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to be called Aegytac. The position of Aegys is uncertain. Leake places it at Kamdra, near the sources of the river Xerild, the ancient Camion. (Paus. iii. 2. § 5, viii. 27. § 4, 34. § 5; Strab. p. 446; Pol. ii. 54; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 234.)

AELANA (t4 Alton, Strab. p. 768; M\avh, Joseph. Ant. viii. 6. § 4; 'EAtti-a, Ptol. v. 17. § 1; AlXavov, Steph. B. s. v.; AlKds, Procop. B. Pers. i. 19; in 0. T. Elath, in LXX. AtsiB, AiAciv: Eth. Al\avirns: Akaba), an Idumaean town in Arabia Pctraea, situated at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was called after this town Aelaniticus Sinus. It was situated 10 miles E. of Petra (Euseb. Onom. s. v. 'HAdO), and 150 miles SE. of Gaza (Plin. v. 11. s. 12). It was annexed to the kingdom of Judah, together with the other cities of Idumaea, by David (2 Sam. viii. 14), and was one of the harbours on the Red Sea, from which the fleet of Solomon sailed to Ophir (1 Kings, ix. 26; 2 Chron. viii. 17); but it subsequently revolted from the Jews, and became independent. (2 Kings, xiv. 22.) It continued to be a place of commercial importance under the Romans, and was the head quarters of the tenth legion. (Hieron. Onom.; Not.Imp.) It was the residence of a Christian bishop, and is mentioned by Procopius in the sixth century as inhabited by Jews, who, after having been for a long time independent, had become subject to the Romans in the reign of Justinian. (Procop. B. Pers. i. 19.) The site of Aclana is now occupied by a fortress called Akaba, in which a garrison is stationed, because it lies on the route of the Egyptian pilgrims to Mecca. (Niebuhr, Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 400; Riippel, Reise in Nubien, p. 248; Laborde, Journey through Arabia Petraea, vol. i. p. 116.)

AELANI'TICUS SINUS. [arabiccs Sinus.] AE'LIA CAPITOLI'NA. [jerusalem.] AE'MODAE or HAE'MODAE, the Shetland Islands (Mela, iii. 6), described by Pliny (iv. 16. § 30), as a group of seven. The islands Ocitis fOxiris), and Dumna (AotSpua) mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 31) were apparently part of this group, and answer respectively to St. Ronaldsha and Hag. Camden and the elder antiquaries, however, refer the Aemodae to the Baltic Sea. [W. B. D.]

AEMO'NA, HAEMO'NA, EMO'NA (,'Huuya, "Htiaya, Orclli, Inscript. 72; 'Hua, Herodkn. viii. 1 : Eth. Aemonensis: Layback), a strongly fortified town with a well-frequented market in Pannonia, situated on the river Saave and on the road from Aquileia to Celeia, answering to the modern Laybach, the capital of IUyria. Laybach, however, as the Roman remains around its walls attest, does not eqnal in extent the ancient Aemona. According to tradition, the Argonauts were the founders of Aemona (Zosim. v. 29). It subsequently became a Roman colony with the title of Julia Augusta (Plin. iv. 21. § 28), and its name occurs on coins and inscriptions (Ptol. ii. 15. § 7; Orelli, Inscript. nos. 71, 72, et alib.). [W.B.D.] AENA'RIA (Ah-ayria, App.), called by the Greeks PITHECU'SA (n.fr)itoD<r<ra), or PITHECU'SAE (riiSniroSffo-ai), and by the Latin poets INA'RIME, now Ischia, is an island of considerable size, which lies off the coast of Campania, nearly opposite to Cape Miscnum, and forms, in conjunction with that headland, the northern boundary of the Bay of Naples. It is about 15 miles in circumference, and is distant between five and six miles from the nearest point of the mainland, and 16 from Capri, which forms the southern boundary of tho bay. The small

