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similar spectacles, in which many of the captive ii. iv. $ 14; Geog. Rav. iv. 43.) Some identify it Jews perished. (Joseph. B. J. vii. 3. § 1; comp. 5. with Bejer de la Frontera ; but others argue that § 1.) Afterwards Berytus became renowned as a that place lies too far inland to agree with Pliny's school of Greek learning, particularly of law, to statement that Besippo was a sea-port, and take the which scholars repaired from a distance. Its splen- Roman ruins near Porto Barbato for its site. (Ukert, dour may be computed to have lasted from the third vol. ij. pt. i. p. 343.)

[P. S.] to the middle of the sixth century. (Milman's BESOR (Báoenos), a brook in the south of PaGibbon, vol. iii. p. 51.) Eusebius relates that the lestine, between the town of Ziklag (assigned to martyr Appian resided here for some time to pur- David by Achish king of the Philistines), and the sue Greek secular learning (De Mart. Paloest. c. iv.), country of the Amalekites. (1 Sam. xxvii. 6, xxx. and Gregory Thaumaturgus repaired to Berytus to 8, 9.)

[G.W.] perfect himself in the civil law. (Socrates, H. E. BESSA (Bîooa: Eth. Bnooaios), a town in iv. 27.) A later Greek poet describes it in this Locris, so called from its situation in a wooded glen, respect as “the nurse of tranquil life.” (Nonnus, mentioned by Homer, but which had disappeared in Dionys. xli. fin.) Under the reign of Justinian it the time of Strabo.' (Hom. I. ii. 532; Strab ix was laid in ruins by an earthquake, and the school p. 426; Steph. B. I. c.) removed to Sidon, A. D. 551. (Milman's Gibbon, BESSI (Bnocol), a Thracian tribe occupying the vol. vii. p. 420.) In the crusades, Beirút, which country about the rivers Axius, Strymon, and Nestus. was sometimes called Baurim (Alb. Aq. v. 40, x. 8), They appear to have been a very numerous people, was an object of great contention between the Chris- and at different times to have occupied a more tians and the Muslim, and fell successively into the or less extensive country. According to Herodotus hands of both. In A.D. 1110 it was captured by (vii. 111), they belonged to the Satrae, a free ThraBaldwin I. (Wilken, Die Kreuz. vol. ii. p. 212), and cian people, and had the management of an oracle of in A. D. 1187 by Saláh eddín. (Wilken, vol. ii. pt. Dionysus situated in the highest part of the moun. ii. p. 295.) It was in the neighbourhood of Berytus | tains. In the time of Strabo (vii. p. 318) the Bessi that the scene of the combat between St. George dwelt all along the southern slope of Mount Haemus, (who was so highly honoured in Syria) and the Dragon from the Euxine to the frontiers of the Dardanians is laid. Beirút is now commercially the most im- in the west. In the second century of our era their portant place in Syria. The town is situated on a territory might seem to have been greatly reduced, kind of shoulder sloping towards the shore from the as Ptolemy (iii. 11. § 9) mentions the BeoolKT NNW. side of a triangular point, which runs more among the smaller otpatnnial of Thrace; but his than two miles in the sea. The population amounts statement evidently refers only to the western porto nearly 15,000 souls. (Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. tion of the Bessi, occupying the country between the vol. i. p. 468. For coins of Berytus, both autono- | Axius and Strymon, and Pliny (iv. 11. 18) speaks mous and imperial, ranging from Trajan to Anto- of Bessi living about the Nestus and Mount Rhoninus, see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 356; Rasche, Lex. dope. Looking at the country they occupied, and Num. vol. i. p. 1492.)

[E. B.'J.] the character given them by Herodotus, there can

be no doubt that they were the chief people of

Thrace; they were warlike and independent, and LEN

were probably never subdued by the Macedonians; the Romans succeeded in conquering them only in their repeated wars against the Thracians. It would scem that the whole nation of the Bessi was divided into four cantons (Steph. Byz. 3. v. Tetpaxwpital), of which the Diobessi mentioned by Pliny

may have been one. In the time of Strabo the COIN OF BERYTUS.

