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p. 229), whose inscription was interpreted to Ger- | 722, entered into an alliance (2 Kings, xvii. 4); manicus in A. D. 16, " was strictly an historical and while Tarkus is Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, the statistical document. Its dates are precise; and enemy of Assyria and Sennacherib (Isaiah, xxxvi. though we may be unable to identify the countries 9). Herodotus indeed makes no mention of any named, the exactness with which they are enume- Ethiopian king except Sabaco (Sebichos), who, rated, with the weights and numbers of the objects according to his account, reigned for half a century, which they bring, proves that we have before us an and then voluntarily withdrew into his own Nubian authentic record, at least of the tribute enjoined dominions. (Herod. ii. 139.) The Aethiopian upon the nations.” About this time the southern dynasty was the second foreign occupation of Egypt, frontier of Egypt extended beyond the Second Cata- / but it differed materially from the earlier usurpation ract: to the west the power of Thothmes or Ra- of the land by the Hyksos. The 25th dynasty does meses reached over the negro tribes of the interior: not appear to have been regarded by the Egyp the east was guarded by strong fortresses: while by tians themselves as a period of particular woe or the north the Egyptian monarch went forth as a oppression. The alliance between the country above conqueror, and, proceeding along the Syrian coast, and the country below Elephantine and the Second passed into Asia Minor, and planted his standard on | Cataract was apparently, at all times, very close: the frontiers of Persia, and upon the shores of the the religion and manners of the adjoining kingdoms Caspian Sea. His campaigns required the coopera-differed but little from one another; and the Aethiotion of a fleet; and Egypt became, for the first time pian sovereigns perlaps merely exchanged, during in history, a maritime power. It is probable in- their tenure of Egypt, a less civilised for a more deed that its navy was furnished by its subjects, civilised realm. On the retirement of the Ethio. the inhabitants of the coast of Western Asia. The pians, there was an apparent re-action, since Sethos, period of time assigned to this dynasty is about two a priest of Phtah, made himself master of the centuries and a half. Rameses III., there is every throne. His power seems to have been exercised reason to think, is the Sesostris or Sesortasen of tyrannically, if Herodotus (ii. 147) is correct in Herodotus and Diodorus.
saying that after the death or deposition of this The names of the monarchs of the 18th dynasty" priest of Hephaestos" the Egyptians were “set are obtained from two important monuments, the free.” One important change, indicating a decay of Tablet of Abydos and the Tablet of Karnak. | the ancient constitution, occurred in this reign.
The 19th dynasty is probably a continuation of The military caste was degraded, and the crown its predecessor, and its details are extremely con- even attempted to deprive them of their lands. It fused and uncertain. The 20th was composed is probable that this was a revolutionary phase entirely of kings bearing the name of Rameses (Ra- common to all countries at certain eras. Egypt had meses IV.-XIII.), of whom Rameses IV. alone become in some degree a naval power. The cominaintained the military renown of his illustrious mercial classes were rivalling in power the agriculprecursors. The 21st is uninteresting. But in the tural and military, and the priest-king, for his own 22nd we come upon the first ascertained synchro- | interests, took part with the former. Sethos was nism with the annals of the Hebrews, and conse- succeeded (B. c. 700—670), by the dodecarchy, or quently at this point Egyptian chronology begins to twelve contemporaneous kings; whether this number blend with that of the general history of the world. were the result of convention, or whether the twelve There is no doubt that Abraham and his son visited reguli were the heads of the twelve Greater Nomes.canEgypt; that the Nile-valley had at one era a He- not be ascertained. From the commencement of this brew prime minister, who married a daughter of period, however, we enter upon a definite chronology. the high priest of Heliopolis; or that the most il- History is composed of credible facts, and the lists of lustrious of the Hebrew monarchs maintained close the kings are conformable with the monuments. political and commercial relations with Egypt, and PsAMMETICHUS I., who reigned 54 years, b.C. allied himself with its royal family. But although 671-617, supplanted the dodecarchy by the aid of the facts are certain, the dates are vague. Now, Greek and Phoenician auxiliaries, and in Lower however, in the 22nd dynasty, we can not only Egypt at least founded a cosmopolite kingdom, such identify the Shishak who took and plundered Je- as the Ptolemies established three centuries afterrusalein with the Sesonchis or Sesonchosis of the wards. (Diod. i. 66; Herod. i. 171; Polyaen. Strat. Greeks and the Sheshonk of the native monuments, vii. 3.) His Ionian and Carian or Milesian auxilia. but we can also assign to him contemporaneity with ries he settled in a district on the Pelusiac branch Rehoboam, and fix the date of his capture of Jeru- of the Nile, between the Mediterranean and the salem to about the year B. c. 972. By the esta- | Bubastite Nome; while the Phoenicians who had blishment of the date of Sheshonk's plundering of helped him to the throne were probably located near Jerusalem, we also come to the knowledge that the Memphis, in an allotment called the Tyrian camp. Pharaoh whose daughter was espoused to Solomon, | (Herod. ii. 112.) The native militia were now and the sister of whose queen Tahpenes was, in the superseded by Hellenic regular soldiers, and a porreign of David, married to Hadad the Edomite, tion at least of the war-caste migrated, in dudgeon was a monarch of the 21st dynasty (1 Kings, ix. 16; at this preference, to Aethiopia. Historians have xi. 19, seq.).
