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these cantons was called a nome (vóuos) by the l 2. The Andropolite; chief town Andropolis. Greeks, praefectura oppidorum by the Romans. 3. The Sebennytic; capital Pachnamunis (Ptol.), Each had its civil governor, the Nomarch (vouap- worshipped Latona. xos), who collected the crown revenues, and presided 4. The Chemmite (Herod. ii. 165); capital Buto. in the local capital and chief court of justice. Each Its deity was also called Buto, whom the Greeks nome, too, had its separate priesthood, its temple, identified with Leto. Ptolemy calls this canton chief and inferior towns, its magistrates, registration Devórns, and Pliny (v. 9) Ptenetha. and peculiar creed, ceremonies, and customs, and 5. The Onuphite; chief town Onuphis. (Herod. each was apparently independent of every other ü. 166.) nome. At certain seasons delegates from the various 6. The Phthemphuthite; capital Tava. (0eucantons met in the palace of the Labyrinth for con- poudl vouós, Ptol.; Phthempha, Plin. v. 9.) sultation on public affairs (Strab. p. 811). Accord- 7. The Saite; chief city Sais, worshipped Neith ing to Diodorus (i. 54), the nomes date from or Athene, and contained a tomb and a sanctuary of Sesostris. But they did not originate with that mon-Osiris. (Herod. ii. 170; Strab. p. 802.) Under the arch, but emanated probably from the distinctions dynasty of the Saitic Kings this was the principal of of animal worship; and the extent of the local the Deltaic cantons. worship probably determined the boundary of the 8. The Busirite; capital Busiris, worshipped Isis, nome. Thus in the nome of Thebais, where the ram- and at one epoch, according to Hellenic tradition at headed deity was worshipped, the sheep was sacred, least, sacrificed the red-coloured men who came over the goat was eaten and sacrificed: in that of Mendes, the sea, i. e. the nomades of Syria and Arabia where the goat was worshipped, the sheep was a (Herod. i. 59, 33, 165; Strab. p. 802; Plut. de Is. rictim and an article of food. Again, in the nome et Os. p. 30.) . of Ombos, divine honours were paid to the croco- 9. The Thmuite; chief town Thmuis (Herod. ii. dile: in that of Tentyra, it was hunted and abomi- | 168), afterwards incorporated with the following: nated ; and between Ombos and Tentyra there 10. The Mendesian; capital Mendes (Herod. i. existed an internecine feud. (Juv. Sat. xv.) The 42, 46; Diod. i. 84), worshipped the goat Mendes, extent and number of the nomes cannot be ascer or the horned Pan. tained. They probably varied with the political 11. The Tanite; chief town Tanis. (Herod. ii. 166; state of Egypt. Under a dynasty of conquerors, Strab. p. 802.) In this nome tradition affirmed they would extend eastward and westward to the that the Hebrew legislator was born and educated. Red Sea and Libyan deserts: under the Hyksos, the 12. The Bubastite; capital Bubastus, contained a Aethiopian conquest, and the times of anarchy subse noble temple of Bubastis or Artemis. (Herod. ii. quent to the Persian invasion, they would shrink 59, 67, 137.) within the Nile-valley. The kingdoms of Sais and 13. The Athribite; capital Athribis, where the Xois and the foundation of Alexandria probably shrewmouse and crocodile were held in reverence. multiplied the Deltaic cantons: and generally, com 14. The Heliopolite, west of the Delta, and sacred merce, or the residence of the military caste, would to the sun, from whom its capital Heliopolis (On) attract the nomes to Lower Egypt. According derived its name. (Herod. ii. 9; Diod. v. 56; Joseph. to Strabo (pp. 787, 811), the Labyrinth, or hall Ant. ii. 3.) of the Nomarchs, contained 27 chambers, and thus, 15. The Heroopolite; chief town Heroopolis, a at one period, the nomes must have been 27 in principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or number, 10 in the Thebaid, 10 in the Delta, and destroying genius. 7, as its name implies, in the Heptanomis. But Besides these the Delta contained other less imthe Heptanomis, at another period, contained 16 portant nomes, - the Nitriote, where the Natron nomes, and the sum of these cantons is variously Lakes, Nitrariae (Plin. v. 9) were situated; the given. From the dodecarchy or government of 12 Letopolite (Strab. p. 807); the Prosopite; the Leonkings, and from Herodotus' assertion (ii. 148) that topolite; the Mentelite; the Pharbaethite; and the there were only 12 halls in the Labyrinth, we are Sethraite. disposed to infer, that at one time there were only B. NOMES OF THE HEPTANOMIS. The most 12 of these cantons, and that there were always important were :- . 12 larger or preponderating nomes. According to 1. The Memphite, whose chief city Memphis was the lists given by Pliny (v. 9. § 9) and Ptolemy, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Phathere must have been at least 45 nomes; but each raohs, who succeeded Psammetichus B. c. 616. The of these writers gives several names not found in Memphite Nome rose into importance on the decline the other, and if we should add the variations of of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn the one list to the other, the sum would be much eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. greater.