Bessi are said to have been the greatest robbers BESA or BESSA. [ATTICA, p. 331, b.] among the Thracians, who were themselves notorious

BE'SBICUS (Béo bikos : Eth. Beo Cinvós), a as anota!. That they were not, however, wholly small island in the Propontis, in the neighbourhood | uncivilised, is clear from the fact that they inhabited of Cyzicus. (Steph. B. 8. v. Béo bikos.) The my- towns, the chief of which was called 'Uscudama thical story, quoted by Stephanus from Agathocles, (Entrop. vi. 10). Another town, Bessa para, is fixes the island near the outlet of the Rhyndacus. mentioned by Procopius and others. (Comp. Dion Pliny (v. 32) places Besbicus opposite to the mouth Cass. liv. 34, and Baehr on Herodotus, l. c.) (LS.) of the Rhyndacus, and gives it a circuit of 18 Roman BETA'SII, 2 people mentioned by Tacitus. In miles. In another passage (ii. 88) he enumerates it the war with Civilis, Claudius Labeo, a Batavian, among the islands which have been separated from mustered a force of Nervii and Betasii (Hist. iv. 56); the adjacent mainlands by earthquakes. The po- and he opposed Civilis at a bridge over the Mosa sition assigned to Besbicus by Pliny and Strabo (p. with a hastily raised body of Betasii, Tungri, and 576) corresponds with that of Kalolimno, a small Nervii (llist. iv. 66). Pliny (iv. 17) mentions island which is about 10 miles N. of the mouth of the Betasii, but he does not help us to fix their pothe Rhyndacus.

[G. L.] sition. It seems probable that the Betasii were the BESE’DA (Béonoa: S. Juan de la Badesas), an neighbours of the Nervii and Tungri, and it is coninland city of the Castellani, in Hispania Tarraco-jectured that the name is preserved in that of Beetz, nensis. (Ptol. ii. 6. & 71; coins, ap. Sestini, p. 183; on the left bank of the Geete, south of Haalen, in Ukert, rol. ii. pt. i. p. 426.) [P.S.] | South Brabant.

[G. L.] BESIPPO or BAESIPPO (Balolaw), a city of BETHABARA (Bn0a6apà), mentioned in St. the Turdetani, on or near the S. coast of Hispania John's Gospel (i. 28) as the place of our Lord's Bactica, just outside the Straits, E. of the Pr. Ju- Baptism. It is placed by the Evangelist " beyond nonis (C. Trafalgar), and 12 M. P. W. of Belo. Jordan," i. e. on the eastern side of the river (comp. (Ilin. Ant. p. 408; Mela, ii. 6; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3; Ptol. x. 40), perhaps identical with Beth-bara (Julyes,

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vii. 24), where was a ford, from which the place are distinguished, Ai being placed " beside Bethdoubtless derived its name, equivalent to “ locus aven, on the east side of Bethel." Michimash is also transitus." (Reland, p. 626.)

FG.W.] placed " eastward from Bethaven.” (1 Sam. xiii. 2.) BETHAGLA (Bethhogla), a town of Palestine, It is joined with Gibeah and Ramah, and ascribed to in the plain of Jericho, on the borders between the Benjamin. (Hos. v. 8.) The LXX. translate it tribes of Judah and Benjamin, but reckoned to the (in Josh. vii. 2) Baiona, (in xviii. 12) Baltár, (in latter. (Josh. xv. 6, xviii, 19, 21.) St. Jerome Hoc. v. 8) Otku nav.

[G. W.] identifies it with the threshing-floor of Atad (Gen. BETHDAGON (Bnodayár). Two cities of this 1. 10, 11), the scene of the mourning for Jacob. namne occur in the lists in the book of Joshua, one (Onomast. 8. v. Area Atad.) A fountain named situated in the tribe of Judah, apparently towards 'Ain Hlajla, and a ruined monastery, Kusr Hajla, the SW.; and the other in the tribe of Asher (xv. situated about two miles froin the Jordan, and three 41, xix. 27). There are two villages of this name, from the northern shore of the Dead Sea, still pre- Beit-dajan, now in Palestine, one a few miles to the serve the name and memorial of this site. (Robin- east of Jaffa, the other SE. of Nablus. They doubt8011, B. R. vol. ü. pp. 267-271.) [G. W.) | less represent ancient sites, but are not identical with

BETHAMMARIA (Bnbauuapia, Ptol. v. 15. either of those first named. The village of this $ 14), a town on the W. bank of the Euphrates, name near Jaffa apparently occupies the site of the Betamali of the Peutinger Tables, 14 M.P. from Caphardagon, a large village mentioned by Eusebius Ceciliana. This place cannot be the Beminaris of the 1 (Onomast, 6. v. Beth-Dagon) between Diospolis Antonine Itinerary, as Bemmaris is placed above the (Lydda) and Jamnia (Yebna). (Robinson, B. R. Zeugma, and Bethammaria below it. [E. B.J.) vol. ij. p. 30, n. 2.) The fregaent recurrence of this

BETHANY (Bndavía), a village 15 stadia from name shows how widely spread was the worship of Jerusalem, at the eastern foot of the Mount of Olives, | Dagon through Palestine.

