that need be said here is, that of the three Belgic [BIBROCI.] To this line of criticism, however, it may towns mentioned by Ptolemy (Ischalis, Aquae Sulis, be objected, that it is as little warranted by the text and Venta), none is Germanic in name, whilst one is of Caesar as by that of Ptolemy.

Latin, and the third eminently British, as may be seen The Belgae of Caesar require Kent and Sussex as by comparing the Venta Silurum and the Venta their locality: those of Ptolemy, Wilts and Somerset. Icenorum with the Venta Belgarum. R. G. L.] The reconciliation of these different conditions has BE'LGICA. heen attempted. An extension westward between BELGINUM. the times of the two writers has given one hypothesis. BE'LGIUM. (BELGAE. But this is beset with difficulties. To say nothing BELIAS. (BALISSUS.] about the extent to which the time in question was BE'LION. [GALLAECIA. the epoch of conquests almost exclusively Roman, BELISAMA (Aestuarium), in Britain, mentioned the reasons for believing the sources of Ptolemy to by Ptolemy (ii. 3. $ 2) as south of Morecambe have been earlier than the time of Caesar are cogent. (Morecame Bay), and, consequently, most probably

In the mind of the present writer, the fact that the mouth of the Ribble, though Horsley identifies it Ptolemy's authorities dealt with was the existence with that of the Mersey.

(R. G. L.] in Britain of localities belonging to populations | BELLI (Bellol), one of the smaller tribes of the called Belgae and Attrebatii; a fact known to Caesar Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis, with the pow. also. Another fact known to Caesar was, the ex- / erful city of Segeda (Zeyhon), the revolt of which jstence of Belgic immigrants along the shores of commenced the Celtiberian War. (Polyb. xxxv. 2; Kent and Sussex. Between these there is as little Appian. de Reb. Hisp. 44, 45.) [P. S.} necessary connection as there is between the settle-' BELLINTUM, a place in Gallia, marked in ments of the modern Germans in London, and the the Jerusalem Itin. between Avignon and Arles. existence of German geographical names in -sted, The distance identifies it with Barbentane, accord-hurst, &c., in Kent. But there is an apparent one; | ing to D'Anville, and with Lauzac, according to and this either Caesar or his anthorities assumed, others. Belgae and Attrebates he found in Kent, just as men' BELLOCASSES. TVELLOCASSES, from Delmen-horst may probably be found at present; BELLOVACI (Berroakor, Strabo, p. 195), : and populations called Belgae and Attrebates he Belgic people, the first of the Belgae in numbers and heard of in parts not very distant just as men of influence (B. G. 11, 4, 8; vii. 59). It was reported to Gould-hurst or Mid-hurst may be heard of now. ( Caesar that they could muster 100,000 armed men, He connected the two as nine ethnologists out of ten, (BELGAE.] Their position was between the Somme with equally limited data, would have done,--logi- (Samara) and the Seine, S. of the Ambiani, E. of cally, but crroneously,

the Caleti, and W. of the Suessones. It is conjecThe professed Keltic scholar may carry the criti- | tured that the small tribe of the Svivanectes, E. of cism further, and probably explain the occurrence of the Oise, who are not mentioned in Caesar, were in the names in question and others like them--upon his time included among the Bellovaci, The whole the principle just suggested. He may succeed in extent of the territory of the Bellovaci probably coinshowing that the forms Belg- and Attrebat-, have a prehended the dioceses of Beaurais and of Senlis. geographical or political signification. The first is Ptolemy mentions Caesaromagus (Beauvais) as the one of importance. The same, or a similar, com- capital of the Bellovaci in his time. The only place bination of sounds occurs in Blatum Bulg-ium, a that Caesar mentions is Bratuspantium. [BRATCSstation north of the Solway ; in the Numerus PANTIUM.]