too readily taken for granted that this was a iniOsorthen or Osorcho, Sheshonk's successor, is gration of the whole body of the Herinotybians and probably the Zerah of Scripture (2 Kings, xvii. 4.; 2 Calasirians. It was more probably a revolt of the Chron. xiv. 9). The Sesostrid kingdom was now on southern garrisons on the Nubian frontier. In the the decline, and at the close of the 24th dynasty Egypt reign of Psammetichus was also instituted the caste was subjugated by the Ethiopians, and three kings of interpreters or dragomans between the natives of that nation, Sabaco, Sebichos or Sevekos, and and foreigners; and it strikingly marks the decline Tarkus, reigned for 44 years, and composed the of the ancient system that Psaminetichus caused his
25th dynasty. Sevekos is obviously the Seva, king own sons to be instructed in the learning of the . of Egypt, with whom Hoshea, king of Israel, in B.c. I Greeks (Diod. i. 67).
Psammetichus was succeeded by his son Neco or
2. Persian Era. NECHAO, the Pharaoh Necho of the second book of The 27th dynasty contains 8 Persian kings, and Kings, who reigned 16 years, B. C. 617-601. extends over a period of 124 years, B. c. 525–401. Ainong the greatest of his works was the canal be- Egypt became a satrapy, not, however, without tween the Nile and the Red Sea. Whether he much reluctation and various revolutions; for becompleted it or not is doubtful; in the reign of tween the worshippers of animals and the worDarius it was, however, certainly open for vessels shippers of fire a religious antipathy subsisted which of large burden, and was finished by the Ptolernies aggravated the pressure of conquest and the burden (Plin. vi. 33). Modern surveys have ascertained of subjection. The Persians indeed were the only that this canal left the Nile in the neighbourhood of masters of Egypt who assailed by violence, as well the modern town of Belbeis — probably the Bubastis
| as regarded with contempt, its religious and political Agria of the Greeks - and ran E. and S. to Suez. institutions. From this cause, no less than from (Herod. iv. 42; Diod. i. 33.) At Neco's command the numerous Greek and Hebrew settlers in the also the Phoenicians undertook the circumnavigation Delta, the Macedonian conqueror, in B. C. 332, found of the African peninsula. The success of this en
scarcely any impediment to his occupation of Egypt. terprise is problematical, but, as Major Rennell, in During the 27th dynasty Egypt became, for the his Essay on the Geography of Herodotus, has first time, involved in European politics. A revolt, shown, by no means impossible. In the reign of which commenced in the reign of Darius, B. C. 488, Necho Egypt came into direct collision with the Baby and which delayed for three years the second Perlonian empire, at that time rising upon the ruins of
sian invasion of Greece, was repressed by his son the Assyrian. Egypt seems to have been in alliance
and successor Xerxes, in B. C. 486. A second rewith the latter, since about the time when Cyaxares
volt, in B. C. 462, was put down, in B. C. 456, by resumed the siege of Niniveh, Necho marched to the satrap Megabyzus; but its leader Inaros, son of wards the Euphrates, apparently to relieve the be- | Psammitichus, was aided by the Athenians. leaguered city. Judah was then in league with The 28th dynasty contains only one name, that Babylon; and its king Josiah threw himself in the of AMYRTAEUS the Saite. In his reign of six years, way of Necho, and was defeated by him at Megiddo. through some unexplained weakness in Persia, The Jewish monarch died of his wounds at Jeru- Egypt regained its independence, for monuments at salem, and the conqueror entered the holy city, pro- Karnak and Eilethya prove that the Saite monarch bably the Cadytis of Herodotus (ii. 159, iii. 5). / was king of the whole land. Amyrtaeus was magNecho deposed and sent captive to Egypt Jehoa haz, nificently interred in a sarcophagus of green breccia, the son and successor of Josiah, made his younger which, after passing from an Egyptian tomb to a brother Eliakim king in his stead, and imposed an Greek basilica, from a Greek basilica to a Moslem annual tribute on Judaea. The Judaean monarchs mosque, finally rests in the British Museum. The were four years later avenged. From the plains of 29th dyn:isty contained four kings, of whom hardly Carchemish or Circesium, on the eastern bank of the any thing is related, and the 30th dynasty three Euphrates, Neco fled to Egypt, leaving all his Asiatic kings, NECTANEBUS I., Tachos, and NECTANEconquests to the victor Nebuchadnezzar.
