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Ulnon, between Maslac and Lagor, in tlic department of Basses Pyrenees. Beneharnum was undoubtedly the origin of the name of Beam, one of the old divisions of France. Benehamum, under the name of Benarnnm, existed in the sixth century of our aera, and had a bishop. There are no ancient remains which can be identified as the site of Benehamum. ( D'Anville, Notice, $c.; Walckenaer, Geog. vol. ii. p. 401, &c.) [G. L.]

BENEVENTUM (Bn-tfftrrit, Steph. B. App.; B(vfovfvT6v, Strab. Ptol.: Eth. Beneventanus: Benevento), one of the chief cities of Samnium, and at a later period one of the most important cities of Southern Italy, was situated on the Via Appia at a distance of 32 miles E. from Capua; and on the banks of the river Calor. There is some discrepancy as to the people to which it belonged: Pliny expressly assigns it to the Hirpini; but Livy certainly seems to consider it as belonging to Samnium Proper, as distinguished from the Hirpini; and Ptolemy adopts the same view. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Liv. xxii. 13; Ptol. iii. 1. § 67.) All writers concur in representing it as a very ancient city; Solinus and Stephanus of Byzantium ascribe its foundation to DTomedcs; a legend which appears to have been adopted by the inhabitants, who, in the time of Procopius, pretended to exhibit the tusks of the Calydonian boar in proof of their descent. (Solin. 2. § 10; Steph. B. r.; Procop. B. G. i. 15.) Kcstns, on the contrary (j. P. Ausoniam), related that it was fnunded by Auson, a son of Ulysses and Circe; a tradition which indicates that it was an ancient Ausonian city, previous to its conquest by the Samnites. Hut it first appears in history as a Samnito city (Liv. ix. 27); and must have already been a place of strength, so that the Romans did not venture to attack it during their first two wars with that people. It appears, however, to have fallen into their hands during the Third Samnite War, though the exact occasion is unknown. It was certainly in the power of the Romans in n. c. 274, when l'yrrhus was defeated in a great battle, fought in its immediate neighbourhood, by the consul M\ Curius. (Plut. Pgrrh. 25; Frontin. Stmt. iv. 1. § 14.) Six years later (n. C. 268) they sought farther to secure its possession by establishing there a Roman colony with Latin rights. (Liv. Epit. xv.; Veil. Pat, i. 14.) It was at this time that it first assumed the name of Beneventum, having previously been called Malevcntum {MaXSevrov, or MaXtSevrds), a name which the Romans regarded as of evil augury, and changed into one of a more fortunate signification. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Liv. ix. 27; Fcst, s. r. Beneventum, p. 34; Steph. B. s. v.; Procop. B. G. i. 15.) It is probable that the Oscan or Samnite name was Maloeis, or Malieis, from whence the form Malcventum would be derived, like Agrigentum from Acragas, Selinnntium from Selinus, tec. (Millingcn, Numism. He tltalie, p. 223.)

As a Roman colony Beneventum seems to have quickly become a flourishing place; and in the Second Punic War was repeatedly occupied by Roman generals as a post of importance, on account of its proximity to Campania, and its strength as a fortress. In its immediate neighbourhood were fought two of the most decisive actions of the war: the one in B.C. 214, in which the Carthaginian general Hanno was defeated by Ti. Gracchus; the other in B.C. 212, when the camp of Hanno, in which he had accumulated a vast quantity of com and other stores, was stormed and taken by the

