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fleet was wrecked on its return from Troy. (Eurip. Troad. 90, Helen. 1129; Herod, viii. 7; Strab. viii. p.368; Paus.ii. 23. § 1, iv. 36. §6; Virg. Aen. xi. 260; Prop. iii. 5. 55; Ov. Met. xiv. 472, 481, Tritt. i. 1. 83, v. 7. 36; Sil. Hal. xiv. 144; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 423.)

CA'PHYAE (Kwpvm: Eth. Ko^udVTjj, KaoM/tiis), a town of Arcadia situated in a small plain, NW. of the lake of Orchomenus. It was protected against inundations from this lake by a mound or dyke, raised by the inhabitants of Caphyae. The city is said to have been founded by Cephcus, the son of Alcus, and pretended to be of Athenian origin. (Paus. viii. 23. § 2; Strab. xiii. p. 608.) Caphyae subsequently belonged to the Achaean league, and was one of the cities of the league, of which Cleomenes obtained possession. (PoL ii. 52.) In its neighbourhood a great battle was fought in B. c. 220, in which the Aetolians gained a decisive victory over the Achaeans and Aratus. (Pol. iv. 11, seq.) The name of Caphyae also occurs in the subsequent events of this war. (Pol. iv. 68, 70.) Strabo (viii. p. 388) speaks of the town as in ruins in his time; but it still contained some temples when visited by Pausanias (I. a). The remains of tho walls of Caphyae are visible upon a small insulated height at tho village of Khotutsa, which stands near the edge of the lake. Polybius, in his description of the battle of Caphyae, refers "to a plain in front of Caphyae, traversed by a river, beyond which were trenches (rdippoi), a description of" the place which does not correspond with present appearances. The rdtfypoi were evidently ditches for the purpose of draining the marshy plain, by conducting the water towards the katavothra, around which there was, probably, a small lake. In the time of Pausanias we find that the lake covered the greater part of tho plain; and that exactly in the situation in which Polybius describes the ditches, there was a mound of earth. Nothing is more probablo than that during the four centuries so fatal to the prosperity of Greece, which elapsed between the battle of Caphyae and the visit of Pausanias, a diminution of population should have caused a neglect of the drainage which hud formerly ensured the cultivation of the whole plain, and that in the time of the Roman empire an embankment of earth had been thrown up to preserve the part nearest to Caphyae, leaving the rest uncultivated and marshy. At present, if there are remains of the embankment, which I did not perceive, it does not prevent any of the land from being submerged during several months, for the water now extends very nearly to the site of Caphyae." (Leake.)

Pausanias says that on the inner side of the embankment there flows a river, which, descending into a chasm of the earth, issues again at a place called Nasi (Ntdroi); and that the name of the village where it issues is named Rhkunus ('Pew'os). From this place it forms the perennial river TraGus (Jpdyot). He also speaks of a mountain in the neighbourhood of the city named Cnacalus (KW*aAor), on which the inhabitants celebrate a yearly festival to Artemis Cnacalesia. Leake remarks that the mountain above Khotussa, now called Kcutanid, seems to be the ancient Cnacalns. The river Tara is probably the ancient Tragus. (Leake, Aforea, vol. iii. p. 118, seq., Peloponneriaca, p. 226; Boblaye, Jiecherchet, p. 150.)

CAPIDA'VA (KoilJoSo), a town in Mocsia, where a garrison of Koman cavalry was stationed. It is perhaps to be identified with the modern Tscher

nawodc. (Itin. Ant. 224; Notit. Imp. c. 28; Geogr. Eav. iv. 5; Hierocl. p. 637.) [L. S.J