BUS II., who are better known from their conNecho was succeeded by his son PSAMMIS, who nection with Grecian history. In the reign of reigned 6 years, B. C. 601-595, and Psammis Nectanebus II., and in the year B. C. 350, Egypt by his son APRIES, the Uaphris of the monuments, was reconquered by Bagoas and Mentor, the geneand the Pharaoh Hophra of the Scriptures, who
rals of Darius Ochus, and the last Pharaoh of the reigned 25 years, B. c. 595—570. The earlier
30 dynasties retired an exile into Aethiopia. The years of Apries were signalised by his victories over succession of Egyptian monarchs, embracing a pethe Tyrians, Sidonians, Phoenicians, and Cypriots.riod of 3553 years, is unexampled in history. Upon But these acquisitions were transient, and there is the annals of their successors the Ptolemies we shall reason to suppose that Lower Egypt at least was not however enter, since the lives of the Macedonian invaded by Nebuchadnezzar (Strab. p. 687; Jere- kings are given in the Dictionary of Biography miah, xliii. 12, xlvi. 13-26; Ezekiel, xxix). (art. Ptolemaeus). It will suffice in this place Apries experienced even greater calamities on his
to make a few general remarks upon the political western frontier, a quarter from which Egypt had
aspect of Egypt under its Greek and Roman masters. been hitherto unassailed. The Greeks of Cyrene exterminated his army at Irasa (Ain Ersen), be
3. Macedonian or Hellenic Era. tween the bay of Bomba and Cyrene. His defeat, Many causes rendered the accession of a Greek and the cruelties to which it led, rendered him dynasty an easy and even a welcome transition to odious to his subjects. A fortunate soldier, Amasis the Egyptian people. In the decline of the native or Amosis, deposed, succeeded, and finally strangled monarchy, they had suffered much from anarchy
and civil wars. For two centuries the yoke of Persia AMASIS reigned 44 years, B. c. 570-526. He had pressed heavily upon their trade, agriculture and is the first Egyptian monarch with whose personal religion: their wealth had been drained, their chilcharacter we have any acquaintance. His friend-dren enslaved, their ceremonial and national prejudices ship with Polycrates is well known. He was ashrewd, systematically outraged by their rulers. For the active, and intelligent sovereign, who possessed the advent of the Greeks a gradual preparation had been love of the soldiers and the people, and nearly dis- made since the reign of Psammetichus. Hellenic regarded the rules and ceremonies of the priests. colonies had penetrated to the Great Oasis and the His reign was eminently prosperous, and his death coast of the Red Sea. Greek travellers and philooccurred just in time to prevent his witnessing the sophers had explored the Thebaid, and Greek immisubjugation of Egypt by the Persians under Cam-grants had established numerous colonies in the byses, which took place in the reign of his son Psas- Delta. Lower Egypt too had admitted Spartans and VENITUS (B.C. 525), who sat upon the throne only Athenians alternately as the allies of the Saite and -6 months.
| Memphite sovereigns: so that when in B. c. 332
Alexander reached Pelusion, that city opened its | vasion from Cyrene and Arabia than it had ever gates to him, and his march to Memphis resembled been since the 18th dynasty occupied the throne of the peaceful progress of a native king.