Roman consul Q. Fulvius. (Liv. xxii. 13, xxiv. 14, 16, xxv. 13, 14, 15, 17; Appian, Annib. 36, 37.) And though its territory was more than once laid waste by the Carthaginians, it was still one of the eighteen Latin colonies which in B. c 209 were at once able and willing to furnish the required quota of men and money for continuing the war. (Liv. xxvii. 10.) It is singular that no mention of it occurs during the Social War; but it seems to have escaped from the calamities which at that time befel so many cities of Samnium, and towards the close of the Republic is spoken of as one of the most opulent and flourishing cities of Italy. (Appian, B. C. iv. 3; Strab. v. p. 250; Cic. M Verr. i. 15.) Under the Second Triumvirate its territory was portioned out by the Triumvirs to their veterans, and subsequently a fresh colony was established there by Augustus, who greatly enlarged its domain by the addition of the territory of Caudinm. A third colony was settled there by Nero, at which time it assumed the title of Concordia; hence we find it bearing, in inscriptions of the reign of Septimius Severus, the titles "Colonia Julia Augusta Concordia Felix Beneventum." (Appian. /. c.; Lib. Colon, pp. 231, 232; Inscr. ap. Romanclli, vol. ii. pp. 382, 384; Orel]. Inscr. 128, 590.) Its importance and flourishing condition under the Roman Empire is sufficiently attested by existing remains and inscriptions; it was at that period unquestionably the chief city of the Hirpini, and probably, next to Capua, the most populous and considerable of Southern Italy. For this prosperity it was doubtless indebted in part to its position on the Via Appia, just at the junction of the two principal arms or branches of that great road, the one called afterwards the Via Trajana, leading from thence by Equns Tuticus into Apulia; the other by Acculanum to Venusia and Tarentum. (Strab. vi. p. 283.) [via ArriA.] The notice of it by Horace on his journey from Rome to Brundusium {Sat. i. 5, 71) is familiar to all readers. It was indebted to the same circumstance for the honour of repeated visits from the emperors of Rome, among which those of Nero, Trajan, and Sept. Severus, are particularly recorded. (Tac. Ann. xv. 34.) It was probably for the samo reason that the noble triumphal arch, which still forms ono of its chief ornaments, was erected there in honour of Trajan by the senate and people of Rome. Successive emperors seem to have bestowed on the city accessions of territory, and erected, or at least given name to, various public buildings. For administrative purposes it was first included, together with the rest of the Hirpini, in the 2nd region of Augustus, but was afterwards annexed to Campania and placed under the control of the consular of that province. Its inhabitants were included in the Stellatine tribe. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Mommsen, Topogr. degli Irpini, p. 167, in Bull, delt Inst. Arch. 1847.) Beneventum retained its importance down to the close of the Empire, and thongh during the Gothic wars it was taken by Totila, and its walls rased to the ground, they were restored, as well as its public buildings, shortly after; and P. Diaconus speaks of it as a very wealthy city, anil the capital of all the surrounding provinces. (Procop. B. G. iii. 6; P. Diac. ii. 20; De Vita, Antiq. Benev. pp. 271, 286.) Under the Lombards it became the capital of a dnchy which included all their conquests in Southern Italy, and continued to maintain itself as an independent state long after the fall of the Lombard kingdom in the north.

The modem city of Benevento is Btill a considcr»b!e place with about 13,000 inhabitants, and contains numerous vestiges of its ancient grandeur. The most conspicuous of these is a triumphal arch erected in honour of the emperor Trajan in A. D. 114, which forms one of the gates of the modern city, now called Porta Aurea. It is adorned with bas-reliefs representing the exploits of the Emperor, and is generally admitted to be the finest monument of its class existing in Italy; both from the original merit of its architecture and sculpture, and from its excellent state of preservation. Besides this there exist the remains of an amphitheatre, portions of the Roman walls, and an ancient bridge over the Calor; while numerous bas-reliefs and fragments of sculpture (some of them of a very high order of merit), as well as Latin inscriptions in great numbers are found in almost all parts of the city. Some of these inscriptions notice the public buildings existing in the city, among which was one called the "Caesareum," probably a kind of Curia or place for the assemblies of the local senate; a Basilica, splendid porticoes, and Thermae, which appear to have been erected by the Emperor Commodua. Others contain much curious information concerning the various " Collegia," or corporations that existed in the city, and which appear to have been intended not only for religious or commercial objects, but in some instances for literary purposes. (De Vita, Antiq. Benev. pp. 159—174, 253—289; laser. Benev. p. 1—37; Orell. Inter. 3164, 3763,4124—4132, &c.) Beneventum indeed seems to have been a place of much literary cultivation; it was the birthplace of Orbilius the grammarian, who long continued to teach in his native city before he removed to Rome, and was honoured with a statue by his fellow-townsmen; while existing inscriptions record similar honours paid to another grammarian, Rutilius Aelianus, as well as to orators and poets, apparently only of local celebrity. (Snet. Gram. 9; De Vita, /. c. pp. 204—220; Orell. Inter. 1178, 1185.)