G.L.] A bulc-orum stationed at Anderida; and in the BELON (Béxwv, Strab. iii. p. 140, Steph. B.: famous Fir-bolgs of Ireland. Two observations | Eth, BeAcvios, comp. $. v. Biłos), or BAELON apply to these last. Like the Attacotti [ATTA- (Baliwv, Ptol. q. 4. 5; Marc. Herac. p. 40; COTTI), they occur only in the fabulous portion of Geogr. Rav. ii. 42; coins), a city on the S. cist Irish history. Like the -libet in such words as quod- of Hispania Baetica, at the mouth of a river of the libet, quibus-libet, the Bolg is unflected, the fir-only same name (probably the Barbate), which Marcian being declined so that the forms are Fir-Bolg places between 150 and 200 stadia S. E. of the (Belgae), Feroib-Bolg (Belgis). This is against Prom. Junonis (C. Trafalgar). The city was a the word being a true proper name. Lastly, it considerable port, with establishments for salting should be added, that, though the word Belgae in fish; and it is 6 m. p. W. of Mellaria and 12 E. of Britain is not generic, it is so in Gaul, where there BESIPPO (Itin. Ant. p. 407, where it has the suris no such population as that of the Belgae, except name Claudia), at the entrance of the Fretum Ga. so far as it is Nervian, Attrebatian, Jenapian, &c. | ditanum (Straits of Gibraltar) from the Atlantic

That the Belgae of Britain were in the same eth- (Mela, ii. 6; Plin. iii. 3. 4. 1), directly opposite to nological category with the Belgae of Gaul, no more Tingis, in Mauretania, and was the usual place of follows from the identity of name, than it follows embarcation for persons crossing over to that city that Cambro-Briton and Italian belong to the (Strab. l. c.), the distance to which was reckoned same family, because each is called Welsh. The 30 Roman miles (Plin. v. 1), or 220 stadia (Itin, truer evidence is of a more indirect nature, and lies Ant. p. 495). Its mins are still seen at the place in the fact of the Britannic Belgae being in the called Belonia, or Bolonia, 3 Spanish miles W. of saine category with the rest of the Britons, the rest | Tarifa. There is a coin with the epigraph Bailo. of the Britons being as the Gauls, and the Ganls as (Philos. Trans. vol. xxx, p. 922; Florez, Meda the continental Belgae. That the first and last of de Esp. vol. ij. p. 635, vol. ij. p. 152; Mionnet,

vol. i. p. 7, Suppl. vol. i. p. 14; Sestini, p. 33 ; this part of the lake into two nearly equal portions. Eckhel, vol. i. p. 16; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1, pp. 295, The river Mincius issues from its SE. extremity, 343.)

[P. S.] where stood the town of ARDELICA, on the site of BELSI'NUM, a place marked in the Antonine the modern fortress of Peschiera. Most ancient Itin between Climberris (Auch)and Lugdunum Con writers speak of the Mincius as having its source in venarum (St. Bertrand de Comminges). Belsinum the lake Benacus (Serv. ad Aen. x. 205; Vib. Seq. is probably the Besino of the Table. D'Anville sup- pp. 6, 14; Isidor. Orig. xiii. 19), but Pliny tells us poses that the site may be Bernet; others take it to that it flowed through the lake without allowing be Masseure: but neither distances nor names seem their waters to mix, in the same manner as the to enable us to fix the site with certainty. [G. L. Addua did through the Larian Lake, and the Rhone

BELSI'NUM (Bédoivov, Ptol. ii. 6. $ 58), a city through the Lacus Lemannus. (ii. 103. s. 106.) of the Celtiberians, in Hispania Tarraconensis, after- | It is evident, therefore, that he must have considered wards called Vivarium. Its site is marked at l'ivel, the river which enters the lake at its northern exnear Segarbe in Valencia, by Roman ruins and in-tremity, and is now called the Sarca, as being the scriptions. (Laborde, Itin.de l'Espagne, vol. ii. p.346, same with the Mincius, which would certainly be 3rd ed.)

[P. S.] correct in a geographical point of view, though not BELU'NUM or BELLUNUM (Beloûvov), a con- | in accordance with either ancient or modern usage. siderable town in the interior of Venetia, still called According to the same author vast quantities of eels Belluno. It was situated in the upper valley of the were taken at a certain season of the year where the Plavis (Piave), about 20 miles NE. of Feltria, and Mincius issued from the lake. (Plin. ix. 22. s. 38.) almost on the borders of Rhaetia. It was probably | Several inscriptions have been found, in which in ancient as well as modern times the capital of the the name of the BENACENSES occurs, whence it has surrounding district. (Plin. ii. 19. s. 23; Ptol. iii. 1. been supposed that there was a town of the name of $ 30; P. Diac. vi. 26 ; Orell. Inscr. 69.) [E.H.B.] Benacus. But it is more probable that this name