CAPISA (Koiriffo or KdWa, Ptol. vi. 18. §4; Capissa, Plin. vi. 23. s. 25), a city of a district probably named after it, Caimssenk, and included in the wider district of the Paropamisus or Hindu Kueh mountains. According to Pliny, it was destroyed by Cyrus; but we have no reason for supposing that Cyrus ever got so far NE., and, if it had been, it would hardly have been noticed by Ptolemy. It is probably the same as the Caphusa of Solinus (c. 54), which was near the Indus. It has been suspected that Capisscne represents the valley of the Kabul river, and Capisa the town on the Indus now called Peshawar. It is not Kabul, which has been satisfactorily proved by Professor Wilson to occupy the site of the ancient Ortospanum. Lassen (Zur Getch. d. Kon. Bactr. p. 149) finds in the Chinese annals a kingdom called Kiapiche in the valley of Ghurbend, to the E. of Bamian. It is very probablo that Capisa and Kiapiche are identical. [V.] CAPISSE'NE. [capisa.] CAPl'TIUM (kow(thik: Eth. Capitinus: Capkzi), ft city of Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero and Ptolemy, but which appears from the former to have been a place of some importance. He mentions it in conjunction with Haluntium, Enguium, and other towns in the northern part of the island, and Ptolemy enumerates it among the inland cities of Sicily. This nomo has evidently been retained by the modem town of Cajnzzi, the situation of which on the southern slope of the mountains of Caronia, about 16 miles from the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the same distance from Gangi (Enguium), accords well with the above indications. (Cic. in Verr. iii. 43; Ptol. iii. 4. § 12; Cluver. Sicil.) [E. H. B.]

CAPITO'LIAS, a town of Peraea, or Coelcsyria, exhibited in the Peutinger Tables, between Gadara and Adraa, and placed in the Itinerary of Antoninus on the road between Gadara and Damascus, between Neue and Gadara, 16 miles from the latter and 38 from the former. It is otherwise unknown, except that we find an Episcopal see of this name in the Ecclesiastical Records. (Reland, p. 693.) [G.W.] CAPITULUM (kowitouxoi', Strab.), a town of the Hemicans, which, though not noticed in history, is mentioned both by Pliny and Strabo among the places still existing in their time. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Strab. v. p. 238.) We learn also from the Liber Coloniarum (p. 232) that it had been colonised by Sulla, and it seems to have received a fresh Accession of colonists under Caesar. (Zumpt, de Colon, pp. 252, 306.) An inscription, in which it is called "Capitulum Hernicorum," proves it to have been a place of municipal condition under the empire. This inscription was discovered on the road from Palettrina (Praeneste) to a place called // Piglio. a small town in the mountains, about 20 miles from Palt*trina, and 8 from Anaffni, which may plausibly be supposed to occupy the site of Capitulum. (Muratori, Inter, p. 2049.4; Nibby, Dintorni diRoma, vol. i. p. 383.) [E. H. B.]

CA'POHI. [gai.laecia.] CAPOTES (Dujik Tagh), a mountain of Armenia, from the spurs of which Pliny (v. 20. s. 24), on the authority of Licinius Mucianus, describes the Euphrates as taking its rise. He fixes its position 12 M. P. above Zimara. Pliny (J. c.) quotes Domitius Corbulo in placing the sources of the Euphrates in Mt. Aba, the same undoubtedly as the Abus of Strabo (xi. p. 527). Capotes therefore formed part of tho range of Abus. St. Martin (Afc'ffi. sur I'Armmk, vol. i. p. 43) derives the name Capotes from the Armenian word Oabokl, signifying blue, an epithet commonly given to high mountains. Bitter (Erdkunde, vol. x. pp. 80, 653, 801,823) identifies Capotes with the Diijilc range or great water-shed between the E. and W. branches of the Euphrates. The Murad-chai, the E. branch or principal stream of the Euphrates, takes its rise on the S. slope of Ala-Tagh. (Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. vol. L p. 42; Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. vi. p. 204, vol. x. p. 369.) [E. B. J.]

CAPPADO'CIA (Kair-ri-oWa: Eth. Ka-riraSiJ. KTjr, Kamrdoof, -oofcor). This extensive province of Asia lies west of the Euphrates, and north of Cilicia: its limits can only bo defined more exactly by briefly tracing its history.