The territory of Beneventum under the Roman empire was of very considerable extent. Towards the W., as already mentioned, it included that of Caudium, with the exception of the town itself; to the N. it extended as far as the Tamarus (7ammaro), including the village of Pago, which, as we learn from an inscription, was anciently called Pagus Veianus; on the NE. it comprised the town of Equus Tuticns (5. Kleuterio, near Cattel Franco), and on the E. and S. bordered on the territories of Aeculanum and Abellinum. An inscription has preserved to us the names of several of the pagi or villages dependent upon Beneventum, but their sites cannot be identified. (Henzen, Tab. A liment. finebian, p. 93—108; Mommsen, Topogr. degli Irpini, p. 168—171.)

The Arusini Campi, mentioned by several writers as the actual scene of the engagement between Pyrrhus and the Romans (Flor. i. 18; Frontin. Stmt. iv. 1. § 14; Oros. iv. 2), were probably the tract of plain country S. of the river Calor, called on Zannoni's map Le Colonne, which commences within 2 miles of Beneventum itself, and was traversed by the Via Appia. They are erroneously placed both by Floras and Orosius in Lucania; but all the best authorities place the scene of the action near Beneventum. Some writers would read " Tanrasini," for Arusini in the passages cited, but there is no authority for this alteration.

The annexed coin, with the legend Benventod

[merged small][graphic]

COIN OF BENEVENTUM.

BENL [benna.]

BENJANIN. [PAI.ESTINA.]

BENNA, or BENA (BeV*a: Elk. BeyyaTos, Steph. B.), a town in Thrace, from which one of the Ephcsian tribes appears to have derived its name. (Guhl, Ephetiaca, p. 29.) Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) speaks of a Thracian people of the name of Beni.

BENNA, seems to have been a place in Phrygia Epictetus, between Kutaieh and Azani, as is inferred from an inscription found by Keppel with the words Toiy Btyvnats at Tatar-Bazarjek. (Cramer, Atia Minor, vol. ii. p. 17.) [G. L.]

BERA. [beer.)

BERCORATES, a people of Aquitania (Plin. iv. 19), or Bercorcates in Harduin's text. The name appears to exist in that of the Bercouats, the inhabitants of a place once named Barcou, now Jonanon, in the canton of Born, in the department of Gironde. (Walckcnaer, Geog. 4c. vol. ii. p. 241.) [G. L.]

BEREBIS, BOREVIS and VEREIS (Btpeis), a town in Lower Pannonia, identified by some with the modern village of Brecz, and by others with a place near Gydrgg, on the right hank of the Drave. (Ptol. ii. 16. § 6; Gcogr. Rav. iv. 19; Itin. Ant. p. 130; Itin. Hicr. p. 562; Tab. Peuting.) [L. S.]

BERECYNTUS (BfptKvvras: Eth. BfptKvyrm), a city of Phrygia, according to Stephanus (». v.). But this town, and the Castellum Berccynthium of Yibius Sequester (p. 18, cd. Oberlin), on the Sangarius, are otherwise unknown. The Berecyntes (Strab. p. 469) were a Phrygian nation, who worshipped the Magna Mater. A district named Berecys is mentioned in a fragment of Aeschylus, quoted by Strabo (p. 580); but Aeschylus, after his fashion, confused the geography. Pliny (v. 29) mentions a " Berecyntius tractus" in Caria, which abounded in boxwood (xvi. 16); but he gives no precise indication of the position of this country. [G. L.]

BERECYNTUS. [ida.]

BEREGRA (Biptypa: Etk. Beregranus), a town of Picenum, mentioned both by Pliny and Ptolemy among the places in the interior of that province. The latter reckons it one of the towns of the Praetutii, but we have no clue to its precise position. Cluverius would place it at Civitelta di Tronto, about 10 miles N. of Teramo, which is at least a plausible conjecture. (Plin. iii. 13. 8. 18; Ptol. iii. 1. § 58; C«luver. Ital. p. 746.) The Liber Coloniarum (p.259) mentions the "Vcragranus agcr" among those of Picenum, a name evidently corrupted from " Beregranus." [E. H. B.]