Menes. The regulations which Alexander made for the ' In one respect the amalgamation of the Egyptians government of his new conquest were equally wise with their conquerors was incomplete. The Greeks and popular: and as they were generally adopted by were always the dominant class. The children of his successors the Lagidae, they may be mentioned mixed marriages were declared by the Macedonian in this place. The Egyptians were governed by their laws to be Egyptian not Greek. They were incapable own laws. The privileges of the priests and their of the highest offices in the state or the army, and exemption from land-tax were secured to them, and worshipped Osiris and Isis, rather than Zeus or they were encouraged, if not assisted, to repair the Hera. Thus, according to Hellenic prejudices, they temples, and to restore the ancient ritual. Already were regarded as barbarian or at most as Perioeci, in the reign of Ptolemy Soter the inner-chamber of and not as full citizens or freemen. To this distincthe Temple of Karnak was rebuilt, and the name of tion may in part be ascribed the facility with which Philip Arrhidaeus, the son of Alexander, inscribed both races subsequently submitted to the auhority upon it. Alexander himself offered sacrifice to Apis of the Roman emperors. at Memphis, and assumed the titles of " Son of The ancient divisions of the Upper and Lower Ammon” and “ Beloved of Ammon"; and when the kingdoms were under the Macedonian dynasty resacred Bull died of old age Ptolemy I. bestowed fifty vived but inverted. Power, population, wealth and talents upon his funeral. Euergetes, the third mo- enterprise were drawn down to the Delta and to the narch of the Lagid house, enlarged the temple of space between its chief cities Memphis and Alexandria. Karnak, added to that of Ammon in the Great Oasis, The Thebaid gradually declined. Its temples were and erected smaller shrines to Osiris at Canobus, and indeed restored : and its pompous hierarchy recovered to Leto, at Esne or Latopolis. The structures of much of their influence. But the rites of religion the Ptolemies will be noticed under the names of the could not compete with the activity of commerce. various places which they restored or adorned.
The Greek and Hebrew colonists of the Delta absorbed It would have been impolitic to reinstate the ancient the vitality of the land; and long before the Romans militia of Egypt, which indeed had long been superseded converted Egypt into a province of the empire, the by a
y or Greek m enaries. Under Nubians and Arabs had encroached upon the upper the most despotic of the Ptolemies, however, we meet country, and the ancient Diospolite region partly rewith few instances of military oppression, and these turned to the waste, and partly displayed a superrarely extended beyond the suburbs of Alexandria annuated grandeur, in striking contrast with the or the frontiers of the Delta. Alexander established busy and productive energy of the Lower Country. two principal garrisons, one at Pelusium, as the key | This phenomenon is illustrated by the mummies of Egypt, and another at Memphis, as the capital of which are found in the tombs of Memphis and the the Lower Country. Subsequently Parembole in catacombs of Thebes respectively. Of one hundred Nubia, Elephantine, and the Greek city of Ptolemais mummies taken from the latter, about twenty show in the Thebaid were occupied by Macedonian troops. an European origin, while of every hundred derived The civil jurisdiction he divided between two noun- from the necropolite receptacles of the former, seventy archies or judgeships, and he appointed as nomarchs bave lost their Coptic peculiarities (Sharpe, History two native Egyptians, Doloaspis and Petisis. (Arrian, of Egypt, p. 133, 2nd ed.). The Delta had, in fact, Anab. iii. 5. & 2.)