The names Cappadox and Cappadocia doubtless are purely Asiatic, and probably Syrian names, or names that belong to tho Aramaic languages. The Syri in the array of Xerxes, who were armed like the Paphlagoncs, were called Cappadocae by the Persians, as Herodotus says (vii. 72); but this will not prove that the name Cappadocae is Persian. These Cappadocae (Herod, i. 72) were called Syri or Syrii by tho Greeks, and they were first subject to the Modi and then to the Persians. The boundary between the Lydian and the Median empires was the Halys, and this river in that prut of its course where it flows northward, separated the Syrii Cappadocae on the cast of it from the Paphlagones on the west of it. We may collect from Herodotus' confused description of tho Halys, that the Cappadocae were immediately cast of that part of the river which has a northern course, and that they extended to the Euxine. In another passage (v. 49) the Cappadocae are mentioned as the neighbours of the Phrygians on the west, and of tho Cilicians on the south, who extended to the sea in which Cyprus is, that is to the Mediterranean. Again (v. 52) Herodotus, who is describing the road from Sardcs to Susa, makes the Halys the boundary between Phrygia and Cappadocia. But in another passage he places Syrians on tho Thermodon and the Parthenius (ii. 104), though we may reasonably doubt if there is not some error about the Parthenius, when we carefully examine this passage. It does not seem possible to deduce anything further from his text as to the extent of the country of the Cappadocians as he conceived it. The limits were clearly much less than those of the later Cappadocia, and the limits of Cilicia were much wider, for his Cilicia extended north of the Taurus, and eastward to the Euphrates. The Syrii then who were included in the third nome of Darius (Herod, iii. 90) with tho Paphlagones and Mariandyni wero Cappadocae. The name Syri seems to have extended of old from Babylonia to the gulf of Issus, and from the gulf of Issus to tho Euxine (Strab. p. 737). Strabo also says that even in his time both the Cappadocian peoples, both those who were situated about tho Taurus and those on the Euxine, wero called Lcucosyri or White Syrians, as if there were also some Syrians who were black; and these black or dark Syrians are those who are east of tho Amanus. (See also Strab. p. 542.) Tho name Syria, and Assyria, which often means tho same in the Greek writers, was the name by which the country along the Pontus and east of the Hnlys was first known to the Greeks, and it was not forgotten (Apoll. Argon, ii. 948, 964; Dionys. Perieg. v. 772, and the comment of Eust&thius).

Under the Persians the country called Cappadocia in its greatest extent, was divided into two satrapies; but when the Macedonians got possession of it, they allowed these satrapies to become kingdoms, partly with their consent, and partly against it, to one of which they gave the name of Cappadocia, properly so called, which is tho country bordering on Taurus; and to the other the name of Pontus, or Cappadocia on the Pontus. (Strab. p. 534.) The satrapies of Cappadocia of course existed in tho time of Xenophon, from whom it appears that Cappadocia had Lycaoniu on the west {Anab i. 2. § 20); but Lycaonia and Cappadocia wero under one satrap, and Xenophon mentions only one satrapy called Cappadocia, if the list at tho end of the seventh book is genuine.

Cappadocia, in its widest extent, consisted of many parts and peoples, and underwent many changes; but those who spoke one language, or nearly the same, and, we may assume, were one people, the Syri, were bounded on the south by the Cilician Taurus, the great mountain range that separates the table land of Cappadocia from the tract along the Mediterranean; on the east they were bounded by Armenia and Colchis, and by the intermediate tribes that spoke various Languages, and these tribes were numerous in the moantain regions south of tho Black Sea; on the north they were bounded by the Euxine as far as the mouth of the Halys; and on the west by the nation of the Paphlagones, and of the Galatae who settled in Phrygia as far as the borders of the Lycaoruans, and the Cilicians who occupy the mountainous (rpaX«ia) Cilicia. (Strab. p. 533.) The boundaries which Strabo here assigns to the Cappadocian nation agree very well with the loose description of Herodotus, and tho only difference is that Strabo introduces the name of the Galatae, a body of adventurers from Gaul who fixed themselves in Asia Minor after the time of Herodotus. The ancients, however (ol jraXoioi), distinguished the Cataones from the Cappadocians as a different people, though they spoke the same language; and in the enumeration of the nations, they placed Cataonia after Cappadocia. and then came the Euphrates and the nations east of the Euphrates, so that they placed even Melitene under Cataonia, which Melitene lies between Cataonia and the Euphrates, and borders on Commagenc. Ariarathes, the first man who had the title of king of tho Cappadocians, attached Cataonia to Cappadocia. (Strab. p. 534, in whose text there is some little confusion, but it does not affect the general meaning; Groskurd's note on the passage is not satisfactory.) The kings of Cappadocia traced their descent from one of tho seven who assassinated tho usurper Smerdis, B.C. 521. The Persian satraps who held this province are called kings by Diodorus; but then* power must havo been very insecure until the death of Seleucus, the last of tho successors of Alexander, B.C. 281. Ariarathes I., as ho is called, died in B.C. 322. He was defeated by Pcrdiccas, wh» hanged or impaled him. Ariarathes II., a son o« Holophemes, brother of Ariarathes I., expelled the Macedonians from Cappadocia, and left it to ArUmncs, one of his sons, called the second; for the rather of Ariarathes I. was called Ariamnes, and ho had Cappadocia as a satrapy. Ariamnes II. was follows by Ariarathes III., and he was succeeded by Ansrathes IV., who joined King Antiochus in his war against the Romans, who afterwards acknowledg60 him as an ally. He died B.C. 162. His successors wero Ariarathes V. and VI., and with Ariarathes V/. tho royal family of Cappadocia became extinct, abou