BERENI CE. 1. (Bipfvlicri, Strab. xvi. p. 770, xvii. p. 815; Plin. vi. 23,26,29,33; Steph. B. t. v.; Arrian. Peripl. if. Hub.; Itin. Antonin. p. 173, f.; Epiphan. Uaeret. lxvi. 1: Etk. BtpirtKe6s and BfptviKtiXns, fern. BtptviiMui), a city upon the Red Sea, was founded, or certainly converted from a village into a city, by Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, and named in honour of his mother, the daughter of Ptolemy Lagus and Antigone. It stood about lat. 23° 56' N., and about long. 35° 34' E., and being in the same parallel with Syene, was accordingly on the equinoctial line. Berenice, as modern surveys (Moresby and Carless, 1830—3) have ascertained, stood nearly at the bottom of the Sinus Irnmundus, or Foul Bay. A lofty range of mountains runs along this side of the African coast, and separates Berenice from Egypt. The emerald mines are in its neighbourhood. The harbour is indifferent, hut was improved by art. Berenice stood upon a narrow rim of shore between the hills and the Red Sea. Its prosperity after the third century B. c. was owing in great measure to three causes: the favour of the Macedonian kings, its safe anchorage, and its being a terminus of the great road from Coptos, which rendered Berenice and Myos Honnos the two principal emporia of the trade between Aethiopia and Egypt on tho one hand, and Syria and India on the other. Tho distance between Coptos and Berenice was 258 Roman miles, or eleven days' journey. The wells and halting places of the caravans are enumerated by Pliny (vi. 23. s. 26), and in the Itineraries (Antonin. p. 172, f.). Belzoni (Travels, vol. ii. p. 35) found traces of several of these stations. Under the empire Berenice formed a district in itself, with its peculiar prefect, who was entitled "Praefectus Berenicidis," or P. montis Bcrenicidis. (Orelli, Inter. Lat. no. 3880, f.) The harbour of Berenice was (sheltered from the NE. wind by the island Ophiodes ('0<(>i[i87|i vboos, Strab. xvi. p. 770; Died. iii. 39), which was rich in topazes. A small temple of sandstone and soft calcareous stone, in the Egyptian style, has been discovered at Berenice. It is 102 feet long, anil 43 wide. A portion of its walls is sculptured with well-executed basso relievos, of Greek workrnanship, and hieroglyphics also occasionally occur on the walls. Belzoni confirmed D'Anville's original opinion of the true site of Berenice (Memoires sur VEgypte Ancimne), and says that tho city measured 1,600 feet from N. to S., and 2,000 from E. to W. He estimates the ancient population at 10,000. (Researches, vol. ii. p. 73.)

2. Panciikvsos, a city near Sabae in the Rcgio Troglodytica, and on the W. coast of the Red Sea, between the 20th and 21st degrees of N. latitude. It obtained the appellation of " all-golden " (irdLvxpwTos, Steph. B. p. 164, s. v.; Strab. xvi. 771) from its vicinity to the gold mines of Jtbel Allaki or OUaki, from which the ancient Egyptians drew their principal supplies of that metal, and in the working of which they employed criminals and prisoners of war. (Plin. vi. 34.)

3. Epideikes (M Atipris, Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. xvi. pp. 769, 773; Mela, iii. 8; Plin. vi. 34; Ptol. viii. 16. § 12), or Berenico upon the Neck of Land, was a town on the W. shore of the Red Sea, near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its position on a sandy spit or promontory of land was the cause of its distinctive appellation. Some authorities, however, attribute the name to the neighbourhood of a more considerable town named Deira; but the situation of the latter is unknown. [W. B. D.]

BERENICE. A Cilician city of tins name is mentioned by Stephanus (s. v. Bf/)«W/C7|); and in the Stadiasmus a bay Berenice is mentioned. "As the Stadiasmus docs not mention any distance between

the Gulf of Berenice and Celcnderis, there is reason to think that Berenice was the name of the bay to the eastward of the little port of Kelenderi." (Leake, Asia Minor, &c p. 202.) [G. L.]

BEKENI'CE, a town in Arabia, tho name by which Ezion-Geber was called in the time of Josephus. (--Int. viii. 6. § 4.) It was situated on the Elanitic, or Eastern Gulf of the Bed Sea, not far from Elath, Ailah, or Aelana. It is mentioned in the wanderings of the children cf Israel (Numb. xxxiii. 35); and is celebrated as the naval arsenal of Solomon and Jchoshaphat. (1 Kings, ix. 26, xxii. 48.) The Arabic historian Makrizi speaks of an ancient city 'Asyun near Ailah. (Burckhardt's Syria, p. 511.) [G. W.]