become a cosmopolite region, replenished from Syria Like their predecessors the Pharaohs, the Ptolemies and Greece, and brought into contact with general aspired to extend their power over Palestine and civilisation. The Thebaid remained stationary, and Syria, and protracted wars were the results of their reverted to its ancient Aethiopian type, neglecting contests with the Seleucid kings. But even these or incapable of foreign admixture. campaigns tended to the augmentation of the Egyptian navy; and, in consequence of the foundation of Alex
4. Roman Era. andria the country possessed one of the strongest and For more than a century previous to B. C. 30 the most capacious havens in the Mediterranean. Be- family and government of the Lagid house had been coming a maritime, the Egyptians became also an on the decline. It was rather the jealousy of the actively commercial nation, and exported corn, pa- Roman senate which dreaded to see one of its own pyrus, linen, and the articles of their Libyan and members an Egyptian proconsul, than its own integral Indian traffic to western Asia and Europe. Ptolemy strength, which delayed the conversion of the NilePhiladelphus gave a new impulse to the internal valley into a Roman province. When however the trade of the Nile-valley, in the first place, by es Roman commonwealth had passed into a monarchy, tablishing a system of police from Cercasorum to and the final struggle between Antonius and Angustus Syene, and, in the next, by completing the canal had been decided by the surrender of Alexandria, which Necho and Darius Hystaspis had begun, Egypt ceased to be an independent kingdom. The from the Pelusiac arm of the Nile to Arsinoë at regulations which Augustus made for his new 20the head of the Red Sea. (Plin. vi. 33; Herod. quisition manifested at once his sense of its value, ii. 158) [BUBASTIS; ARSINOE). He also rebuilt and his vigilance against intrusion. Egypt became the old port of Aennum or Cosseir [PHILOTERA], I properly a province neither of the senate nor the emand improved the caravan route from the interior by peror. It was thenceforth governed by a prefect, called erecting inns and cisterns in the desert between | Praefectus Aegypti, afterwards Praefectus AugusCoptos and Berenice. The monuments of Lower talis, immediately appointed by the Caesar and reNubia attest the wealth and enterprise of the Lagid sponsible to him alone. The prefect was taken from monarchs. Egypt indeed did not regain under this the equestrian order; and no senator was permitted family the splendour which it had enjoyed under to set foot in Egypt without special imperial license. Thoutmosis and Rameses III., but it was perhaps (Tac. Ann. ü. 59, Hist. ü. 74; Dion Cass. li. 17; Armore uniformly prosperous, and less exposed to in- 1 rian, Anab. ii. 5.) Even after Diocletian had re
modelled or abolished nearly all the other institutions , tian and Nubian temples; e. g., that of Augustus of the empire, this interdict remained in force. The at Philae, and that of Tiberius at Thebes, Aphrodidependence of Egypt was therefore more absolute and topolis, and Berenice. Augustus was invested with direct than that of any other province of Rome. Its the titles of the native kings — Son of the Sun, of difficulty of access, and the facility which it presented Ammon, king of Upper and Lower Egypt, &c. The to an enterprising and ambitious governor to render country was well governed under Tiberius, who himself independent, dictated these stringent pre- strictly repressed the avarice of his prefects (Joseph. cautions. The prefect, however, possessed the same Ant. xviii. 5; Dion Cass. lvii. 32). From Tacitus powers as the other provincial governors, although (Ann. ii. 64) we learn that the emperor was highly he did not receive the fasces and the other insig- displeased with his adopted son Germanicus for nia of the latter. (Tac. Ann. xii. 60; Poll. Trig. travelling in Egypt without a previous licence from Tyr. 22.)
himself. Pliny (viji. 71) records that, on this tour, Augustus-made very little change in the internal Germanicus consulted the sacred bull Apis, and regovernment of Egypt. It was divided into three ceived an answer indicative of his future misfortunes. great districts called Epistrategiae (Ctrlotpatnylai) The liberty of coining money was taken from the
-Upper Egypt (Thebais), of which the capital was Egyptians by Tiberius in the tenth year of his reign
The three Greek cities of Alexandria, Ptolemais, tian. 14) visited Egypt in the 6th year of his and Arsinoë were not subject to the authorities of reign, and ascended the Nile as far as Thebes. The the nome, but were governed by their own municipal most conspicuous monument of this imperial progress institutions (ovornua TOALTIKOV ¿v TQ 'EMANYIKQ was the city of Antinopolis, on the east bank of the Tpów, Strab. xvii. p. 813).