[MEMPHIS.] There was, under the Macedonian kings, a sub 2. The Aphroditopolite; chief town Aphroditodivision of the nomes into toparcbies, which was polis, was dedicated to Athor or Aphrodite. probably an arrangement to meet the fiscal system 3. The Arsinoite, the Fayoom, celebrated for its of the Greeks. (Herod. ï. 164; Diod. i. 54; Strab. worship of the crocodile, from which its capital xvii; Cyrill. Alex. ad Isaiam, xix. 2; Epiphan Crocodilopolis, afterwards Arsinoe, derived its name. Haeres. 24. $ 7.)
[ARSINOE.] The Labyrinth and the Lake of The following list of the principal Nomes will Moeris were in this canton. illustrate the variety of these territorial subdivisions 4. The Heracleote, in which the ichneumon was as regards religious worship.
worshipped. Its principal town was Heracleopolis A. NOMES OF THE DELTA. The most im- Magna. portant were:
5. The Hermopolite, the border nome between 1. The Menelaite; chief town Canobus, with a Middle and Upper Egypt. This was at a very celebrated temple and oracle of Serapis (Strab. p. 801; | early period a flourishing canton. Its chief city Plut. Is. et Osir. c. 27.)
| Hermopolis stood near the frontiers of the Heptanomis, a little to the north of the castle and toll-house too extensive for more than allusion. The worship ('Epuonolitárn pulakh, Strab. p. 813), where the of animals was either general or particular, common portage was levied on all craft coming froin the to the whole nation, or several to the nome. Thus Upper Country.
| throughout Egypt, the ox, the dog, and the cat, the 6. The Cynopolite, the seat of the worship of the ibis and the hawk, and the fishes lepidotus and hound and dog-headed deity Anubis. Its capital oxyrrynchus, were objects of veneration. The sheep was Cynopolis, which must however be distinguished was worshipped only in the Saitic and Thebad from the Deltaic city and other towns of the same nomes: the goat at Mendes; the wolf at Lycopolis; name. (Strab. p. 812; Ptol.; Plut. Is. et Osir. c. 72.) the cepus (a kind of ape) at Babylon, near Mem
The Greater Oasis (Ammonium) and the Lesser phis; the lion at Leontopolis, the eagle at Thebes, were reckoned among the Heptanoinite Cantons: but the shrewmouse at Athribis, and others elsewhere, both were considered as one nome only. (OASES.] as will be particularly noticed when we speak of
C. NOMES OF UPPER EGYPT. The most im- | their respective temples. As we have already portant were:
seen, the object of reverence in one nome was ac1. The Lycopolite, dedicated to the worship of counted common and unclean, if not, indeed, the the wolf. Its chief town was Lycopolis.
object of persecution in another. Animal worship 2. The Antacopolite, probably worshipped Typhon has been in all ages the opprobrium of Egypt (comp. (Diod. i. 21); its capital was Antueopolis (Plut. Clem. Alex. iii. 2, p. 253, Potter; Diod. i. 84). de Solert. Anim. 23.)
