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to be called Aegytae. The position of Aegys is island of Prochyta (Procida) lies between it and uncertain. Leake places it at Kamára, near the Cape Misenum. The whole island is of volcanic sources of the river Xeriló, the ancient Carnion. origin, and though it contains no regular crater, or (Paus. iii. 2. § 5, viii. 27. § 4, 34. & 5; Strab. p. other vent of igneous action, was subject in ancient, 446; Pol. ii. 54; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 234.) as it has continued in later, times, to violent earth
AELANA (Tà Alnava, Strab. p. 768; Alnavn, I quakes and paroxysmal outbursts of volcanic agener. Joseph. Ant. vii. 6. $ 4; 'Enáva, Ptol. v. 17. $ 1; It was first colonized by Greek settlers from Chalcis Atravov, Steph. B. $. V.; Aixás, Procop. B. Pers. i. and Eretria, either simultaneously with, or even 19; in 0. T. ELATH, in LXX. Aiado, Airáv: Eth. previous to, the foundation of Cunae on the neighAlaavions: Akaba), an Idumaean town in Arabia bouring mainland; and the colony attained to great Petraea, situated at the head of the eastern gulf of prosperity, but afterwards suffered severely froin the Red Sea, which was called after this town Aela- | internal dissensions, and was ultimately compelled to niticus Sinus. It was situated 10 miles E. of Petra abandon the island in consequence of violent earth(Euseb. Onom. $. v. 'H60), and 150 miles SE. of quakes and volcanic outbreaks. (Liv. viii. 22; Gaza (Plin. v. 11. s. 12). It was annexed to the Strab. v. p. 248.) These are evidently the same dekingdom of Judah, together with the other cities of scribed by Timaeus, who related that Mt. Epomeus, Idumaea, by David (2 Sam. viii. 14), and was one a hill in the centre of the island, vomited forth
harbours on the Red Sea, from which the fleet flames and a vast mass of ashes, and that a part of of Solomon sailed to Ophir (1 Kings, ix. 26; 2 Chron. the island, between this mountain and the coast, viii. 17); but it subsequently revolted from the was driven forcibly into the sea. (Timaeus ap. Jews, and became independent. (2 Kings, xiv. 22.) Strab. v. p. 248.) The same phenomena are reIt continued to be a place of commercial importance lated with some variation by Pliny (ii. 88). At a under the Romans, and was the head quarters of the later period, a fresh colony was established there by tenth legion. (Hieron. Onom.; Not. Imp.) It was the Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse (probably after his residence of a Christian bishop, and is mentioned by great naval victory over the Tyrrhenians in B.C.474), Procopius in the sixth century as inhabited by Jews, but these were also compelled to quit the island for who, after having been for a long time independent, similar reasons. (Strab. l. c.; Mommsen, Unterhad become subject to the Romans in the reign of Italischen Dialekte, p. 198.) After their departure Justinian. (Procop. B. Pers. i. 19.) The site of it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and Scylax Aelana is now occupied by a fortress called Akaba, (S 10. p. 3) speaks of it as containing, in his in which a garrison is stationed, because it lies on time, a Greek city. It probably continued froin the route of the Egyptian pilgrims to Mecca. (Nie- henceforth a dependency of Neapolis, and the period buhr, Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 400; Rüppel, at which it fell into the hands of the Romans is Reise in Nubien, p. 248; Laborde, Journey through unknown; but we find it in later times forming a Arabia Petraea, vol. i. p. 116.)
part of the public property of the Roman state, until AELANI'TICUS SINUS. (ARABICUS Sixus.] Augustus ceded it once more to the Neapolitans, in AEʻLIA CAPITOLI’NA. (JERUSALEM.). "exchange for the island of Capreae. (Suet. Aug. 92.)