B. c. 93. Upon this the Unmans gave the Cappadocians permission to govern themselves as they liked, but they sent a deputation to Rome* to say that they were not able to bear liberty, by which they probably meant that nothing hut kingly government could secure tranquillity; upon which the Romans allowed them to choose a king from among themselves, and they chose Ariobarzanes I., called Philoromacus on his coins. (Strab. p. 540; Justin, xxxviii. 2.) The new king was driven out of his country by Mithridates the Great, but he was restored by L. Sulla (b. C. 92). Again ho was expelled (b. C. 88), and again restored, B. C. 84. But this king had no rest. In B.C. 66, this "«ociua populi Romani atque amicus" (Cic. pro J^eg. Manil. 2, 5) was again expelled by his old enemy Mithridates. He was restored by Cn. Pompeius, and resigned his troublesome throne to his son Ariobarzanes II. in B. c. 63. This Ariobarzanes II. was king of Cappadocia when Cicero was proconsnl of Cilicia, B.c. 51. Cicero gave him his support (ad Alt. v. 20). It seems, however, that the king whom Cicero protected may have been not Ariobarzanes II., but Ariobarzanes III. If this bo so, Ariobarzanes II. died beforo Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia, and the reigning king in B.C. 51 was a third Ariobarzanes. {Diet, of Biogr. vol. i. p. 286.) Cicero had some very unpleasant business to transact with this king, who was a debtor to Cn. Pompeius the Great and II. Junius Brutus, the patriot. The proconsul, much against his will, had to dun the king for his greedy Unman creditors. The king was very poor; he had no treasury, no regular taxes. Cicero got out of him about 100 talents fur Brutus, and the king's six months' note for 200 talents to Pompeius (ad A tt. vi. 1. 3). This Ariob:irzancs joined Pompeius against Caesar, who, however, pardoned him, and added to his dominions part of Armenia. (Dion Cass. xli. 63.) When L. Cassius was in Asia (B.C. 42) raising troops for the war against Antonius and Ottavius, he sent some horsemen, who assassinated Ariobarzanes, on the pretext that he was conspiring against Cassius. (Appian, B. C. iv. 63.) The assassins robbed the dead king, and carried off his money and whatever else was moveable. This king was succeeded by Ariarathes VII.; but Sisinnas disputed the title with him, and M. Antonius, while passing through Asia after the battle of Philippi, gave a judgment in favour of Sisinnas, on account of the beauty of his mother Glaphyre. In B. C. 36, Antonius expelled and murdered Ariarathes, ami gave the kingdom to Archelans, a descendant of the Archelaus who was a general of Mithridates (in B.c. 88). All the kings of Cappadocia up to this Archelaus have Persian names, and probably were of Persian stock. (See Clinton, Fa*ti, on the kings of Cappadocia; Diet, of Biogr. vol. i. pp. 284, 285.)

Archelaus received from Augustus (b. C. 20) some parts of Cilicia on the coast, and the Lesser Armenia. (Dion Cass. liv. 9.) In A. p. 15, Tiberius treacherously invited him to Rome, and kept him there. He died probably about A.r>. 17, and his kingdom was made a Roman province. (Tac. Ann. ii. 42; Dion Cass. lvii. 17; Strab. p. 534.) When Strabo wrote his description of Cappadocia, Archelaus was dead, and Cappadocia was a Roman province. It was governed by a Procurator. (Tac. Ann. xii. 49.)