[G. W.] remarkable for the raising of Lazarus, and for other BETH-DIBLATHAIM (Olkus Aaldataiui), a incidents in our Saviour's life. (St. John, xi. 18.) city of Moab, mentioned only by Jeremiah (xlviii. Its modern name is El-Azariyeh, i.e. the village of LXX. xxxi. 22).

SG. W.] Lazarus. (Robinson, B. R. vol. ii. p. 100.) [G. W.] BETHEL (Baiona, Bnoņa), a border city of the

BETHAR (Bether, Bither, Bioonpa), a city cele- tribe of Ephraim, for the northern boundary of Benbrated in the history of the Jewish revolt under jamin passed south of it. (Josh. xvii. 13; Judyes, Hadrian (A. D. 131) as the last retreat of the Jews i. 22-26.) It was originally named Luz, and was when they had been driven out of Jerusalem. They celebrated in the history of the early patriarclis. held out there for nearly three years. It is described (Gen. xii. 5, xxviii. 10-19, xxxi. 1-15.) It as a very strong city not far distant from Jerusalem. owed its new name, signifying " the house of God," (Euscb. II, E. iv. 6.) Its site was recovered and to the vision of Jacob's ladder, and the altar which clearly identified in 1843. (Williams, Holy City, he afterwards erected there. It afterwards became vol. i. pp. 209--213.) It is now called Beilir, the infamous for the worship of the golden calf, here exact Arabic form of its ancient name, and is a con- instituted by Jeroboam, (1 Kings, xü, 28, 33. xlii.) siderable village about six miles SSW. of Jerusalem, It was inhabited after the captivity (Ezra, ii. 28; still retaining some traces of its fortifications, while Nehem. vii. 32, xi, 31), and was fortified by Bacthe inhabitants of the modern village have received chides. (1 Maccab, ix. 50; Joseph. Ant. xiij. 1.$3.) and preserved traditions of its siege. [G. W.] It was taken by Vespasian after he had subjugated

BETHARAMATHUM (Bndapduatov), identical the country between this and the coast. (B.J. iv. with Anathus in Peraca (9.v.), as is proved by a 9. $ 9.) It is described by Eusebius and St. Jerome comparison of Josephus, Ant. xvii. 12. $ 6, B.J. i. as a small village on the road from Jerusalem to 4. $ 2. (Reland, p. 560.)

[G. W.] Sichem (Nablus), twelve miles from the former BETHARAMPHTHA (Bngapauoda), a city of (Onomast. s. v. "Ayral), on the left (or east) of the Peraea, which Herod Antipas encompassed with a road going south, according to the Itin. Hierosol. wall, and changed its name to JULIAS, in honour of | Precisely in this situation are large ruins of an anthe wife of the emperor Tiberius. (Ant. xviii. 2. cient city, bearing the name of Beitin, according to a $1.) It is certainly identical with that mentioned common variation of in for el in the termination of by Eusebius and St. Jerome as situated on the Jor- | Arabic proper names. (Robinson, Bib. Res. vol. il. dan, originally named Betharamphta, and after- p. 128, n. 1.)

[G. W'.) wards called Livias by Herod (Onomast. s. v.), and BETH-GAMUL (oikos raiuár), a city of Mouth, certainly not the same as the Julias which is placed mentioned only by Jeremiah (xlviii. 23), probably by Josephus where the Jordan flows into the Sea of represented by the modern village of U'm-el. Jemil Tiberias (B. J. iii. 9. $ 7), which was identical with or Edjmal, west of the ancient Bozrah. (Robinson, Bethsaida. [BETHSAIDA. But the names Julias | B. R. ii., Appendix, p. 153.)