The Hebrew prophets denounced, the anthropo3. The Aphroditopolite [Comp. Nome (2), Hep- morphic religionists of Hellas derided it. To the tanomis.] In cases where a southern and a northern extent to which the Egyptians carried it, especially canton possessed similar objects of worship, the in the decline of the nation, it certainly approached latter was probably an offset or colony of the former, to the fetish superstitions of the neighbouring as the Thebaid was the original cradle of Egyptian Libya. But we must bear in mind, that our vergers civilisation, which advanced northward.
to the Coptic temples are Greeks who, being igno4. The Panopolite or, as it was afterwards called, rant of the language, misunderstood much that they the Chemmite, offered hero-worship to an apotheosized | heard, and being preoccupied by their own ritual or man, whom the Greeks compared to the Minyan hero philosophy, misinterpreted much that they saw. Perseus. (Herod. č. 91.) This canton, whose chief One good effect may be ascribed to this form of town was Panopolis or Chemmis (Diod. i. 18), was superstition. In no country was humanity to the principally inhabited by linen-weavers and stone brute creation so systematically practised. The masons.
origin of animal worship has been variously, but 5. The Thinite, probably one of the most ancient, as never satisfactorily, accounted for. If they were it was originally the leading nome of the Thebaid, worshipped as the auxiliaries of the husbandman in and the nome or kingdom of Menes of This, the producing food or destroying vermin, how can we founder of the Egyptian monarchy. The Thinite account for the omission of swine and asses, or for nome worshipped Osiris, contained a Memnoniun, the adoption of lions and wolves among the objects and, in Roman times at least (Amm. Marc. xix. 12; | of veneration? The Greeks, as was their wont, Spartian. Hadrian. 14), an oracle of Besa. Its ca- found many idle solutions of an enigma which propital was Abydus, or, as it was called earlier, This.bably veiled a feeling originally earnest and pious. [ABYDUS.]
They imagined that animals were worshipped be6. The Tentyrite worshipped Athor (Aphrodite), cause their effigies were the standards in war, like Isis, and Typhon. Its inhabitants hunted the the Roman Dii Castrorum. This is evidently a crocodile, and were accordingly at feud with the substitution of cause for effect. The representations Ombite nome. (Juv. xv.) Its chief town was of animals on martial ensigns were the standards of Tentyra.
the various nomes (Diod. i. 85). Lucian (Astrolog. 7. The Coptite, whose inhabitants were principally v. p. 215, seq. Bipont) suggested that the bull, the occupied in the caravan trade between Berenice, lion, the fish, the ram, and the goat, &c. were Myos Hormos, and the interior of Arabia and Libya. correlates to the zodiacal emblems; but this surmise Its capital was Coptos. [Coptos.]
leaves the crocodile, the cat, and the ibis, &c. of the 8. The Hermonthite, worshipped Osiris and his temples unexplained. It is much more probable son Orus: its chief town was Hermonthis.
that, among a contemplative and serious race, as 9. The Apollonite, like the Tentyrite nome, de- the Egyptians certainly were, animal-worship arose stroyed the crocodile (Strab. p. 817; Plin. v. 9 ; out of the detection of certain analogies between inAelian, H. An. X. 21 ; Plut. Is. et 0s. 50), and stinct and reason, and that to the initiated the revereverenced the sun. Its capital was Apollinopolis rence paid to beasts was a primitive expression of Magna. This nome is sometimes annexed to the pantheism, or the recognition of the Creator in every preceding.
type of his work. The Egyptians are not the only 10. The Ombite (Ombites praefectura, Plin. H. N. people who have converteil type into substance, or v. 9), worshipped the crocodile as the emblem of adopted in a literal sense the metaphorical symbols Sebak (comp. supra (6) and (9), and the Arsinoite of faith. (3), Heptanomite nomes). Ombos was its capital. The quarries of sandstone, so much employed in
VI. Castes and Political Institutions. Egyptian architecture, were principally seated in this. The number of the Egyptian castes is very vacanton.
riously stated. Herodotus (ii. 164) says that they
were seven — the sacerdotal and the military, herdsV. Animal Worship.