Cappadocia, in its widest extent, is considered by Strabo to be what he calls an isthmus of a great peninsula, this isthmus being contracted by the Gulf of Issus on the south — as far west as Cilicia Tra

chea or Mountainous Cilicia,—and by the Euxine on the north, between Sinope and the sea-coast of the Tibareni who were about the river Thermodon. The part west of this isthmus is called the Chersonesus, which corresponds to the country which Herodotus calls within (tito's), that is, west of, the Halys. But in Strabo's time it was the fashion to designate this western tract as Asia within Taurus, in which he even includes Lycia (p. 534). This isthmus is called a neck (airxf)*) *>T Herodotus; but the dimensions which he assigns to it, as they stand in our texts, are very inexact, being only five days' journey to an active man (i. 72). He reckons a day's journey at 200 stadia (iv. 101), and at 150 stadia in another place (v. 53).

The dimensions of Cappadocia from the Pontus, that is, the province of Pontus, to the Taurus, its southern limit, are stated by Strabo to be 1800 stadia; and the length from Phrygia, its western boundary, to the Euphrates and Armenia, the eastern boundary, about 3000 stadia. These dimensions are too large. The boundary between Pontus and Cappadocia is a mountain tract parallel to the Taurus, which commences at the western extremity of Cammanene, where the hill fort Dasmenda stands (it is incorrectly printed Commagene in Casaubon's Strab. p. 540), to the eastern extremity of Laviniasene. Commagene and Laviniasene are divisions of Cappadocia. These limits do not include Cilicia Trachea, which was attached to Cappadocia; and Strabo describes this division of Cilicia under Cilicia.

The ten divisions of Cappadocia (Strab. p. 534) are, Melitene, Cataonia, Cilicia, Tyanitis, and Garfiauritis, which is incorrectly written Isauritis in Casaubon's text. He calls these the divisions at or about Taurus (of vpb? Tavpw); and he enumerates them from east to west. For Melitene was on the west bank of the Euphrates, which separated it from Sophcno on the cast of the river. South-west of Melitene is the basin of Cataonia, which lies between the range of Amanns on the south, and the Antitaurus on the north. The district of Cilicia bordered on Cataonia, and it contained the town of Mazaca, afterwards Caesareia, and the lofty mountain Argaeus [aroaeus], the highest point of Cappadocia. The Tyanitis, so called from Tyana, is south-west of Cilicia. Tyana was at the northern base of Taurus, and near the pass into Cilicia, called the Cilician gates. Cilicia and Tyanitis, according to Strabo, were the only divisions of Cappadocia that contained cities. Garsauritis was on the west, on the borders of Phrygia. The other five districts named by Strabo are, Laviniasene, Sargarausene, Saravene, Cammanene, and Morimcne; and he names them also from east to west, or nearly so. They occupied the northern part of Cappadocia, bordering on Pontus. The position of Laviniasene is not easy to fix; but, according to Strabo's words, already cited, it must be in the north-east part of Cappadocia. It is wrongly placed in some maps. To these ten divisions were added by the Romans an eleventh, which comprised the country to the south-west about Cybistra and Castabala, and as far as Dcrbe, which is in Lycaonia.

Armenia Minor did not originally belong to the Roman province of Capjjadocia, the limits of which Strabo has described. The Greek geographer fixes the position of Armenia Minor (p. 555) thus. South of Pharnacia and Trapezus, on the Euxine, are the Tibareni andChaldaei, as he calls them, who extend as fiir south as Armenia the Less, which is a tolerably fertile country. The people of this Armenia were governed by a king, like the people of Sophene; and these kings of the small Armenia were sometimes in league with the other Armenians, and sometimes they were not. They extended their dominions even to Phamacia and Trapezus, but the last of them surrendered to Mithridates the Great. Some time after the defeat of Mithridates this Armenia was attached to the Cappadocian kingdom of Ariobarzanes, as stated above. The Euphrates was the eastern boundary of this Armenia, and separated it from Acilisene.