AE'MODAE or HAE'MODAE, the Shetland We have scarcely any further information concerning Islands (Mela, iii. 6), described by Pliny (iv. 16. its condition; but it seems to have effectually re$ 30), as a group of seven. The islands Ocitis covered from its previous disasters, though still sub
OKITIS), and Dumna (Acúuva) mentioned by Pto ject to earthquakes and occasional phenomena of a lemy (ü. 3. § 31) were apparently part of this volcanic character. It was indebted to the same group, and answer respectively to St. Ronaldsha and causes for its warm springs, which were frequented for Hay. Camden and the elder antiquaries, however, their medical properties. (Strab. v. pp. 248. 258; refer the Aemodae to the Baltic Sea. [W.B. D.] Plin. xxxi. 5; Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 104; Lucil. Aetna,
AEMO'NA, HAEMO'NA, EMONA ("Huwva, 430; Jul. Obseq. 114.) Strabo notices the fertility of "Huwva, Orelli, Inscript. 72 ; 'Huâ, Herodian. the soil, and speaks of gold mines having been worked viii. 1 : Eth. Aemonensis : Laybach), a strongly by the first settlers; but it would seem never to have fortified town with a well-frequented market in enjoyed any considerable degree of prosperity or imPannonia, situated on the river Saave and on the portance under the Romans, as its name is rarely road from Aquileia to Celeia, answering to the mentioned. At the present day it is a fertile and modern Laybach, the capital of Illyria. Laybach, flourishing island, with a population of 25,000 inhowever, as the Roman remains around its walls habitants, and contains two considerable towns, attest, does not equal in extent the ancient Aemona. Ischia and Foria. The position of the ancient According to tradition, the Argonauts were the town is uncertain, no antiquities having been disfounders of Aemona (Zosim. v. 29). It subse- covered, except a few inscriptions. The Monte di quently became a Roman colony with the title of San Nicola, which rises in the centre of the island Julia Augusta (Plin. iv. 21. § 28), and its name to an elevation of 2500 feet, and bears unquestionoccurs on coins and inscriptions (Ptol. ii. 15. § 7; able traces of volcanic action, is clearly the same Orelli, Inscript. nos. 71, 72, et alib.). [W.B.D.) with the EPOMEUS of Timaeus (1. c.) which is called
AENA'RIA (Alvapia, App.), called by the Greeks by Pliny Mons EPOPUS. (Concerning the present PITHECU'SA (1110nkowoca), or PITHECU'SAE state of the island, and its volcanic phenomena, see (IIOnkowocal), and by the Latin poets INA'RIME, Description Topogr. et Histor. des Iles d Ischia, now Ischia, is an island of considerable size, which de Ponza, gc., Naples, 1822; Scrope, On the Vollies off the coast of Campania, nearly opposite to canic District of Naples, in the Trans. of the Geol. Cape Misenum, and forms, in conjunction with that Soc. 2nd series, vol. ii.; Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. headland, the northern boundary of the Bay of 240, 2nd edit.) The name of PITHECUSAE appears Naples. It is about 15 miles in circumference, and to have been sometimes applied by the Greeks to the is distant between five and six miles from the nearest two islands of Aenaria and Prochyta collectively, point of the mainland, and 16 from Capri, which but the plural form as well as the singular is often forms the southern boundary of the bay. The small / used to designate the larger island alone. Strabo,
indeed, uses both indifferently. (See also Appian, through which one of the mouths of the Hebrns B.C. v. 69.) Livy, in one passage (viii. 22), speaks makes its way into the sea. According to Virgil of “ Aenaria et Pithecusas," and Mela (ii. 7) also (Aen. iii. 18), it was founded by Aeneas when be enumerates separately Pithecusa, Aenaria, and Pro- landed there on his way from Troy, but there does chyta. But this is clearly a mere confusion arising not seem any more authority for this statement than from the double appellation. Pliny tells us (iii. 6. the similarity of the names; but its antiquity is 12) that the Greek name was derived from the pot- attested by the fact of its being mentioned by Horner tery (nídou) manufactured there, not as commonly (Il. iv. 519). According to Herodotus (vii. 58) supposed from its abounding in apes (ríonko). But and Thucydides (vii. 57), Aenus was an Aeolic the latter derivation was the popular one, and was colony. Neither of them, however, mentions from connected, by some writers, with the mythological what particular place it was colonised. Seymnus tale of the Cercopes. (Xenagoras ap. Harpocr. 8. v. Chius (696) attributes its foundation to Mytilene; Képkwy; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90.)