men, swineherds, shopkeepers, interpreters, and Animal worship is so intimately connected with | boatmen. Plato (Timaeus, iii. p. 24) reckons six; the division of the country into nomes, and, in some Diodorus, in one passage (i. 28) represents them as degree, with the institution of castes, that we must three — priests and husbandmen, from whom the briefly allude to it, although the subject is much | army was levied, and artisans. But in another (i. 74) he extends the number to five, by the addi- , exempt from tribute: their persons were greeted tion of soldiers and shepherds. Strabó limits them with servile homage; they were the sole depositaries of to three — priests, soldiers, and husbandmen – learning and science: and they alone were acquainted and as this partition is virtually correct, we shall with all the formularies which in Egypt regulated adopt it after brief explanation. The existence of nearly every action of life. Their various and incastes is a corroborative proof of the Asiatic origin cessant occupations appear even in the titles of the of the Egyptians. The stamp. of caste was not in subdivisions of the priest-caste. “Each deity," says Egypt, as is sometimes asserted, indelible. The son Herodotus (ü. 37), “ had several priests [priestesse ] usually, but not inevitably, followed his father's and a high priest." The chiefs or pontiffs were the trade or profession. From some of the pariah classes judges of the land, the councillors of the sovereign, indeed - such as that of the swineherds - it was the legislators and the guardians of the great mysscarcely possible to escape.
teries. The minor priests were prophets, inferior The land in Egypt upon which the institation of judges and magistrates, hierophants, hiero-grammats castes rested belonged in fee only to the king, the or sacred scribes, basilico-grammats or royal scribes, priests, and the soldiers. We know from Genesis dressers and keepers of the royal and sacerdotal (xlvii. 26) that all other proprietors of the soil had wardrobes, physicians, heralds, keepers of the sacred surrendered their rights to the crown, and received animals, architects, draughtsmen, beadles, vergers, their lands again subject to an annual rent of } sprinklers of water, fan bearers, &c. (Wilkinson, of the produce. The priests we know (Genes. I. c.), M. and C. vol. i. p. 238). So numerous a staff the soldiers we infer(Diod. i. 74), retained their was not in the peculiar polity of Egypt altogether absolute ownership; and in so productive a country superfluous, neither does it seem to have been peas Egypt the husbandman was too important a per-culiarly burdensome to the nation, since it derived its son to be deprived at once of all his political rights. / support from regular taxes and from its proprietary He was in fact an integral although an inferior lands. Nowhere in the ancient world was the number section of the war-caste. The privileged orders of temples so great as in Egypt: nowhere were there however were the king, the priest, the soldier:- so many religious festivals : nowhere was ordi
1. The King was at first elective, and always a nary life so intimately blended with religion. The member of the priesthood. He afterwards became priest therefore was mixed up in affairs of the hereditary, and was taken indifferently from the market, the law court, the shop, the house, in adsacerdotal and military orders. If however he were dition to his proper vocation in the temple. His life by birth a soldier, he was adopted on his accession was the reverse of ascetic: in the climate of Egypt by the priests. Even the Ptolemies were not allowed frequent ablutions, linen garments, papyrus sandals, to reign without such previous adoption. His initi were luxuries, — only polygamy was forbidden him. ation into the sacred mysteries was represented on | But he was enjoined to marry, and the son succeeded monuments by the tau, the emblem of life and the the father in the sacred office (Herod. ii. 143). key of secrecy, impressed upon his lips (Plut. de Is. Herodotus (comp. ii. 35, 55) contradicts himself et Osir. p. 354, B.; Plat. Rep. ii. p. 290).