This boundary seems to have begun about the point where the Euphrates takes a southern course. The northern boundary of Armenia Minor extended to the Paryadres range, and the upper part of the basin of the Halys, and even comprised part of that of the Lycus; for Nicopolis was probably on the Lycus, though it is not certain. Melitene was south of Armenia Minor, and also on the west side of the Euphrates. Ptolemy (v. 7) includes both Melitene and Cataonia in Armenia Minor. It is very difficult to fix any boundary of this Armenia, except that on the side of the Euphrates; and the modern writers on ancient geography do not help us much. Armenia Minor was given by Caligula to Cotys in A. D. 38, and by Nero in A.d. 54 to Aristobulus. It was afterwards attached to the province of Cappadocia, but it is not certain at what time; by Vespasian, as some suppose, or at the latest by Trajan. Its position on the north-east border of Cappadocia, and west of the Euphrates, made it a necessary addition to the province for defence. Melitene was now reckoned a part of Armenia Minor, which had, for the metropolis of the northern part, Nicopolis, the probable position of which has been mentioned; and for the southern part, the town of Melitene, near the west bank of the Euphrates. Cappadocia Proper, so poor in towns, was enriched with the addition of Archclais in Garsauritis, near the western frontier of Cappadocia, by the emperor Claudius; and with Faustinopolis, in the southwestern part of Cappadocia, by M. Aurelius.

Pliny's (vi. 3) divisions of Cappadocia do not agree with Strabo; nor can we understand easily whether he is describing Cappadocia as a Roman province or not. He correctly places Melitene as lying in front of Armenia Minor, and Cataonia as bordering on Commagene. He makes Garsauritis, Sargarausene, and Cammanene border on Phrygia. He places Morimene in the NW., bordering on Galatia, "where the river Cappadox separates them (the Galatians and Cappadocians), from which they derived their name, being before called Leucosyri," If the position of tho Cappadox can be determined, it fixes the boundary of Cappadocia on this side. Aiusworth {London Geog. Journal, vol. x. p. 290) supposes it to be the small river of Kir-Shehr, or the Kalichi-Su, which joins the Halys on the right bank, a little north of 39° N. lat Mojur, which is in N. lat. 39° 5', and at an elevation of 3140 feet above the sea, may be Mocissus (Ainsworth). Some geographers place Mocissus at Kir-Shehr, which is NW. of Mojur.

The Cappadocia of Ptolemy (vi. 1.) comprises a much larger extent of country than Cappadocia Proper. He makes it extend on the coast of the Euxino from Aminos to the mouth of the Apsarus; and this coast is distributed among Pontus Galaticus, Pontus Polemoniacus and Pontus Cappadocicus. All this is excluded from the Cappadocia of Strabo. The pracfecturae Cappadocicae which Ptolemy names are seven; Chamancne, Sargarauseno (Sargabrasene),

Garsaouria (Gardocreta), Cilicia; Lycaonia; Antio. chiana, containing Derbe, Laranda and Olbasa; and Tyanitis (Tyauis). These are the divisions as they stand in the old Latin version of Ptolemy: some of the names are corrupt. Ptolemy, as already observed, places Melitene and Cataonia under Armenia Minor, and he gives to Cataonia a greater extent than Strabo does.

The districts of Melitene, and Cataosia, are described in separate articles; and also Pontts GaLaticus, Polemoniacus, and Cappadocicus.

Cappadocia in its limited sense comprised part of the upper basin of the Halys, as far west as the river Cappadox. The country to the north of the Halys is mountainous, and the plains that lie between this northern range and the sonthem range of Taurus, are at a great elevation above the sea. The plain of Caesareia (Kaisariyek) at the foot of the Argacus is 3236 feet high, according to Ainsworth {London Geog. Journal, vol. x. p. 310). Hamilton (Reiearchei, etc. vol. ii. p. 280) makes it 4200 feet. The difference between these two estimates is 1000 feet, and one of them must be erroneous. However the great elevation of this put of the country is certain. The plain of Caesareia is covered with corn fields and vineyards. (Hamilton.) Strabo describes the plains around Caesareia in his time as altogether unproductive and uncultivated, though level; but they were sandy and rather stonv. The level of the Halys in the longitude of Caesareia must also be at a very considerable elevation above the sea, though much less than that of the plain of Caesareia.