FG. W.] and Livias are frequently interchanged, as are Julia BETHHACCAREM (Baitayapud, Bndayxaphu), and Livia. A still earlier name of this town, ac- mentioned by Jeremiah (vi, 1.) as the place where cording to Eusebius and St. Jerome, was Beth-haram, the beacon fire should be lighted to give the alarm a city of the tribe of Gad (Josh, xiii. 27), doubtless of the Chaldaeans' approach to Jerusalem. “ Malthe same with Beth-haran (Num. xxxii. 36), which | chiah, the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Beththe Talmud also says was afterwards called beth-haccarem," is mentioned by Nehemiah (iii. 14), ramtha. (Reland, p. 642; comp. pp. 869, 870, s. v. which would seem to intimate that it was a place of Julias Peraeae.) It is most probably only another considerable importance after the captivity. St. Jeform of the preceding Betharamathum, i.e. the mo- rome (Comment. in Jerem. I. c.) speaks of it as a dern Amata, near the Jabbok. (Amarhus.] [G.W.] | village of Juda, situated on a mountain between

BETHAVEN, commonly supposed to be identical | Aclia and Thecua--i.e. Tekoa. Its site was conwith Bethel, so called after that city had become jecturally fixed by Pocock (Trav. ii. p. 42) to a the scene of idol-worship, Beth-aven signifying "the very remarkable conical hill, about three miles cast house of vanity." But in Josh. (vii. 2) the two places of Bethlehem, and about the same distanco north of Tekoa, conspicuous over all the neighbourhood, called and name are preserved in the modern village of by the natives Jebel Fureidis, the Frank Mountain Beitlahem, a few miles north of Nazareth, and eastof European travellers, at the foot of which are the ward of Sephúrieh (formerly Diocaesarea). [G.W.7 ruins of HERODIUM, (Robinson, B. R., vol. ii. BETHLEPTEPHA (Totapxia BeOXETT nowv), pp. 170, 174.)

[G. W.] one of the ten toparchies of Judaea proper, the BETI-HARAN (BETHARAMPHTHA.]

Bethleptephene of Pliny (v. 14). It was apparently BETHHOGLA.BETHAGLA.]

situated in the south of Judaea, and in that part BETH-JESIMOT] (Eus. Bndariuoúe, LXX. which is commonly called Idumaea by Josephus Baitao evo, 'Ageludo, Aloquát), one of the last (B. J. iv. 8. $ 1). Reland has remarked that the stations of the Israelites before crossing the Jordan, name resembles Beth-Lebaoth, a city of the tribe of and near the Salt or Dead Sea (Numb. xxxiii. 49; Simeon (Josh, xix. 6), and the situation equally Josh. xii. 3.) It was a city of the tribe of Reuben corresponds.

[G. W.] (Josh. xii. 20), afterwards occupied by the Moabites. BETHMARCABOTH (1 Chron. iv. 31), or (Ezek. xxv. 9.) Eusebius confounds it with Jashi- Beth-hamarkaboth (Josh. xix. 5) (Barouapiuso, mon (9. v.)

[G. W.] Balduaxepés). A city of the tribe of Simeon, otherBETHLEHEM (Baiocéu, Bnocéu, Bnoreeni-wise unknown.