in saying that females could not fulfil sacerdotal The king, when not engaged in war, was occupied duties, women might be incapable of the highest in jurisdiction and the service of religion. The offices, but both sculptures and documents prove, royal life was one long ceremony. His rising and that they were employed in many of the minor his lying down; his meals, his recreations, and the duties connected with the temples. order of his employments, were rigidly prescribed 3. The Soldiers. The whole military force of Egypt to him. Some liberty in law-making indeed was amounted to 410,000 men (Herod. ii. 165–166; allowed him, since we read of the laws of Sesostris, Diod. i. 54). It was divided into two corps, the Arnasis, and other Egyptian rulers; and, with vigo- Calasirians and the Hermotybians. The former rous occupants of the throne, it is probable that the were the more numemus, and in the most flourishing soldier occasionally transgressed the priestly ordi- era of Egypt, the 18th and 19th dynasties, were nances. As but few, however, of the Egyptian estimated at 250,000 men. Each of these divisions monarchs seem to have grossly abused their power, furnished a thousand men annually to perform the we may conclude that the hierarchy at least tempered duty of royal body guards. During the term of their royal despotism. In paintings the king is always re- attendance they received from the king daily rations presented as many degrees taller and more robust than of bread, beef, and wine. When summoned to the his subject warriors. A thousand fly before him, field or to garrison duty, each soldier provided himself and he holds strings of prisoners by the hair. The with the necessary arms and baggage. The prinEgyptian king wears also the emblems and some cipal garrisons of Egypt were on its southern and times even the features of the gods; and it is fre- eastern borders, at Syene and Elephantine, at Hieraquently difficult to distinguish on the monuments compolis and Eilethyas, which towns, on opposite Sesortasen, Amunopht, &c. from Osiris. It is re sides of the river, commanded the Nile-valley above markable that females were not excluded from a Thebes, and at Marea and Pelusium. The western throne so sacerdotal. A queen, Nitocris, occurs in frontier was, until Egypt stretched to the Cyrenaica, the sixth dynasty; another, Scemiophris, in the guarded sufficiently by the Libyan desert. In time of twelfth, and other examples are found in the sculp peace the troops who were not in garrisons or at court tures. On the decease of a sovereign a kind of were settled in various nomes principally east of the posthumous judgment was exercised on his character Nile, and in the Delta; since it was in that quarter and government. His embalmed body was placed Egypt was most exposed to invasion from the pasin the sepulchre, and all men were permitted to bring toral Arabs or the yet more formidable nomade tribes accusations against him. Virtuous princes received of Assyria and Palestine. According to Herodotus a species of deification: condemned princes were (ii. 168), each soldier was allowed 12 arourae of de barred from sepulture.
land, or about six acres free from all charge or 2. The Priests however were, in ordinary times, tribute, from which allotment he defrayed the cost the real governing body of Egypt. Their lands were of his arms and equipment. To the Egyptian soldier handicraft employment was forbidden, agricultural observed the distinction between the dry pontifical labours were enjoined. The monuments exhibit offi- chronicle and mythical and heroical narratives cers with recruiting parties, soldiers engaged in gym- couched in poetry and song. To this mass of nastic exercises, and in the battle pieces, which are written documents are to be added the sculptured extremely spirited, all the arts of offensive and de- monuments themselves, the tombs, obelisks, and fensive war practised by the Egyptians are repre- ternple walls, whose paintings and inscriptions hare sented. The war-caste was necessarily a very im- been partially decyphered by modern scholars, and portant element in a state which was frequently are found generally to correspond with the written engaged in distant conquests, and had a wide extent lists of kings compiled, in the first instance, by the of territory to defend. Yet until the reigns of native historian Manetho. Egyptian history, hor. Sethos, when the priests invaded its privileges, and ever, in the modern acceptation of the word, began of Psammetichus, when the king encroached upon after the establishment of the Greek sovercignty of them, we find no trace of mutiny or civil war in Egypt. The natives, with the natural pride of Egypt, - a proof that the Calasirians and Herrno a once ruling but now subject race, were eager to tybians were not only well disciplined, but also, in impart to their Hellenic masters more correct nothe main, contented with their lot.
tions of their history and religion than could be
obtained either from the relations of Greek traVII. Civil History.
vellers, such as Thales and Solon, or from the The History of Egypt is properly arranged under | narratives of Hecataeus, Democritus, and Herodotus. five eras.
Of Manetho, of Sextus Julius Africanus, from whose 1. Egypt under its native rulers—the Pharaonic chronicon, in five books, Eusebius derived a conEra. Its commencement is unknown: it closes siderable portion of his own chronicon, of Georgins with the conquest of the land by Cambyses in B. c. the Syncellus, of Eratosthenes, the Alexandrian 525.
mathematician, who treated largely of Egyptian 2. The Persian Era, from B. c. 525, to the chronology, accounts have been given in the DicMacedonian invasion, B. c. 332.