BELUS (Bnneus), called also Pagida by Pliny designates the population of the banks of the lake (v. 19), a small river of Palestine, described by in general, who would naturally coinbine for various Pliny as taking its rise from a lake named Cendevia, purposes, such as the erection of honorary statues at the roots of Mount Carmel, which after running five and inscriptions. The greater part of these have miles enters the sea near Ptolemais (xxxvi. 26) two been found at a place called Toscolano, on the W. stadia from the city, according to Josephus. (B. J. bank of the lake, about 5 miles N. of Salò; the ii. 2. $ 9.) It is chiefly celebrated among the an | ancient name of which is supposed to have been cients for its vitreous sand, and the accidental dis Tusculanum. (See however Orelli, 2183.) It appears covery of the manufacture of glass is ascribed by to have had a temple or sanctuary, which was a place Pliny to the banks of this river, which he describes of common resort from all parts of the lake. The as a sluggish stream, of unw holesome water, but name of Benacus occurs in an inscription found at consecrated by religious ceremonies. (Comp. Tac. S. Vigilio on the opposite shore, as that of the Hist, v. 7.) It is now called Nahr Na'mân; but tutelary deity of the lake, the “ Pater Benacus" of the lake Cendevia has disappeared. It is an inge- Virgil. (Rossi, Memorie di Brescia, pp. 200, 201; nious conjecture of Reland that its ancient appel-Cluver. Ital. p. 107.) The modern town of Garda, lation may be the origin of the Greek name for glass, from whence the lake derives its present appellation, úends, or valós. (Balaest. p. 290.) [G. W.] appears from inscriptions discovered there to have BEMBINA. NEMEA.]

been inhabited in Roman times, but its ancient name BENA'CUS LACUS (Bývakos aluvn, Strab. : is unknown.

[E. H. B.] Baivaros, Ptol.), a lake in Cisalpine Gaul, at the BENAMERIUM (Bnyvauaphu), a village of Pafoot of the Alps, formed by the river Mincius, now lestine to the north of Zorah (g. v.) mentioned only called the Lago di Gurda. (Plin. iü. 19. s. 23; by Eusebius and St. Jeroine. (Onomast. 8. v. NeVirg. Aen. x. 205.) It is the largest of all the knpiu, lege Neuepiu.) lakes in Italy, greatly exceeding both the Lacus BENAVENTA. [ISANNAVATIA.) Larius and Verbanus in breadth and superficial BENE (Bhun: Eth. Bnvaios), a town of Crete, extent, though inferior to them in length. Strabo, in the neighbourhood of Gortyn, to which it was on the authority of Polybius, states its length at subject, only known as the birthplace of the poet 500 stadia, and its breadth at 130 (iv, p. 209): Rhianus. (Steph. B. 8. v. Bhun; Suid. 3. v. 'Plavós.) but the former distance is greatly exaggerated, its BENEHARNUM, a place first mentioned in the real length being less than 30 G. miles, or 300 Antonine Itin. It is placed 19 Gallic leagues, or stadia : its greatest breadth is nearly 10 G. miles. 28) M. P., from Aquae Tarbellicae (Dax), on the The northern half of it, which is pent in between road to Toulouse. But the road was circuitous, for lofty and very precipitous mountains, is however it passed through Aquae Convenarum; and between comparatively narrow: it is only the sonthern portion Beneharnum and Aquae Convenarum the Itin. places which expands to the considerable breadth above Oppidum Novum (Naye on the Gave), 27 M. P. stated. The course of the lake is nearly straight from Benebarnum. Another road from Caesar Aufrom NNE. to SSW., so that the north winds from gusta (Saragossa) to Benelarnum, passes through the high Alps sweep down it with unbroken force, Aspa Luca (Pont l'Esquit) and Iluro (Oléron), on and the storis on its surface exceed in violence the Gave d'Oléron. Iluro is 18 M. P. from Benethose on any other of the Italian lakes. Hence harnum. If then we join Oléron and Naye by a Virgil justly speaks of it as rising into waves, and straight line, we have the respective distances 18 and roaring like the sea. (Fluctibus et fremitu assur- | 27 M. P. from Oléron and Naye to Benehamnum, as gens Benace marino, Virg. G. ij. 160 ; Serv. ad loc.) | the other sides of the triangle. Walckenaer, on the The shore at its southern extremity is comparatively authority of these two routes and personal observalow, being bounded only by gently sloping hills, tion, places Benebarnum at Vieille Tour to the E. of from which projects a narrow tongue of land, form- | Maslac; Reichard, at Navarreins; and D'Anville ing the beautiful peninsula of SIRMIO, which divides places it near Orthez. Walckenaer's site is at Cus.

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