Stephanus Byzant. to Cumae, or, according to MeiThe name of INARIME is peculiar to the Latin neke's edition, to the two places conjointly. Accord poets, and seems to have arisen from a confusion ing to Strabo (p. 319), a more ancient name of the with the 'Apipot of Homer and Hesiod, after the place was Poltyobria. Stephanus says it was also fable of Typhoens had been transferred from Asia to called Apsinthus. the volcanic regions of Italy and Sicily. (Strab. v. Little especial mention of Aenus occurs till a p. 248, xiii. p. 626; Pherecyd. ap. Schol. ad Apoll. comparatively late period of Grecian history. It is Rhod. ii. 1210.) The earthquakes and volcanic mentioned by Thucydides (l. c.) that Aenus sent outbursts of this island were already ascribed by forces to the Sicilian expedition as a subject ally Pindar (Pyth. i. 18) to the struggles of the im- of Athens. At a later period we find it successively prisoned giant, but the name of Inarime is first in the possession of Ptolemy Philopator, B. c. 222 found in Virgil, from whom it is repeated by many (Pol. v. 34), of Philip, king of Macedonia, B. C. later poets. Ovid erroneously distinguishes Inarime 200 (Liv. xxxi. 16), and of Antiochus the Great. from Pithecusae. (Virg. Aen. ix. 716; Ovid. Met. After the defeat of the latter by the Romans, xiv. 90; Sil. Ital. viji. 542, xii. 147; Lucan. v. 100; Aenus was declared free. (Liv. xxxvïï.60.) It was Stat. Silv. i. 2. 76; and see Heyne, Exc. ü. ad still a free city in the time of Pliny (iv. 11). Virg. Aen. ix.; Wernsdorf, Exc. iii. ad Lucil. Aet- Athenaeus (p. 351) speaks of the climate of nam. The idea, that both this and the neighbour- Aenus as being peculiarly ungenial. He describes ing island of Prochyta had been at one time united the year there as consisting of eight months of cold, to the mainland, and broken off from it by the and four of winter.
[H. W.] violence of the same volcanic causes which were still in operation, is found both in Strabo and Pliny, and was a natural inference from the phenomena actually observed, but cannot be regarded as resting upon
LAINION IN any historical tradition. (Strab. ii. p. 60, v. p. 258; Plin. ï. 88.)
[E. H. B.] AENEIA (Alvela: Eth. Alveleús, Aivedtns), a town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, said to have been founded by Aeneas, was situated, according to Livy, opposite Pydna, and 15 miles from Thessalonica. It appears to have stood on the promontory of the great Karaburnú, which forms the NW. corner of the
COIN OF AENUS. peninsula of Chalcidice, and which, being about 10 AENUS (Alvos, Ptol. ii. 11. $ 5; Denus, Itin. geographical miles in direct distance from Thessalo- | Anton.: Inn), a river rising in the Rhaetian or nica, may be identified with the promontory Aeneium Tridentine Alps, dividing Rhaetia Secunda (Vindeof Scymnus. Aeneia must therefore have been licia) from Noricum, and flowing into the Danube, further N. than Pydna. It was colonised by the of which it was one of the principal feeders, at Corinthians. (Scymnus Ch. 627.) It is mentioned Passau. (Tac. Hist. ii. 5.) [W. B. D.] by Herodotus, and continued to be a place of im- AE'OLES (Aloneis) or AEOʻLII, one of the four portance down to the time of the Roman wars in races into which the Hellenes are usually divided, are Greece, although we are told that a great part of its represented as descendants of the mythical Aeolus, population was removed to Thessalonica, when the the son of Hellen. (Dict. of Biogr. 8. v. Aeolus.) latter city was founded by Cassander. (Herod. vii. Hellen is said to have left his kingdom in Thessaly 123; Strab. p. 330; Dionys. i. 49; Lycophr. 1236 to Aeolus, his eldest son. (Apollod. i. 7. $ 3.) A and Schol.; Virg. Aen. iii. 16; Steph. B. 8. v.; Liv. portion of Thessaly was in ancient times called xl. 4, xliv. 10, 32; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. Aeolis, in which Arne was the chief town. It was p. 451.)