Strabo observes (p. 539) that Cappadocia, though further south than Pontus, is colder; and the country which he calls Bagadania, the most southern part of Cappadocia, at the foot of Taurus, though it is level, has scarcely any fruit-bearing trees; but it is pasture land, as a large part of the rest of Cappadocia is. That part of Strabo's Cappadocia, which is not drained by the Halys, belongs to two separate physical divisions. That to the west and SW. of Caesareia belongs to the high plateaus of Lycaonia and Phrygia, the waters of which have no outlet to the sea. The other part which contains the country east and south-east of Caesareia, belongs to the basins of tho Pyramus, and the Saras, which rivers pass through the gaps of the Taurus to the plains of Cilicia,

Cappadocia was generally deficient in wood; but it was well adapted for grain, particularly wheat. Some parts produced excellent wine. It was also' good grazing country for domesticated animals of ill kinds; and it produced good horses. Some add won asses to the list of Cappadocian animals (Grosknri, Strab. ii. p. 457), in which case they must read oVerypdeoros instead of uypoSoros inStrab. (p. 539) But Strabo's observation would be very ridiculoos if he wore speaking of wild asses. The mineral products were (Strab. p. 540) plates of crystal, as M calls it; a lapis Onychites found near the border « Galatia; a white stone fitted for sword handles; ana a lapis specularis, or plates of a translucent st°« which was exported. There are salt beds of grew extent near the west side of the Halys, at • P"* called Tuz Koi, probably within the limits of Garsauritis of Strabo. The great salt lake of Tata is west of Tuz Koi, and within tho limits of G«« Phrygia, but the plateau in which it is p)*j"tj part of the high land of Cappadocia. The Jcrei ■ the lako is about 2500 feet above the sea.

nearly dry in summer. Strnbo (p. 568) places the lake immediately south of Galatia, and bordering on Great Cappadocia, and the part of Cappadocia called Morimene. This lake then must be viewed as near the common boundary of Galatia, Phrygia, and Cappadocia.

The routes of Hamilton in Asia Minor (Researches, Sec), and of Ainsworth from Angora by Kaisariyeh to Sir (London Geog. Journal, vol. x.) contain much valuable information on the geology, and the physical geography of Cappadocia. [G. L.] CAPPADOX RIVER. [cappadocia.] CAPRA'RIA (Kairpapla), a small ialand in the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Corsica and the coast of Etruria, still called Capraia. It is distant about 30 geographical miles from Populonium, the nearest point of the mainland, and is a rocky and elevated island, forming a conspicuous object in this part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, though only about 5 miles long by 2 in breadth. Varro, who writes the name Caprasia, tells us it was derived from the number of wild goats with which it abounded; whence also the Greeks called it AegIlium; but it must not be confounded with the island of IGIlium, now Giglio, which is much further south. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Ftol. iU. 1. § 78; Mela, ii. 7; Varr. R. R. ii. 3. § 3.) II ut iii us tells us that it was inhabited in his time by a number of monks. (Itin. i. 435.) [E. H. B.J CAPRA'RIA. [baleahes; Fortunatak.j CAPRASIA, a town of Bruttium, placed by the Itineraries on the road from Muranum to Consentia, and distant 28 miles from the latter city. (Itin. AnL pp. 105, 110; Tab. Pent.') It is probably the modern Tarsia, on the left bank of the Crathis, about the required distance from Cosenza. [E. H. B.]

CA'PREAE (Kaxptat; Capri), an island off" the coast of Campania, lying immediately opposite the Surrentine Promontory, from which it was separated by a strait only 3 miles in width. (Tac. Ann. iv. 67 ■) Pliny tells us it was 11 miles in circuit, which is very near the truth. (PUny, iii. 6. s. 12.) Like the mountain range, which forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Naples, and of which it is, in fact, only a continuation, Capreae consists wholly of limestone, and is girt almost all round with precipitous cliffs of rock, rising abruptly from the sea, and in many places attaining to a great elevation. The western portion of the island, now called Anna Capri (a name probably derived from the Greek al avu Kawpiai), is much the most elevated, rising to a height of 1,600 feet above the sea. The eastern end also forms an abrupt hill, with precipitous cliffs towards the mainland; but between the two is a depression, or saddle, of moderate height, where the modern town of Capri now stands. The only landing-places are two little coves on cither side of this.