[G. W.] Tos), a town of the tribe of Judah, six miles south | BETHOGABRIS or BETHAGABRĀ (Baitoof Jerusalem, on the left of the road to Hebron, yabpá, Ptol., Baidyaópn), the Betogabri of the Peucalled also “ Ephrathah” and “ Ephrath” (Gen. tinger tables, between Ascalon and Aelia, 16 Roman xlviii. 7; Mica, v. 1), and its inhabitants Ephra- miles from the former. It is reckoned to Judaea by thites (Ruth, i. 2; 1 Sam. xvii. 12). It probably | Ptolemy (xvi. 4), and is probably identical with owed both its names, Bethlchem-i. e. the house of Bývabpıs (al. B'htapıs) of Josephus, which he bread, and Ephrathah-i. e. fruitful to the fecun- | places in the middle of Idumaea. (B.J. iv. 8. $ 1.) dity of its soil, and it is still one of the best culti- It was afterwards called ELEUTHEROPOLIS, as is vated and most fertile parts of Palestine. It is si-proved as by other evidence, so by the substitution tuated on a lofty ridge, long and narrow, which pro of one name for the other in the lists of episcopal jects into a plain formed by the junction of several sees given by William of Tyre and Nilus: as sufvalleys, affording excellent pasture and corn lands; fragans of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. (Comwhile the hill side, terraced to its summit, is laid pare Reland's Palaest. p. 220 with 227.) That it out in oliveyards and vineyards. It is first men- / was a place of considerable importance in the fourth tioned in the history of the Patriarch Jacob (Gen. century is proved by the fact that it is assumed as a xlviii, 7); but does not occur in the list of the cities centre (by Eusebius in his Onomasticon), from which of Judah in the Hebrew text of the Book of Joshua. to measure the distances of other localities, and the The version of the LXX., however, gives it under " district” or “ region of Eleutheropolis," is his usual both its names ('Eppadà, aůrn doti Baid céu), with description of this part of the country. It has now ten other neighbouring cities (in Joshua, xv., after recovered its ancient name Beit-Jebrin, and is a verse 59 of the Hebrew). It occurs also in the his- large Moslem village, about 20 miles west of Hebron. tory of the Book of Judges (xix. 1, 2), soon after the The name signifies “ the house of Giants," and the settlement of the Israelites, for Phinehas was then city was situated not far from Gath, the city of high priest (xx. 28). It is the scene of the prin- | Goliath and his family. The large caves about the cipal part of the Book of Ruth— Boaz, the progenitor modern village, which seem formerly to have served of David, being the principal proprietor at that pe-as habitations, suggest the idea that they were riod (ü. 1), as his grandson Jesse was afterwards. Troglotides who originally inhabited these regions. From the time of David it became celebrated as his It was sometimes confounded with Hebron, and at birthplace, and is called "the city of David” (St. Luke, another period was regarded as identical with Raii. 4, 11; St. John, vii. 42), and was subsequently math-lehi (Judges xv. 9-19), and the fountain Enyet more noted as the destined birthplace of the hakkore was found in its suburbs (Antoninus Messiah, the circumstances of whose nativity at Mart. &c. ap. Reland. Palaest. p. 752); and it is that place are fully recorded by St. Matthew (ii.), conjectured by Reland (1. c.) that this erroneous and St. Luke (ii.). The place of the nativity is de- opinion may have given occasion to its change of scribed by Justin Martyr (Dial. § 78) in language name, to commemorate in its new appellation the which implies that it was identified in his days (cir. deliverance there supposed to have been wrought A. ). 150). Origen (A.D. 252) says that the cave | by Samson. St. Jerome, who gives a different and 46 was venerated even by those who were aliens from less probable account of its Greek name, makes it the Faith" (c. Cels. lib. i. p. 39), agreeably with the northern limit of Idumaea. (Reland, I. c.) Beitwhich St. Jerome says that the place was over- | Jebrin still contains some traces of its ancient imshalowed by a grove of Thammuz (Adonis) from portance in a ruined wall and vaults of Roman conthe time of Hadrian for the space of 180 years struction, and in the substructions of various build(A. D. 135-315). (Epitaph. Paul. vol. iv. p. 564.) | ings, fully explored and described by Dr. Robinson In A,D. 325, Helena, the mother of Constantine, (B, R. vol. ii. pp. 355, 356. 395—398). erected a magnificent basilica over the Place of the BETH-SHITTA (Bnboedd, al. Bageettá, LXX.), Nativity (Eusebius, Vit. Const. iii. 41, 43), which occurs only in Judges (vii. 22) as one of the places still remains. In the following century, it became to which the Midianites fled after their defeat by the chosen resort of the most learned of the Latin Gideon in the valley of Jezreel (vi. 33). Dr. Robin. fathers, and the scene of his important labours in son suggests that the modern village of Shútta, near behalf of sacred literature, chief among which must the Jordan, SE. from Mount Tabor, may be conbe reckoned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. nected with this Scripture name. (B. R. vol. ij. Its modern name is Beitlahem, a considerable village, p. 219.)

[G. W.] inhabited exclusively by Christians. [G. W.]T BETH-ZACHARIAH (Balofaxapía, Beoçaxa

BETHLEHEM (Bardeép, BarOuév), a city of pía), a city of Judaea, 70 stadia distant from Beththe tribe of Zebulun. (Josh. xix. 15). The site sura or Bethzur [9.v.], on the road to Jerusalem.

(1 Maccaó. vi. 23; Joseph. Ant. xii. 9. § 4; B.J. | Bethany met that of Bethphage. (Chorograph. i. 1. $ 5.) It was here that Judas Maccabaeus en- | Cent. ch. xxxvii.; Exercitations on St. Luke, xxiv. camped at a mountain pass, to defend the approach to 50; Horae Heb. &c. in Act. Ap. i. 12.) This writer Jerusalem against Antiochus Eupator, and here an denies that there was any village of Bethplage, but engagement took place, in which Judas was defeated, assigns the name to the whole western slope of with the loss of his brother Eleazar, who was crushed | Mount Olivet as far as the city, explaining it to to death by one of the elephants, which he had | mean the place of figs," from the trees planted on stabbed in the belly. (Joseph. I. c.) Sozomen calls the terraced sides of the mount. (Chorograph. Cent. it Xapàp Zaxapla (H. E. ix. 17), and places it in the xxxvi.) Eusebius and St. Jerome, however, describe region of Eleutheropolis (BETHOGABRIS), and, appa- it as a small village on the Mount of Olives, and the rently in order to account for the name, says that the latter explains the name to mean "villa (s. domus) body of Zachariah was found there. A village named sacerdotalium maxillarum" (Comment, in St. Matth. Tell-Zakariya (Robinson, B. R. vol. ï. p. 350) still xxi.; Epitaph. Paulae), as being a village of the marks the site of the ancient town. It is situated priests to whom the maxilla of the victims bein the SW. of Wady-es-Sumt, forinerly the valley longed.