BERENI'CE, in Cyrenaica. [hespekides.j

BEREUM or BERAEUM (Ariklarf), a town in Moesia (Notit. Imp. 28; Gcogr. Rav. iv. 5; Itin. Ant. 225). [L. S.]

BERGA (Bipyn: Eth. B«/rya«>i), a town of Macedonia, lying inland from the mouth of the Strymon (Scymnus Ch. 654; Ptol. iii. 13. § 31) only known as the birthplace of the writer Antiphanes, whose tales were so marvellous and incredible as to give rise to a verb $tpyat(uy, in the sense of telling falsehoods. (Strab. L p. 47, ii. pp. 102,104; Steph. B. s. v.; Diet, of Biogr. vol. i. p. 204.) Leake places Berga near the modem Tukhyno, upon the shore of the Strymonic lake. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 229.)

BE'RGIDUM. [astubes.]

BERGINTRUM, a place on the Gallic side of the pass of the Alpes Graiac, lying on the road marked in the Antonine Itin. between Mcdiolanuin (Milan) and Vienna (Vienne). D'Anville (Notice, &c.) places it, according to tho Table, between Axima (Aime") and Alpis Graia. The distance from Bergiutrum to Axima is marked viiii M. P. The Alpis Graia may be the watershed on the pass of the Little St. Bernard, which divides the waters that flow to the here from those which flow to tho Dora BalUa on the Italian side. This is the place which D'Anville names IHopital, on the authority of a manuscript map of the country. D'Anville supposes that Bcrgintrum may be St. Maurice; but he admits that xii, the distance in the Table between Bergintrum and Alpis Graia, docs not fit the distance between St. Maurice and I Hopital, which is less. Walckenaer (Geog. &c. vol. iii. p. 27) supposes that two routes between Arebrigium and Darantasia have been made into one in the Table, and he fixes Bcrgintrum at Bellentre. He also attempts to show that in tho Anton. Itin. between Arebrigium and Darantasia there has been confusion in the numbers and the names of places; and this appears to be the case. The position of Bcrgintrum cannot be considered as certain, though the limits between which we must look for it are pretty well defined. [G. L.]

BERGISTA'NI, a small people of Hispania Tarrsconensis, who revolted from the Romans in the war about Emporiae, B.C. 195. (Liv. xxxiv. 16, 17.) They seem to have been neighbours of the Ilcrgetes, in the mountains of Catalonia, between Berga and Manresa. There can be no doubt that the place, afterwards mentioned by Livy (c. 21) as the stronghold of the rebels, Bergium or Vergium castrvm, was one of the seven fortresses of the Bcrgistani, mentioned by him in the former passage, and that from which they took their name. It is probably Berga. (Marcn, Hisp. ii. 23, p. 197; Florez, Esp. Sxxiv. 38; Ukcrt, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 318,426.) [F-SJ

BERGULE, BERGULAE, VIRGULAE or BERGULIUM(B«p7ou\i7,B€p7oiJA(oi': Dsjatal-Borgas), a town in Thrace, which was in later times called Arcadiupolis. (Ptol. iii. 11. §12; Geogr. Rav. iv. 6; Itin. Hier. p. 569; Cedren. p. 266; Theophan. p. 66.) [L. S.]

BE'RGOMUM (Bipyouov. Eth. Bergomas, atis: Bergamo), a city of Cisalpine Gaol, situated at the foot of the Alps, between Brixia and the Lacus Larius: it was 33 miles NE. from Milan. (Itin, Ant. p. 127.) According to Pliny, who follows the authority of Cato, it was a city of the Orobii, but tliis tribe is not mentioned by any other author, and Bergomum is included by Ptolemy in the territory of the Ccnomani. (Plin. iii. 17. s. 21 ; Ptol.

iii. 1. § 31.) Justin also mentions it among the cities founded by the Gauls, after they had crossed the Alps, and expelled the Tuscans from the plains of northern Italy. (Justin, xx. 5.) No mention of it is, however, found in history previous to the Roman Empire, when it became a considerable municipal town, as attested by inscriptions as well as by Pliny and Ptolemy. It seems to have derived considerable wealth from valuable copper mines which existed in its territory. (Plin. xxxiv. 1. s. 2; Orell. Inscr. 3349, 3898.) In B. C. 452, it was one of the cities laid waste by Attila (Hist. Miscell. xv. p. 549); but after the fall of the Roman Empire it is again mentioned by Procopius as a strong fortress, and under the Lombard kings was one of the chief towns in this part of Italy, and the capital of a duchy. (Procop. B. G. ii. 12; P. Diac. ii. 15,

iv. 3 ) In late writers and the Itineraries the name is corruptly written Pergamus and Bergame: but all earlier writers, as well as inscriptions, have Bergomum. The modern city of Bergamo is a flourishing and populous place, but contains no ancient remains. [E. H. B.]