from this district that the Aeolian Boeotians were driven out by the Thessalians, and came to Boeotia. (Herod. vii, 176; Diod. iv. 67; Thuc. i. 12.) It is supposed by some that this Aeolis was the district on the Pagasetic gulf; but there are good reasons for believing that it was in the centre of Thessaly, and nearly the same as the district Thessaliotis in later
times. (Müller, Dorians, vol. č. p. 475, seq.) We COIN OF AENEIA.
find the Aeolians in many other parts of Greece, beAENIANES. [THESSALIA.]
sides Thessaly and Boeotia; and in the earliest times AENUS (Alvos: Eth. Ayvios, Aividtns, Aenius: they appear as the most powerful and the most nuEnos), a town of Thrace, situated upon a promon- merous of the Hellenic races. The wealthy Minyae tory on the south-eastern side of the Palus Stentoris, appear to have been Aeolians; and we have mention
of Aeolians in Aetolia and Locris, at Corinth, in the Romans VULCANI INSULA, from whence its mo.
and Strongyle, though it does not accord with AEOʻLIAE INSULAE (Aioniões vnooi, Diod. Strabo's description that it lies the farthest out to Aiónov vñooi, Thuc. Strab.), a group of volcanic sea (Tedayla udalota). But it agrees, better at least islands, lying in the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north of than any other, with his statement that it lay on the Sicily, between that island and the coast of Lucania. left hand as one sailed from Lipara towards Sicily, They derived the name of Aeolian from some fancied from whence he supposes it to have derived its name. connection with the fabulous island of Aeolus men- / Several small islets adjacent to Panaria, are now tioned by Homer in the Odyssey (x. 1, &c.), but called the Dattole, the largest of which Basiluzzo, they were also frequently termed VULCANIAE or is probably the HICESIA of Ptolemy ('Ikeola, Ptol. HEPHAESTLAE, from their volcanic character, which iii. 4. § 16; 'Ik éolov, Eustath. ad Hom. Odyss. was ascribed to the subterranean operations of Vulcan, x. I), whose list, with the exception of this addition, as well as LIPARAEAN (ai Altapalwr ynooi, Strab. corresponds with that of Strabo. That of Mela ii. p. 123), from LIPARA, the largest and most im (ii. 7) is very confused and erroneous: he is cer. portant among them, from which they still derive the | tainly in error in including OSTEODEs in the narne of the Lipari Islands.
Aeolian group. Ancient authors generally agree in reckoning The volcanic character of these islands was early them as seven in number (Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Plin. noticed by the Greeks: and Diodorus justly remarks iii. 8. 14; Scymn. Ch. 255; Diod. v. 7; Mela, ü. 7; (v. 7) that they had all been evidently at one time Dionys. Perieget. 465; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. iii. vents of eruptive action, as appeared from their still 41), which is correct, if the smaller islets be omitted. extant craters, though in his time two only, Hiera and But there is considerable diversity with regard to Strongyle, were active volcanoes. Strabo indeed (l.c. their names, and the confusion has been greatly aug | p. 275) appears to speak of volcanic eruptions in the mented by some modern geographers. They are enu island of Lipara itself, but his expressions, which merated as follows by Strabo, Diodorus, and Pliny: | are not very precise, may probably refer only to out
1. LIPARA, still called Lipari; the most con- | breaks of volcanic vapours and hot springs, such as siderable of the seven, and the only one which con are still found there. Earlier writers, as Thucytained a town of any importance. (LIPARA.] dides and Scymnus Chius, allude to the eruptions of
2. HIERA, situated between Lipara and the coast Hiera only, and these were probably in ancient of Sicily. Its original name according to Strabo | times the most frequent and violent, as they appear was Thermessa (épueooa), or, as Pliny writes it, to have attracted much more attention than those of Therasia, but it was commonly known to the Greeks Strongyle, which is now by far the most active of as 'lepá or 'lepà 'Hpalotov, being considered sacred the two. Hence arose the idea that this was the to Vulcan on account of the volcanic phenomena which abode of Vulcan, and the peculiar sounds that it exhibited. For the same reason it was called by accompanied its internal agitations were attributed