[G. W.] of Elab, in the narrowest part of the valley, so that BETHSAIDA (Bn0oäidd). 1. A town of Galilee, the scene of Judas's conflict with the forces of An- situated on the Sea of Tiberias. (St. John, xü. 21; tiochus was not far distant from that of David's St. Mark, vi. 45, viii. 22.) It was the native place overthrow of the Philistine champion. [G. W.] of four of our Lord's apostles (St. John, i. 45), and

BETHORON (Bnodopáv, Baitapów). There were probably derived its name from the occupation of its two cities of this name in the northern border of the | inhabitants="vicus piscatorum." (Reland, 8. v.) tribe of Benjamin (Josh. xvi. 5, xviii. 13), but be- | It is mentioned in connection with Chorazin and Calonging to the tribe of Ephraim, and assigned to the | pernaum as one of the towns where most of our Levites. (Josh. xxi. 22.) Originally built by Lord's mighty works were done (St. Matth. xi, 21 Sheral (1 Chron. vii. 24); they were fortified by --23; St. Luke, x. 13); and Epiphanius speaks of Solomon. (2 Chron. viii. 5.) The two cities were Bethsaida and Capernaum as pot far distant from distinguished as the upper and the Lower, the Upper cach other. (Ado. Haer. ii. p. 437.) At the NE. being situated more to the east, the Lower to the extremnity of the plain of Gennesareth, where the west, where the mountain country inclines towards western coast of the Sea of Tiberias joins the north the great western plain. It was in this neighbour- coast, is a rocky promontory which is called Ras(Cape) hood that Joshua defeated the allied kings (x. 10, Seiyada, and between this and some ruined water11), and 15 centuries later that same “ going down works of Roman construction - now called Targa to Bethoron” was fatal to the Roman army minder (mills), from some corn-mills still worked by water Cestius, retreating before the Jews from his unsuc- from the Roman tanks and aqueducts --- are the ruins cessful attempt upon the city (B. J. ii. 19. $52, 8), of a town on the shore which the natives believe to as it had been once again, in the interim, to the forces | mark the site of Bethsaida. of Antiochus Epiphanes, under Seron, who lost 800 2. Another town on the northern shore of the Sea men in this descent after he had been routed by of Tiberias, which Philip the Tetrarch enlarged and Judas Maccabaeus. (Llacc. ii. 16, 24.) Beth- beautified, and changed its name to Julias, in lionour oron was one of several cities fortified by Bacchides of the daughter of Augustus and the wife of Tiagainst Jonathan, the brother of Judas (ix, 50). berius. (Ant. xviii. 2. $ 1.) As Julia was disThese towns lay on the high road from Jerusalem to graced by Augustus before his death, and repudiated Cacsarca, by way of Lydda, and are frequently men- by Tiberius immediately on his assuming the purple, tioned in the line of march of the Roman legions it is clear that the name must have been changed (ll. cc., B.J. ii. 19. SS 1, 2, 8). The highway rob- some time before the death of Augustus (A, D. 14), bery of Stephanus, the servant of the emperor Clan- and probably before the disgrace of Julia (B.C. 2). dius, one of the events which helped to precipitate And it is therefore nearly certain that this town is the war, took place on this road (B.J. ii. 12. $2), not (as has been supposed) the Bethsaida of the at the distance of 100 stadia from Jerusalem. (cf. Gospels, since the sacred writers would doubtless, as Ant. xx. 5. $ 4.) Eusebius and St. Jerome men in the parallel case of the town of Tiberias, have tion two villages of this name 12 miles from Aelia adopted its new name. Besides which, the Bethsaida (Jerusalem), on the road to Nicopolis (Emmans) of the Gospels was in Galilee (see supra, No. 1)