BEKGU'SIUM or BERGU'SIA, in Gallia, on the road between Vienna (Vienne) and a place named Augustum. The Antonine Itin. and the Table agree very nearly as to the position of Bergusium, which is xx or xxi M. P. from Vienna, and supposed to be a place named Bourgoin. Augustum is supposed to be Aoste. [G. L.]

BERIS or BIRES (Bffpiy, Bipns), a river of Pontus, which Arrian places 60 stadia from the Thoaris. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 280) identifies it with the Melitsck Chai, "a deep and sluggish river," between Unieh and the Thermodon. He found it to be six miles, or 60 stadia, from the Thureh frmalc, which he seems to identify correctly with the Thoaris. [G. L.]

BE'RMIUS MONS (to Bippiov Spot; Verria), a range of mountains in Macedonia, between the Haliacmon and Ludias, at the foot of which stood the city of Beroea. Herodotus relates that this mountain was impassable on account of the cold, and that beyond it were the gardens of Midas, in which the roses grew spontaneously. (Herod, viii. 138; Strab. vii. p. 330.) The Bermius is the same as the Bora of Livy (xlv. 29), and is a continuation of Mount Barnus. (Mtiller, Dorians, vol. i. p. 469, transl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 295.)

BEROEA. 1. (S4pota, Be'^oia: Eth. Bepocuot, Steph. B.; Berocus, Liv. xxiii. 39: Verria), a city of Macedonia, in the N. part of the province (Plin. iv. 10), in the district called Emathia (Ptol. iii. 13. § 39), on .a river which flows into the Haliacmon, and upon one of the lower ridges of Mount Bermius (Strab. vii. p. 330). It was attacked, though un

successfully, by the Athenian forces under Callias, B. c. 432. (Thuc. i. 61.) The statement of Thucydides presents some geographical difficulties, as Beroea lies quite out of the way of the natural route from Pydna to Potidaea. Mr. Grote (Hist, of Greece, vol. vi. p. 96) considers that another Beroca, situated somewhere between Gigonus and Therma, and out of the limits of that Macedonia which Perdiccas governed, may probably be the place indicated by Thucydides. Any remark from Mr. Grote deserves the highest consideration; but an objection presents itself against this view. His argument rests upon the hypothesis that there was another Beroea in Thrace or in Emathia, though we do not know its exact site. There was a town called Beroea in Thrace, but we are enabled to fix its position with considerable certainty, as lying between Philippopolis and Nicopolis (see below), and no single authority is adduced to show that there was a second Beroea in Thrace between Gigonus and Therma.

Beroea surrendered to the Roman consul after the battle of Pydna (Liv. xliv. 45), and was assigned, with its territory, to the third region of Macedonia (xlv. 29). St. Paul and Silas withdrew to this city from Thessalonica; and the Jewish residents are described as more ingenuous and of a better disposition than those of the latter place, in that they diligently searched the Scriptures to ascertain the truth of the doctrines taught by the Apostle. (Acts, xvii. 11.) Sopater, a native of this town, accompanied St. Paul to Asia. (Acts, xx. 4.) Lucian (Asinus, 34) describes it as a large and populous town. It was situated 30 M. P. from Pella (Pent, Tab.), and 51 M. P from Thessalonica (Itin. Anton.'), and is mentioned as one of the cities of the thema of Macedonia. (Constant, de Them. ii. 2.) For a rare coin of Beroea, belonging to the time of Alexander the Great, see Rasche, vol. i. p. 1492; Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 69.