island of Prochyta (Procida) lies between it and Cape Misenum. The whole island is of volcanic origin, and though it contains no regular crater, or other vent of igneous action, was subject in ancient, as it has continued in later, times, to violent earthquakes and paroxysmal outbursts of volcanic agency. It was first colonized by Greek settlers from Clialcis and Eretria, either simultaneously with, or even previous to, the foundation of Cumae on the neighbouring mainland; and the colony attained to great prosperity, but afterwards suffered severely from internal dissensions, and was ultimately compelled to abandon the island in consequence of violent earthquakes and volcanic outbreaks. (Liv. viii. 22; Strab. v. p. 248.) These are evidently the same described by Timaeus, who related that Mt. Epomeus, a hill in the centre of the island, vomited forth flames and a vast mass of ashes, aud that a part of the island, between this mountain and the coast, was driven forcibly into the sea. (Timaeus ap. Strab. v. p. 248.) The same phenomena are related with some variation by Pliny (ii. 88). At a later period, a fresh colony was established there by Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse (probably after his great naval victory over the Tyrrhenians in B.C.474), but these were also comjielled to quit the island fur similar reasons. (Strab. I. c.; Mommscn, UntcrItalischen Dialekte, p. 198.) After their departure it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and Scylax (§ 10. p. 3) speaks of it as containing, in his time, a Greek city. It probably continued from henceforth a dependency of Neapolis, and the period at which it fell into the hands of the Romans is unknown; but we find it in later times forming a part of the public property of the Roman state, until Augustus ceded it once more to the Neapolitans, in exchange for the island of Capreae. (Suet. Aug. 92.) We have scarcely any further information concerning its condition; but it seems to have effectually recovered from its previous disasters, though still subject to earthquakes and occasional phenomena of a volcanic character. It was indebted to the same causesfor its warm springs, which were frequented for their medical properties. (Strab. v. pp. 248. 258; Plin. xxxi. 5; Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 104; Lucil. Aetna, 430; Jul. Obseq. 114.) Strabo notices the fertility of the soil, and speaks of gold mines having been worked by the first settlers; but it would seem never to have enjoyed any considerable degree of prosperity or importance under the Romans, as its name is rarely mentioned. At the present day it is a fertile and flourishing island, with a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and contains two considerable towns, Ischia and Foria. The position of the ancient town is uncertain, no antiquities having been discovered, except a few inscriptions. The Monte di San Nicola, which rises in the centre of the island to an elevation of 2500 feet, and bears unquestionable traces of volcanic action, is clearly the same with the Epomeus of Timaeus (/. c.) which is called by Pliny Mons Erorus. (Concerning the present state of the island, and its volcanic phenomena, see Description Topogr. et Bistor. des lies dlschia, de Ponza, tf-c., Naples, 1822; Scrope, On the Volcanic District of Naples, in the Trans, of the Geol. Soc. 2nd series, vol. ii.; Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 240, 2nd edit.) The name of Pithecusae appears to have been sometimes applied by the Greeks to tho two islands of Aenaria and Prochyta collectively, but the plural form as well as the singular is often used to designate the larger island alone. Strabo,

indeed, uses both indifferently. (See also Appian, B. C. v. 69.) Livy, in one passage (viii. 22), speaks of "Aenaria et Pithecusas," and Mela (ii. 7) also enumerates separately Pithecusa, Aenaria, and Prochyta. But this is clearly a mere confusion arising from the double appellation. Pliny tells us (iii. 6. 12) that the Greek name was derived from the potter)' (irfftoi) manufactured there, not as commonly supposed from its abounding in apes (wi&nKoi). But the latter derivation was the popular one, and was connected, by some writers, with the mythological tale of the Cercopes. (Xenagoras ap. Ilarpocr. s. v. KtpKwty; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90.)

The name of Inarime is peculiar to the Latin poets, and seems to have arisen from a confusion with the "Apifioi of Homer and Hesiod, after the fable of Typhoeus had been transferred from Asia to the volcanic regions of Italy and Sicily. (Strab. v. p. 248, xiii. p. 626; Pherecyd. ap. SckoL ad Apoll. Jikod. ii. 1210.) The earthquakes and volcanic outbursts of this island were already ascribed by Pindar (Pyth. i. 18) to the struggles of the imprisoned giant, but the name of Inarime is first found in Virgil, from whom it is repeated by many later poets. Ovid erroneously distinguishes Inarime from Pithecusae. (Virg. A en. ix. 716; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90; Sil. Ital. viii. 542, in. 147; Lucan. v. 100; Stat. SiU?. ii. 2. 76; and see Heyne, Exc. ii. ad Virg. A en. ix.; Wernsdorf, Exc. iii. ad Lucil. Aetnam.) The idea, that both this and the neighbouring island of Prochyta had been at one time united to the mainland, and broken off from it by the violence of the same volcanic causes which were still in operation, is found both in Strabo and Pliny, and was a natural inference from the phenomena actually observed, but cannot be regarded as resting upon any historical tradition. (Strab. ii. p. 60, v. p. 258; Plin. ii. 88.) [E. H. B.]