they would more correctly have written Diospolis | while Julias was in Lower Gaulonitis (B.J. ii. 9. (Lydda)]; and St. Jerome remarks that Rama, $ 1), and therefore subject to Philip, as Galilee was Bethoron, and the other renowned cities built by not. Its exact situation is indicated by Josephus, Solomon, were then inconsiderable villages. (Com- where he says that the Jordan enters the Lake of ment. in Sophon. c. 1.) Villaves still remain on the Gennesareth at the city Julias. (B. J. m. 9. $7.) It sites of both of these ancient towns, and are still was therefore on the left bank of the Jordan, at its distinguished as Beit-'ur et-Tahta and el-Foka, i. e. embouchure into the Sea of Tiberias. It is not the Lower and the Upper. They both contain scanty otherwise known in history except as the place of reinains of ancient buildings, and traces of a Roman Philip the Tetrarch's death. (Ant. xviii, 5. $ 6.) road are to be found between them. They are about It is mentioned also by Pliny in connection with an hour (or three miles) apart. (Robinson, B. R. Hippo, as one of several agreeable towns near to the vol. iii. pp. 59–62.)

[G. W.] place where the Jordan enters the lake, and on the BETHPIAGE (Bneodyn), a place on Mount E. shore (v. 15). The small triangular plain beOlivet, between Bethany and Jerusalein (St. Matth. tween the lake and the river is thickly covered with xxi. 1 ; St. Luke, xix. 29); for our Lord, having runs, but especially at et-Tell, a conspicuous bill passed the preceding night at Bethany (St. John, at its NW. extremity. (Robinson, Bib. Res, vol. iii. xii. 1), came on the following morning to “ Beth- pp. 304-308.)

[G. W.] phage and Bethany," i. e., as Lightfoot explains it, BETUSAN (Bethsban, Band», Bedoávn), or to that part of the mountain where the district of | SCYTHOPOLIS, a city of the Manassites, but lom cally situated in the tribe of Issachar. (Comp. | ten miles from Eleutheropolis, on the east of the Judg. i. 27; 1 Chron. vii. 29; Josh. xvii. 11.) It road to Nicopolis. (Onomast. 8. v.) This corrects was situated to the east of the great Plain of Es- the former error, for no place within ten miles of draelon (1 Maccab. v. 52), not far from the Jordan, Eleutheropolis could possibly be in Benjamin ; but and was 600 stadia distant from Jerusalem. (2 it commits another, as we should read "west” inMacc. xii. 29.) In the time of Sanl it was occu- | stead of “ east;" for there can be little doubt that pied by the Philistines, who, after the battle of Gil- the modern village of 'Ain Shems represents the boa, hung the bodies of Saul and his sons to the ancient Bethshemesh; and this would nearly answer walls of this city. (1 Sam. xxxi. 10, 12.) It is to the description, with the correction above sugplaced by Josephus at the southern cxtremity of gested. This view is confirmed by the narrative of Galilee. (B. J. iii. 3. $ 1.) He calls it the chief i Sam. vi. 9–20, where this is mentioned as the city of the Decapolis, and near Tiberias. (B. J. first city to which the ark came on its return from ji. 8. $ 7.) Elsewhere he states its distance from the country of the Philistines; and this city, with Tiberias to be 120 stadia. (Vita, § 65.) Ptolemy some others in “the low country," was taken by the (v. 16) reckons it as one of the cities of Coelesyria. Philistines in the days of Ahaz. (2 Chron. xxviii. Pliny (v. 18), who assigns it to Decapolis [DECA- 18.) It is probably identical with Ir-shemesh in POLIS], says that it was forinerly called Nysa, from the border of Dan (Josh. xix. 41.) The manifest the nurse of Bacchus, who was buried there. Several traces of an ancient site at 'Ain Shems, further serve conflicting accounts are given of its classical name, to corroborate its identity with Bethshemesh, which Scythopolis, Pliny and others ascribing it to the the name suggests, for “ here are the vestiges of a Scythians, who are supposed to have occupied it on former extensive city consisting of many foundations, their invasion of Palestine (B. c. 568-596), re- and the remains of ancient walls and hewn stone." corded by Herodotus (i. 105). Reland (p. 983), (Robinson, B. R. vol. iii. p. 17-19, and note 6, who rejects this, suggests a derivation from the fact p. 19.) mentioned by St. Jerome, that the Succoth of Gen. There was another city of this name in Naphthali xxxii, 17, was near this place, on the opposite side (Josk. xix. 38; Judg. i. 33), of which nothing is of the Jordan, so making EKUOótonis equivalent to known.