Verria stands on the E. slope of the Olympene range of mountains, about 5 miles from the left bank of the Vistritza or Jnjtkara, just where that river, after having made its way to an immense rocky ravine through the range, enters the great maritime plain. Verria contains about 2000 families, and, from its natural and other advantages, is described as one of the most agreeable towns in Rumili. The remains of the ancient city are very considerable. Leake (Northern Greece, vol. Hi. p. 291), from whom this account of Verria is taken, notices the N\V. angle of the wall, or perhaps of the acropolis; these walls are traceable from that point southward to two high towers towards the upper part of the modem town, which appears to have been repaired or rebuilt in Roman or Byzantine times. Only three inscriptions have been discovered. (Leake, I.e.)

2. (Btpijs, Steph. B.: Eth. B(frf)atos), a town in Thrace, 87 M. P. from Adrianopolis (Itin, Anton.; Hierocles), and situated somewhere between PhilippopoKs and Nicopolis. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4. § 12, xxxi. 9. § 1; Jornand. de Rebus Geticis, c. 18.) In later times it was called Ircnopolis, in honour of the empress Irene, who caused it to be repaired. (Theophan. p. 385; Zonar. Ann. vol. ii. p. 115; Hint. Misc. xxxiii. p. 166, ap. Muratori.) St. Martin, in his notes to Le Beau (Bos Empire, vol. xii. p. 330), confounds this city with the Macedonian Beroea. Liberius was banished to this place from Rome, and spent two years in exile there. (Socrates, H. E. iv. 11.)

3. (Bifyota, Bf'pota, Bipon, Bepoefa: Eth. Bcprfeuy, Steph. B.; Berooensis, Plin. v. 23; Itin. Anion.; Hieroclcs: Haleb, Aleppo), a town in Syria (Strab. xvi. p. 751), about midway between Antioch and Hierapolis. (Procop. B. P. ii. 7; PtoL v. 15.) Julian, after a laborious march of two days from Antioch, baited on the third at Beroea. (Julian, EpisL xxvii.; Theodoret. iii. 22; Milman's Gibbon, vol. iv. p. 144; Le Beau, Bos Empire, vol. iii. p. 55.) Chosroes, in his inroad upon Syria, A. D. 540, demanded a tribute from Beroea, which he remitted afterwards, as the inhabitants were unable to pay it. (Procop. B.P. ii. 7; Milman's Gibbon, vol. vii. p. 315; Le Beau, vol. ix. p. 13.) A. D. 611 Chosroea II. occupied this city. (Gibbon, vol. viii. p. 225 ) It owed its Macedonian name of Beroea to Seleucus Nicator, and continued to be called so till the conquest by the Arabs under Abu Obeidah, A. D. 638, when it resumed its ancient name of Chaleb or Chalybon. (Niceph. //. E. xiv. 39; Schulten's Index Geoff, s. v. Ualeb; Winer, BibL Real- Wort. Buck.) It afterwards became the capital of the Sultans of the race of Harnadan, but in the latter part of the tenth century was united to the Greek empire by the conquests of Zimitces, emperor of Constantinople. The excavations a little way eastward of the town, are the only vestiges of ancient remains in the neighbourhood. They are very extensive, and consist of suites of large apartments, which are separated by portions of solid rock, with massive pilasters left at intervals to support the mass above. (Chcsney, Exped. -£"«phrat. vol. i. p. 435.) Its present population is somewhat more than 100,000 souls. For corns of Beroea, both autonomous and imperial, ranging from Trajan to Antoninus, sec Rasche, vol. i. p. 1492; Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 359.

[graphic]

COIX OF BEROEA IX STRIA.

4. (Bfp«'o, 1 Mace. ix. 4), a village in Judaea (Belaud, Palaest. p. 640), which, according to Winer (a, v.), must not be confounded with the Berea mentioned 2 Mace. xui. 4. [E. B. J.]

BERO'NES or VERO'NES (bt^wms), a people in the N. of Hispania Tarraconcnsis, along the upper course of the Iberus (Euro), on its right bank, about Logroiio, between the Celtihkki on the S., and the Cantabri on the N., SE. of the Autrigoxes, and on the borders of the Contestaxt. They were a Celtic people, and arc mentioned by Strabo as forming, with the Ccltibcri, the cbief remnant of the old Celtic population of Spain. (Liv. /V. xci., where Hie common reading is Virones; Strab. iii. pp. 158, 162; Ptol. ii. 6. § 55.) The following were their chief cities: Tiiitium Metallum (Tpiriov McToaaov, PtoL: Tricio, near Naycra), in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 394) simply Tritium, on the high road from Legio VII. {Leon) to Caesaraugusta, 36 M.P. SE. of Virovksca, and not to be confounded with a place of the same name W. of Virovcsca: Verela, on the same road, 18 M.P. SE. of Tritium, and 28 NW. of Calagurris (Calahorra, Itin. p. 393), undoubtedly the Vareia or Varia (Oua^cia, OvuLpla) of Livy, Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, which