Of the history of Capreae very little is known prior to the time of Augustus. A tradition alluded to by several of the Latin poets, but of the origin of which we have no explanation, represents it as occupied at a very early period by a people called Teleboac, apparently the same whom we find mentioned as a piratical race inhabiting the islands of the Echinades, off the coast of Acarnania. (Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 747.) Virgil speaks of them as subject to a king, named Telon, whence Siltus Italicus calls Capreae 11 antiqui saxosa Telonis insula." (Virg. A en. vii. 735; Sil. Ital. viii. 543; Stat. Silu.m. 5; Tac. Ann. iv. 67.) In historical times we find that the island passed into the hands of the Neapolitans,

and its inhabitants appear to have adopted and retained to a late period the Greek customs of that people. But Augustus having taken a fancy to Capreae, in consequence of a favourable omen which he met with on landing there, took possession of it as part of the imperial domain, giving the Neapolitans in exchange the far more wealthy island of Aenaria. (Suet. Aug. 92; Dion Cass. Iii. 43.) Ho appears to have visited it repeatedly, and spent four days there shortly before his death. (Suet. Aug. 98.) But it was his successor Tiberius who gave the chief celebrity to Capreae, having, in A.d. 27, established his residence permanently on the island, where he spent the last ten years of his life. According to Tacitus, it was not'so much the mildness of the climate and the beauty of the prospect that led him to take up his abode here, as the secluded and inaccessible character of the spot, which secured him alike from danger and from observation. It was hero accordingly that he gave himself up to the unrestrained practice of the grossest debaucheries, which have rendered Ids name scarcely less infamous than his cruelties. (Tac. Ann. iv. 67, vi. I; Suet. Tib. 40, 43; Dion Cass, lviii. 5; Juv. Sat. x. 93.) He erected not less than twelve villas in different parts of the bland, the remains of several of which arc still visible. The most considerable appears to have been situated on the summit of the cliff facing the Surrentino Promontory, which, from its strong position, is evidently that designated by Pliny (iii. 6. s. 12) as the "Arx Tiberii." It is supposed also to be this one that was called, as we learn from Suetonius (Tib. 65), the " Villa Jovis." Near it are the remains of a pharos or light-house, alluded to both by Suetonius and Statius, which must have served to guide ships through the strait between this headland and the Surrentine Promontory. (Suet. Tib. 74; Stat Situ. iii. 5. 100.)

Strabo tells us that there were formerly two small towns in the island, but in his time only one remained. It in all probability occupied the same site as the modern town of Capri. (Strab. v. p. 248.)

The name of Taurubulao, mentioned by Statius (iii. 1. 129),appears to have been given to some of the lofty crags and rocks that crown the island of Capri: it is said that two of these still bear the names of Toro gratule and Toro piccolo. From its rocky character and calcareous soil Capri is far inferior in fertility to the opposite island of Jschia : the epithet of " ditcs Capreae," given it in the same passage by Statins, could be deserved only on account of the imperial splendour lavished on the villas of Tiberius. Excavations in modern times have brought to light mosaic pavements, l>as-reliefs, cameos, gems, and other relics of antiquity. These, as well as the present state of the island, are fully described by Hadrava. (Lettere suW hola di Capri. Dresden, 1794.) [E. H. B.]

CAPRIA LAKE. [asfendus.]

CAPRUS. (Kdxpos: LybtzdaVia), the port and island of Stageirus to the SW. of the Strymonic Gulf. (Strab. vii. p. 331; comp. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 166.) [E. B. J.]

CAPItUS. 1. (Kiirpos, Strab. xvi. p. 738; Polyb. v. 51; Ptol. vi. 1. § 7), a river of Assyria which flowed into the Tigris, not many miles below Nineveh. Ita modern name is the Lesser Zab. It is probable that the name of this, and that of the Greater Zab, the Lycus, were imported into Assyria by the Greeks from Phrygia, in which were two rivers of the same names in close propinquity the one to the other. [V.J

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