to the hammers and forges of the god and his work- / recorded by Pliny (i. 87) as occurring in 01. 163. men the Cyclopes. (Tliuc. ii. 88; Scymn. Ch. 257 3, or B. c. 126. The same phenomenon is less -261; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. iij. 41; Virg. Aen. accurately described by Julius Obsequens (89) and viii. 418). According to Strabo there were three Orosius (v. 10), both of whom confirm the above craters on this island, the largest of which was in a date: but the last author narrates (iv. 20) at 2 state of the most violent eruption. Polybius (ap. much earlier period (B. C. 186) the sudden emerStrab. vi. p. 276), who appears to have visited | gence from the sea of an island, which he erroneously it himself, described the principal crater as five supposes to have been the Vulcani Insula itself; but stadia in circumference, but diminishing gradually which was probably no other than the rock now to a width of only fifty feet, and estimated its called Vulcanello, situated at the NE. extremity of depth at a stadium. From this crater were vomited Vulcano, and united to that island only by a narrow forth sometimes flames, at others red hot stones, cinders isthmus formed of volcanic sand and ashes. It still and ashes, which were carried to a great distance. emits smoke and vapour and contains two small No ancient writer mentions streams of lava (súakes) craters. * similar to those of Aetna. The intensity and cha- None of the Aeolian islands, except Lipara, appear racter of these eruptions was said to vary very much to have been inhabited in ancient times to any exaccording to the direction of the wind, and from tent. Thucydides expressly tells us (iï. 88) that in these indications, as well as the gathering of mists his day Lipara alone was inhabited, and the other and clouds around the summit, the inhabitants of islands, Strongyle, Didyme, and Hiera, were culthe neighbouring island of Lipara professed to fore- tivated by the Liparaeans; and this statement is tell the winds and weather, a circumstance which confirmed by Diodorus (v. 9). Strabo however was believed to have given rise to the fable of speaks of Euonymus as uninhabited in a manner Aeolus ruling the winds. The modern Lipariots still that seems to imply that the larger islands were not maintain the same pretension. (Strab. I. c.; Smyth's so: and the remains of ancient buildings which have Sicily, p. 270.) At a later period Hiera seems to been found not only on Salina and Stromboli, but have abated much of its activity, and the younger even on the little rock of Basiluzzo, prove that they Lucilius (a contemporary of Seneca) speaks of its were resorted to by the Romans, probably for the fires as in a great measure cooled. (Lucil. Aetn. sake of medical baths, for which the volcanic vapours 437.)
afforded every facility. Hiera on the contrary apWe hear much less from ancient authors of the parently remained always uninhabited, as it does at volcanic phenomena of Strongyle than those of the present day. But the excellence of its port Hiera: but Diodorus describes them as of similar (Lucil. Aetn. 442) rendered it of importance as a character, while Strabo tells us that the eruptions naval station, and we find both Hiera and Strongyle were less violent, but produced a more brilliant light. occupied by the fleet of Augustus during the war with Pliny says nearly the same thing: and Mela speaks Sex, Pompeius in 3. c. 36. (Appian. B. C. v. 105.) of both Hiera and Strongyle as “burning with per-| All the islands suffered great disadvantage, as they petual fire.” Lucilius on the contrary (Aetna, 434) still do, from the want of water, consequent on the describes the latter as merely smoking, and occa- light and porons nature of the volcanic soil. (Thuc. sionally kindled into a blaze, but for a short time. iii. 88; Smyth's Sicily, p. 249.) But though little Diodorus tells us that the eruptions both of Hiera adapted for agriculture they possessed great reand Strongyle were observed for the most part to sources in their stores of alum, sulphur, and pumice, alternate with those of Aetna, on which account it which were derived both from Hiera and Strongyle, was supposed by many that there was a subter- and exported in large quantities. The sea also ranean communication between them.