was the strongest city of the district (Liv. I. c\): it stood at a passage of the Iberus (Strab. p. 162), where the river commenced its navigable course of 260 SI. P. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4): it still bears its ancient name(J'area, a little below Logroiio, with which some confound it; Florez, Cantabr. p. 198; Mcntelle, Esp. Med. p. 363): Oliba ('OAi'fia, Ptol.: some assume a corruption by transposition, and identify it with the 'OAgfa mentioned by Stephanas By zantinus as a city of Iberia); Coxtrebria, also called Lcucas, a stronghold of Sertorius, as being the most convenient head-quarters, from which to inarch out of the territory of the Beroncs into any of the neighbouring districts (Liv. Fr. xci. p. 27, where mention is also made of another important city of the same name belonging to the Celtiberi): Ukert takes it for the Cantabria on the Ebro, which is mentioned in the middle ages, and the ruins of which are seen between Logroiio and Ptana. (Sandoval, Annot. &c. quoted by D'Anville, Mem. de I Acad, des Inter. vol. xi. p. 771; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 321, 457, 458.) [P. S.]

BERO'THA (bvo^btj), mentioned only by Joscphus as a city of Upper Galilee, not far from Cadesh (Naphthali) (Antv. 1. § 18). He makes it the scene of the decisive battle which Joshua fought with the northern kings, "at the waters of Merom." (Josh. xi. 1—9.) [G.W ]

BERUBIUM, the third promontory on the northwest coast of Scotland, according to Ptolemv. Probably, Noss Head. [R. G. L.]

BERYA, a town in Apamene, according to tha Peutinger Tables, SE. of Antioch, 25 M. P. from Chalcis and 54 M. P. from Bathna. Niebuhr (a'cwp, vol. iii. p. 95) found many ruins under the name of Berua. [E.B.J]

BERYTUS (B-npvrfc, Berftus and Berytus: Eth. BrjpvTtos, Berytensis, Berytius, Stepb. B. Scyhtx,p. 42; Dionys. Per. v. 911; Pomp. Mela, i. 12. § 5; A mm. Mar. xiv. 8. § 9; T&c.IIist. ii-81; I tin. Anton.; Pent. Tab.; Geogr. Rav.; Hierocles: Beirut), a town of Phoenicia, which has been identified by some with the Berotha or Berothai of the Hebrew Scriptures. (2 Sam. viii. 8; Ezek. xlvii. 16.) In the former passage Berothai is spoken of as belonging to the kingdom of Zobah (comp. v. 5), which appears to have included Hamath (comp. w. 9, 10; 2 Chron. viii. 3). In the latter passage the border of Israel is drawn in poetic vision, apparently from the Mediterranean, by Hamath and Bcrothan, towards Damascus and Hauran. The Berotha here meant would, as Dr. Robinson (Palestine, vol. iii. p. 442) argues, more naturally seem to have been an inland city. After its destruction by Tryphon, B.C. 140 (Strab. xvi. p. 756), it was reduced by Agrippa. and colonised by the veterans of the v. Macedonica legio and viii. Augusta, and became a Roman colony under the name of Colonia Julia Augusta felix Berytus (Orelli, Inscr. n. 514, and coins in Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 356; Marquardt, Bandbuch der Hum. Alt, p. 199), and was afterwards endowed with the rights of an Italian city. (Ulpian, Dig. 15. 1. § 1; Plin. v. 20.) It was at this city that Herod the Great held the mock trial over his two sons. (Joseph. ^4n<.xvi. 11. §§ 1—6.) The elder Agrippa greatly favoured the city, and adorned it with a splendid theatre and amphitheatre, beside baths and porticoes, inaugurating them with games and spectacles of every kind, including shows of gladiators. (Joseph. Ant. xix. 7. §5.) Here, too, Titus eclehrated the birthday of his father Vespasian by the exhibition of

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