Nile, which he raised as a monument to his favourite, Two legions were found sufficient to keep Egypt the beautiful Antinous. (Dion Cass. Ixix. 16.) in obedience. They were stationed at Elephantine In the reign of M. Aurelius, A. D. 166, occurred and Parembole, in the south: at the Hermopolitan the first serious rebellion of Egypt against its Roman castle, on the borders of Heptanomis and the The- masters. It is described as a revolt of the native baid: at Memphis and Alexandria in the Delta: and soldiers. But they were probably Arabs who had at Paretonium in Libya. Cohorts of German horse | been drafted into the legions, and whose predatory were quartered in various portions of the Nile-valley. habits prompted them to desert and resume their The native population were not allowed to possess wild life in the desert. The revolt lasted nearly arms — a precaution partly dictated by the fierce four years (A. D. 171–175), and was put down by and excitable temper of the Egyptian people. (Amm. Avidius Cassius, who then proclaimed himself emMarc. xxii. 16. & 23.)
peror of Egypt, and his son Maecianus praetorian The Romans presently set themselves to improve prefect. Avidius and his son, however, were put to the revenues and restore the agriculture of their death by their own troops, and the clemency of the new province. Under the second prefect C. Pe- emperor speedily regained the affections of his Egyptronius (Sueton. Octav. 18; Strab. xvii. p. 820) the tian subjects. (Capitol. M. Anton, 25.) canals of the Nile were cleared of sand, and many On the death of Pertinax in a. D. 193, Pescennius thousand acres brought again into cultivation. Niger, who commanded a legion in Upper Egypt, Egypt, under the emperors, shared with Sicily and and had won the favour of the natives by repressing northern Africa the distinction of being accounted a the license of the soldiery, proclaimed himself emgranary of Rome. To the general survey of the peror. He was defeated and slain at Cyzicus, A. D. Nile-valley under Aelius Gallus, the third prefect, 196, and his successful rival the emperor Severus we owe the accurate description of it by the geo visited the vacant province, and examined the monugrapher Strabo. He accompanied the prefect to ments at Thebes and Memphis. Severus, however, Syene (xvi. p. 816), and explored both the vestiges of was unpopular with the Egyptians, as well from his ancient grandeur in the Thebaid, and the new cities exactions of tribute as from his impolitic derision of which, like Ptolemais, had been built and were occu the national religion. In the reign of Caracalla, pied by Greeks alone. The Caesars were as tolerant Egyptians for the first time took their seat in the as the Macedonian kings, and made no change in Roman senate, and the worship of Isis was publicly the religion of their Coptic subjects. The names of sanctioned at Rome. (Dion Cass. lxxvii. 23; Spartian. Roman emperors are inscribed on many of the Egyp-Sever. 17.)
The next important revolution of Egypt was its ! Antonini, which is usually ascribed to the emperor temporary occupation by Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, | M. Aurelius Antoninus. in A. D. 269. The Egypto-Greeks were now at the According to the traditions of the Church, Chrisend of six centuries again subject to an Asiatic tianity was introduced into Egypt by the evangelist monarch. But her power lasted only a few months. St. Mark. Its reception and progress must be read This invasion, however, stimulated the native popu- ( in ecclesiastical annals. We can only remark here, lation, now considerably intermingled with Arabs, that the gloomy and meditative genius of the Egypand they set up, after a few months' submission to tians was a favourable soil for the growth of heresy; Aurelian, a Syrian of Seleucia, named Firmus, as that the Arians and Athanasians shed torrents of emperor, A. D. 272. (Vopisc. Firm. 5.) Firmus was blood in their controversies; and that monachism succeeded by a rebel chieftain named Domnitius Do- tended nearly as much as civil or religious wars to mitianus (Zosim. i. 49); but both of these pretenders the depopulation of the Nile-valley. The deserts of were ultimately crushed by Aurelian. Both Rome the Thebaid, the marshes of the Delta, and the islands and Egypt suffered greatly during this period of formed by the lagoons and estuaries of the Nile, were anarchy: the one from the irregularity of the supply thronged with convents and hermitages; and the of corn, the other from the ravages of predatory legends of the saints are, in considerable proportion, bands, and from the encroachments of the barbarians the growth of Egyptian fancy and asceticism. In on either frontier. In A. D. 276, Probus, who had the reign of Theodosius I., A. D. 379, the edict which been military prefect of Egypt, was, on the death of denounced Paganism levelled at one blow the ancient Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by his legions, and Polytheism of the Nile-valley, and consigned to ruin their choice was confirmed by the other provinces of and neglect all of its temples which had not prethe empire. Probus was soon recalled to his former viously been converted, partially or wholly, into province by the turbulence of the Blemmyes; and as Christian Churches. From this epoch we may regard even Ptolemais, the capital of the Thebaid, was in the history of the Egyptians, as a peculiar people, possession of the insurgents, we may estimate the closed : their only subsequent revolutions hencepower of the Arabs in the Nile-valley. So danger- | forward being their subjugation by Persia in A. D. ous, indeed, were these revolts, that Probus deemed 618, and their conquest by Amrou, the general of the his victory over the Blemmyes not unworthy of a | Khaliph Omar, in A. D. 640. The yoke of Arabia triumph. (Vopisc. Prob. 9, seq.)