abounded in fish; and produced coral of the finest Besides these ordinary volcanic phenomena, which quality. (Plin. xxxii. 2. $ 11, xxxv. 15. $$ 50, appear to have been in ancient times (as they still 52, xxxvi. 21. $ 42; Lucil. Aetn. 432.) are in the case of Stromboli) in almost constant It is scarcely necessary to inquire which of the operation, we find mention of several more remark | Aeolian islands has the most claim to be considered able and unusual outbursts. The earliest of these as the residence of Aeolus himself, Homer certainly is the one recorded by Aristotle (Meteorol. ii. 8), speaks only of one island, and is followed in this where he tells us that " in the island of Hiera the respect by Virgil. But the "floating island" of the carth swelled up with a loud noise, and rose into the elder poet, “ girt all around with a wall of brass," is form of a considerable hillock, which at length burst scarcely susceptible of any precise geographical de and sent forth not only vapour, but hot cinders and termination. The common tradition among the later ashies in such quantities that they covered the whole Greeks seems to have chosen the island of Lipara city of Lipara, and some of them were carried even itself as the dwelling of Aeolus, and the explanation to the coast of Italy." The vent froin which they of the fable above alluded to is evidently adapted to issued (he adds) remained still visible; and this was this assumption. But Strabo and Pliny both place probably one of the craters seen by Polybius. At a the abode of the ruler of the winds in Strongyle, and later period Posidonius described an eruption that the latter transfers to that island what others related took place in the sea between Hiera and Euonymus, of Hiera. Ptolemy on the contrary, by a strange which after producing a violent agitation of the confusion, mentions the island of Aeolus (Aiódov waters, and destroying all the fish, continued to pour voos, iii. 4. $ 17) as something altogether distinct forth mud, fire and smoke for several days, and from the Aeolian islands, which he had previonsly ended with giving rise to a small island of a rock enuinerated separately: while Eustathius (ad Hom. like millstone (lava), on which the practor T. Fla- | Odyss. x, 1) reckons it as one of the seven, onitting mininus landed and offered sacrifices. Posidon. ap. Euonymus to make room for it, though in another Strab. vi. p. 277.) This event is me:itioned by Posidonius as occurring within his own memory; } and from the mention of Flamininus as praetor it is * The same event appears to be more obscurely almost certain that it is the same circumstance alluded to by Livy (xxxix. 56).
passage (ad Dionys. Per. 461) he follows Strabo's | as Thuria, and by Pausanias the same as Corone. authority, and identifies it with Strongyle.
(Hom. Il. ix. 152; Strab. p. 360; Paus. iv. 34. & 5.) For an account of the present state of the Lipari | 2. A town in Cyprus, situated on a mountain, Islands and their volcanic phenomena the reader the ruler of which is said to have removed to the may consult Smyth's Sicily, chap. vii. p. 274–278; plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to have named Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sicilia, p. 199–252; the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There Daubeny, On Volcanoes, ch. 14, pp. 245-263, 2nd is still a place, called Epe, upon the mountain above edit. The history of the islands is almost wholly the ruins of Soli. (Plut. Sol. 26; Steph. B. 8. v.; dependent on that of LIPARA, and will be found in Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 75.) that article.
(E. H. B.] L AEPY (Alnu: Eth. Almutns), a town in Elis, so AE'OLIS (Aloals, Aeolia), a district on the west called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, coast of Asia Minor, which is included by Strabo and is probably the same as the Triphylian town in the larger division of Mysia. The limits of Epeium ("HTELOV, "EROV, Almlov), which stood beAeolis are variously defined by the ancient geo-tween Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the graphers. Strabo (p. 582) makes the river Her-high peaked mountain which lies between the villages mus and Phocaea the southern limits of Aeolis and of Vrina and Smerna, about 6 miles in direct distance the northern of Ionia. He observes (p. 586), | from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy the that “as Homer makes one of Aeolis and Troja, site of Hellenista, the name of some ruins on a hill and the Aeolians occupied the whole country from between Platiana and Barakou. (Hom. Il. ii. 592; the Hermus to the coast in the neighbourhood of Xen. Hell. iii. 2. $ 30; Pol. iv. 77.99, iv. 80. § 13; Cyzicus and founded cities, neither shall I im- Strab. p. 349; Steph. B. 8. V.; Stat. Theb. iv. 180; perfectly make my description by putting together Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 206; Boblaye, Recherches, that which is now properly called Aeolis, which &c., p. 136.) extends from the Hermus to Lectum, and the AEQUI, AEQUI'CULI or AEQUICULANI country which extends from Lectum to the Ae- (Alkol and Atkovot, Strab.; Alkavoi, Dion. Hal.; sepus." Aeolis, therefore, properly so called, ex-alkovik doi, Ptol.; AIKIKAOI, Diod.), one of the most tended as far north as the promontory of Lectum, ancient and warlike nations of Italy, who play a at the northern entrance of the bay of Adramyttium. conspicuous part in the early history of Rome. The bay of Adramyttium is formed by the S. They inhabited the mountainous district around the coast of the mountainous tract in which Ilium upper valley of the Anio, and extending from thence stood, by the island of Lesbos, and by the coast of to the Lake Fucinus, between the Latins and the Acolis S. of Adramyttium, which runs from that | Marsi, and adjoining the Hernici on the east, and the town in a SW. direction. The coast is irregular. | Sabines on the west. Their territory was subseSouth of the bay of Adramyttium is a recess, at the quently included in Latium, in the more extended northern point of which are the Hecatonnesi, a sense given to that name under the Roman empire numerous group of small islands, and the southern (Strab. v. p. 228, 231). There appears no doubt boundary of which is the projecting point of the that the AEQUICULI or AEQUICOLI are the same mainland, which lies nearest opposite to the southern people with the AEQUI, though in the usage of later extremity of Lesbos. The peninsula on which the times the former name was restricted to the inhabittown of Phocaea stood, separates the gulf of Cume ants of the more central and lofty vallies of the on the N. from the bay of Smyrna on the S. The Apennines, while those who approached the borders gulf of Cume receives the rivers Evenus and Caïcus. of the Latin plain, and whose constant wars with The territory of the old Aeolian cities extended the Romans have made them so familiarly known to northward from the Hermus to the Caïcus, com- | us, uniformly appear under the name of Aequi. It prising the coast and a tract reaching 10 or 12 is probable that their original abode was in the highmiles inland. Between the bay of Adramyttium land districts, to which we find them again limited and the Caïcus were the following towns:--Cisthene at a later period of their history. The Aequiculi (Klodhun, Chirin-koi), on a promontory, a deserted are forcibly described by Virgil as a nation of rude place in Strabo's time. There was a port, and a mountaineers, addicted to the chase and to predatory copper mine in the interior, above Cisthene. Fur- habits, by which they sought to supply the defither south were Coryphantis (Kopupavtis), Hera- ciencies of their rugged and barren soil (Virg. Aen. cleia ('Hpaxleia), and Attea ("ATTea, Ajasmat-koi). vii. 747; Sil. Ital. viii. 371; Ovid. Fast. ii. 93). Coryphantis and Heracleia once belonged to the As the only town he assigns to them is Nersae, the Mytilenaeans. Herodotus (i. 149) describes the site of which is unknown, there is some uncertainty tract of country which these Aeolians possessed, as as to the geographical position of the people of whom superior in fertility to the country occupied by the he is speaking, but he appears to place them next cities of the Ionian confederation, but inferior in to the Marsians. Strabo speaks of them in one climate. He enumerates the following 1] cities: passage as adjoining the Sabines near Cures, in Cume, called Phriconis; Lerissae, Neon Teichos, another as bordering on the Latin Way (v. pp. 231, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Ae- 237): both of which statements are correct, if the gaeae, Myrina, and Grynexa. Smyrna, which was name be taken in its widest signification. The form originally one of them, and made the number 12, | AEQUICULANI first appears in Pliny (iii. 12. $ 17), fell into the hands of the Ionians. Herodotus says, who lowever uses Aequiculi also as equivalent to that these 11 were all the Aeolian cities on the it: he appears to restrict the term to the inhabitants mainland, except those in the Ida; “ for these are of the vallies bordering on the Marsi, and the only separated" (i. 151); and in another place (v. 122) | towns he assigns to them are Carscoli and Cliternia Herodotus calls those people Aeolians who in- At a later period the name appears to have been habited the Ilias, or district of Ilium. [G. L.] almost confined to the population of the upper valley
AEPELA (ATTELA: Eth. Almedins). 1. One of of the Salto, between Reate and the Lake Fucinus, the seven Messenian towns, offered by Agamemnon a district which still retains the name of Cicolano, to Achilles, is supposed by Strabo to be the same evidently a corruption from Aequiculanum.