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography, and to its 3. The Macedonian or Hellenic Era. This period columns we must refer for the bibliography of is computed either from the foundation of Alexan- Egyptian history. Lastly, we must point out the dria, in B. c. 332, or from B. C. 323, when Ptolemy, extreme value of the Hebrew scriptures and of the son of Lagus, converted the satrapy of Egypt Josephus among the records of the Nile-valley. into an hereditary kingdom. This period extends The remote antiquity of Egyptian annals is not to the death of Cleopatra, in B. c. 30.
essentially an objection to their credibility. The 4. The Roman Era, from the surrender of Alex- Syncellus assigns 3555 years as the duration of andria to Augustus, in B. c. 30, to the capture of Manetho's thirty dynasties. These being Egyptian that city by the Khalif Omar in A. D. 640.
years, are equivalent to 3553 Julian years, and, 5. The Mahommedan Era, from A. D. 640 to the added to 339 B. C., when the thirtieth dynasty expresent time.
pired, give 3892 B. c. as the commencement of the The last of these periods belongs to modern his reign of Menes, the founder of the monarchy. But tory, and does not come within the scope of this although Bunsen and other distinguished Egyptwork. The first of them must be very briefly ologers are disposed to assign an historical persontreated, partly because it involves questions which ality to Menes, his very name, as the name of an it would demand a volume to discuss, and partly individual man, seems suspicious. It too nearly because Egypt came into the field of classical his resembles the Menu of the Indians, the Minyas and tory through its relations with the Persians, Greeks, Minos of the Greeks, the Menerfa of the Etruscans, and Romans. For complete information the student and the Mannus of the Germans -- in all which of the Pharaonic era must consult the larger works languages the name is connected with a rootof Denon, Young, Champollion, Rosellini, Heeren, Man — signifying “ to think and speak” (see Wilkinson, Bunsen and Lepsius; or the very lucid Quarterly Review, vol. 78, p. 149) — to be accepted abstract of this period in Kenrick's Ancient Egypt, implicitly as a personal designation. which, indeed, contains all that the general reader The Pharaonic era of Egyptian history may be can require.
divided into three portions—the Old, the Middle,
and the New monarchy. The first extends from the 1. Pharaonic Era.
foundation of the kingdom in B. c. 3892 to the Authorities. — The original records of Egypt invasion of the Hyksos. The second from the conwere kept with no ordinary care, and were very quest of Lower Egypt by the Hyksos and the various in kind, sculpture, symbol, writing, all con establishment of an independent kingdom in the tributing to their contents. Herodotus (č. 72–82), I Thebaid, to the expulsion of the Hyksos. The Theophrastus (ap. Porphyr. de Abstinent. ii. 5), third from the re-establishment of the native Cicero (de Repub. iii. 8) concur in describing the monarchy by Amosis to the final conquest by CamEgyptians as the most learned and accurate of byses in B. C. 525. (Kenrick, Ancient Egypt, mankind in whatsoever concerned their native vol. ii. p. 110.) . annals. The priests, Diodorus (i. 44) assures us, (1.) The Old Monarchy. The chronology of had transmitted in unbroken succession written this and the succeeding division of the Egyptian descriptions of all their kings — their physical monarchy is beset with, at present, insurmountable powers and disposition, and their personal exploits. difficulties; since, in the first place, there are no The antiquity of writing in Egypt is no longer a synchronisms in the annals of other countries to subject of dispute. Lepsius (Book of the Dead, guide the inquirer, and in the next, we know not Leipzig, 1842, Pref. p. 17) found on monuments whether the dynasties in Manetho should be taken as early as the 12th dynasty, the hieroglyphic sign as a series, or whether he enumerates contempoof the papyrus; and on the 4th that of the stylus raneous families of kings, some of whom reigned, and inkstand. The Egyptians themselves also at the same time, at Memphis, and others at Sais,
Xois, Thebes, &c. And even if Manetho him- who reigned 184 years, but the names and acts of