[G. W.]. Zukodonolis. The modern Greeks derive it from BETH-SIMUTH (Bnboiuoil). [BETIJESIEKŪTOS =0 épua (a skin or hide), without offering MOTH.] any explanation of the name. This name is first BETHULIA (Betulota), a strong city of Saused by the LXX. in their translation of Judges, i. maria, situated on the mountain range at the south 27 (Baidoày, łoti Ekvowy tóxis), and occurs in of the Plain of Esdraelon, and commanding the the Apocryphal books without its original name. passes. It is the scene of the book of Judith, and (1 Macc. v. 52, vii. 36; 2 Macc. xii. 39.) It | its site was recovered by Dr. Schultz in 1847, on early became an episcopal see, and is famous in the the northern declivity of Mount Gilboa, south-west annals of the Church. Its modern ruins bear witness of Bisan. It is identified by its name Beit Ilfuh, to the extent and importance of the ancient city. by its fountain (Judith, vii. 3. xii. 7), by considerable Burckhardt found it 8 hours from Nazareth,“ situ ruins, with rock graves, and sarcophagi, and by the ated on a rising ground on the west side of the naines of several sites in the neighbourhood identical Ghor," the uéya Testov of Josephus, i, e. the Valley with those of the book of Judith. (See Dr. Schultz's of the Jordan. “ The ruins are of considerable extent, Letter in Williams's Holy City, vol. i. Appendix, and the town, built along the banks of a rivulet and p. 469.)

[G. W.] in the valleys formed by its several branches, must BETH-ZUR (Bn0ooúp, Bnbooúpa: Eth. Bnoo ovhave been nearly three miles in circuit." (Travels, paios, Bndooupitns), a city of the tribe of Judah, p. 343.) Irby and Mangles approached it from and one of those fortified by Rehoboam. (Joshua, Tiberias, and noticed traces of a Roman road on the xv. 58; 2 Chron. xi. 7.) In the books of Macway, and a Roman mile-stone. The principal object cabees and in Josephus there is frequent mention of in the ruins is " the theatre, which is quite distinct, one, or perhaps two cities of this name, in the south .... 180 feet wide, and has this peculiarity above of Judaea (1 Macc. xiv. 13), and therefore someall other theatres we have ever seen, viz., that those times reckoned to Idumaea (1 Macc. iv. 29, but oval recesses half way up the theatre, mentioned by in verse 61, katà apóownov Tîis 'Idovuaías, comVitruvius as being constructed to contain the brass rare 2 Macc. xiii. 19.) It is described as the most sounding tubes, are found here. .... There are strongly fortified place of Judaea. (Ant. xiii. 5. seven of them, and Vitruvius mentions that even in $ 7.) In the time of Judas Maccabaeus it stood his day very few theatres had them.” (Travels, à long siege from Antiochus Eupator, but was at pp. 301, 303.) The necropolis is " at the NE. of length forced to capitulate (xii. 8. § 4, 5), and the acropolis, without the walls: the sarcophagi re- was held by the renegade Jews after other fortresses main in some of the tombs, and triangular niches had been evacuated by their Syrian garrisons for the lamps ; some of the doors were also hanging (xii. 2. § 1), but at length surrendered to Simon on the ancient hinges of stone, in remarkable pre- (5. § 7). Josephus places it 70 stadia distant servation.” A fine Roman bridge, s me remains of the from Beth-Zachariah. (xii. 8. § 4.) Eusebius and walls and of one of the gates, amorg which are pros- St. Jerome speak or Bedo oup, or Bndo opov, Bethsur, trate columns of the Corinthian order, and pared ways or Bethsoron, on the road from Aelia to Hebron, leading from the city are still existing. [G. W.] twenty miles from the former, and therefore only two BETHSHEMESH (Bhooaues), a priestly city on from the latter.

[G. W.] ti:e northern border of the tribe of Judah (Josh, xv. BETIS. [Baetis.] 10, 45, xxi. 16), where the battle, provoked by | BETONIM (Boravin, Josh. xiii. 26), a city of Amaziah's foolish challenge, was fought between hin the tribe of Gad, apparently in the northern border, and Jehoash (about B. c. 826). (2 Kings, xiv. 11 near the Jabbok. The place existed under the same

-13.) It was erroneously ascribed to Benjamin name in the time of Eusebius. (Reland, p. 661.). by Eusebius and St. Jerome, and placed by them | There is a village of the name of Batneh in the

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