was then finally imposed upon the land of Misraim, The reign of Diocletian, A. D. 285, was a period and its modern history commences --- a history of of calamity to Egypt. A century of wars had ren- / decrepitude and decline until the present century. dered its people able and formidable soldiers; and the sources of information for Egyptian history Achilleus, the leader of the insurgents, was pro- and geography are of four kinds. (1) Works of claimed by them emperor. Diocletian personally I geography, such as those of Ptolemy, Strabo. Eradirected his campaigns, and reduced, after a tedious tosthenes, Pliny and Mela. (2) Of history, such as siege, the cities of Coptos and Busiris. In this reign those of the fragments of Manetho, Africanus, the also the Roman frontier was withdrawn from Aethio-Syncellus, Ensebius, Herodotus and Diodorns already pia, and restored to Elephantine, whose fortifications cited. (3) The Arabian chorographers, and (4) were strengthened and garrisons augmented. Ga the researches of modern travellers and Egyptologers lerius and Maximin successively misgoverned Egypt: from Kircher to Bunsen and Lepsius; among the whose history henceforward becomes little more than former we specially designate the works of the elder a record of a religious persecution.
Niebuhr, Pococke and Bruce, Burckhardt and BelAfter the time of Constantine, the administration zoni; the splendid collections of Dénon and the French and division of Egypt were completely changed. It savans, 1798; Gau's work on the monuments of was then divided into six provinces: (1) Aegyptus Lower Nubia, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson's Manners Propria; (2) Augustamnica; (3) Heptanomis (after and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, 6 vols. 8vo. wards Arcadia); (4) Thebais; (5) Libya Inferior; To these may be added, as summaries of the writings (6) Libya Superior (consisting of the Cyrenaic Pen- of travellers and schclars, Heeren's Researches into tapolis). The division into nomes lasted till the the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaseventh century after Christ. All the authorities ginians, Aethiopians, and Egyptians, 2 vols. 8vo. having any relation to the Roman province of Engl. trans. 1838; the recent work, Kenrick's AnAegypt are collected by Marquardt, in Becker's cient Egypt, 2 vols. 8vo. 1850; and the two volumes Handbuch der Römischen Alterthümer, vol. iii. pt. i. in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, entitled p. 207, seq.
The British Museum, Egyptian Antiquities, which, Under the Romans the chief roads in Egypt were six | under an unpretending form, contain a fund of in number. One extended from Contra-Pselcis in sound and various information. It would be easy to Nubia along the eastern bank of the Nile to Babylon extend this catalogue of authorities; but the general opposite Memphis, and thence proceeded by Helio- reader will find all he seeks in the authors we have polis to the point where Trajan's canal entered the enumerated.
[W. B. D.]. Red Sea. A second led from Memphis to Pelusium. | AEGYS (Aygus: Eth. Aigvárns, Paus.; Aigueús, A third joined the first at Serapion, and afforded a | Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. $. v.), a town of Laconia, shorter route across the desert. A fourth went on the frontiers of Arcadia, originally belonged to along the western bank of the Nile from Hiera Sy- the Arcadians, but was conquered at an early period caminos in Nubia to Alexandria. A fifth reached by Charilaus, the reputed nephew of Lycurgus, and from Palestine to Alexandria, and ran along the annexed to Laconia. Its territory, called Aegytis coast of the Mediterranean from Raphia to Pelusium, (Aiyūtis), appears to have been originally of some joining the fourth at Andropolis. The sixth road extent, and to have included all the villages in the led from Coptos on the Nile to Berenice on the Red districts of Maleatis and Cromitis. Even at the Sea, and contained ten stations, each about twenty- time of the foundation of Megalopolis, the inhabitants five miles apart from one another. The Roman of these Arcadian districts, comprising Scirtonium, roads in Egypt are described in the Itinerarium | Malea, Cromi, Belbina, and Leuctrum, continued