AENEIA (AlWia: Eth. AIM, AiWnp), a town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, said to have been founded by Aeneas, was situated, according to Livy, opposite Pydna, and 15 miles from Thessalonica. It appears to liave stood on the promontory of the great KaraburnUj which forms the NW. comer of the peninsula of Chalcidice, and which, being about 10 geographical miles in direct distance from Thessalom'ca, may be identified with the promontory Aeneium of Scymnus. Aeneia must therefore have been further N. than Pydna. It was colonised by the Corinthians. (Scymnus Ch. 627.) It is mentioned by Herodotus, and continued to be a place of importance down to the time of the Roman wars in Greece, although we are told that a great part of its population was removed to Thessalonica, when the latter city was founded by Cassander. (Herod, vii. 123; Strab. p. 330; Dionys. i. 49; Lyoophr. 1236 and Schol.; Virg. Aen. iii. 16; Steph. B. *. v.; Liv. xl. 4, xliv. 10, 32; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 451.)

through which one of tlie months of the IIebn» makes its way into the sea. According to Virgil (Aen. iii. 18), it was founded by Aeneas when he landed there on his way from Troy, but there does not seem any more authority for this statement than the similarity of the names; but its antiquity is attested by the fact of its being mentioned by Horoer (//. iv. 519). According to Herodotus (vii. 58) and Thucydides (vii. 57), Aenus was an Aeolic colony. Neither of them, however, mentions from what particular place it was colonised. Scymnus Cuius (696) attributes its foundation to Mytilene; Stephanos Byzant, to Cumae, or, according to Meineke's edition, to the two places conjointly. According to Strabo (p. 319), a more ancient name of the place was Poltyobria. Stephanus says it was also called Ap'dnthus.

Little especial mention of Aenus occurs till a comparatively late period of Grecian history. It is mentioned by Thucydides (I. e.) that Aenus sent forces to the Sicilian expedition as a subject ally of Athens. At a later period we find it successively in the possession of Ptolemy Philopator, B. C. 222 (Pol. v. 34), of Philip, king of Macedonia, B. c. 200 (Liv. xxxi. 16), and of Antiochus the Great. After the defeat of the latter by the Romans, Aenus was declared free. (Liv. xxxviii.60.) It was still a free city in the time of Pliny (iv. 11).

Athenaeus (p. 351) speaks of the climate of Aenus as being peculiarly ungenial. He describes the year there as consisting of eight months of cold, and four of winter. [H. W.J

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AENIATJES. [thessai-ia.]

AENUS (Afroi: EA. Afrior, AWrns, Aenius: Ems), a town of Thrace, situated upon a promontory on the south-eastern side of the Palus Stcntoris,


AENUS (ATcor, Ptol. ii. 11. § 5; Oenns, Itin. Anton.: Inn), a river rising in the lihaetian or Tridentine Alps, dividing Rhactia Secunda (Vindelicia) from Noricum, and flowing into the Danube, of which it was one of the principal feeders, at Passau. (Tac. Hist iii. 5.) [W. B. D.]

AE'OLES (AioA«i) or AEO'LII, one of the four races into which the Hellenes are usually divided, are represented as descendants of the mythical Aeolus, the son of Ilcllcn. (Diet, of Biogr. s. v. Atvlw.) Hellcn is said to have left his kingdom in Thessaly to Aeolus, his eldest son. (Apollod. i. 7. § 3.) A portion of Thessaly was in ancient times called Aeolis, in which Ame was the chief town. It was from this district that the Aeolian Boeotians were driven out by the Thcssalians, and came to Bocotia. (Herod, vii. 176; Diod. iv. 67; Thuc. i. 12.) It is supposed by some that this Aeolis was the district on the Pagasetic gnlf; but there are good reasons for believing that it was in the centre of Thessaly, and nearly the same as the district Thcssaliotis in later times. (Mtillcr, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 475, seq.) We find the Aeolians in many other parts of Greece, besides Thessaly and Boeotia; and in the earliest times they appear as the most powerful and the most numerous of the Hellenic races. The wealthy Minyse appear to have been Aeolians; and we have mention

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of Aeolians in Aetolia and Locris, at Corinth, in Elis, in Pylus and in Messenia. Thus a great part of northern Greece, and the western side of Peloponnesus were inhabited at an early period by the Aeolian race. In most of these Aeolian settlements we find a predilection for maritime situations; and Poseidon appears to have been the deity chiefly worshipped by them. The Aeolians also migrated to Asia Minor where they settled in the district called after them Aeolis [Ar.OLIs], and also in the island of Lesbos. The Aeolian migration is generally represented as the first of the series of movements produced by the irruption of the Aeolians into Boeotia, and of the Dorians into Peloponnesus. The Achaeans, who had been driven from their homes in the Peloponnesus by the Dorians, were believed to have been joined in Boeotia by a part of the ancient inhabitants of Boeotia and of their Aeolian conquerors. The latter seem to have been predominant in influence, for from them the migration was called the Aeolian, and sometimes the Boeotian. An account of the early settlements and migrations of the Aeolians is given at length by Thirlwall, to which we must refer our readers for details and authorities. (Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 88, seq. vol. ii. p. 82, seq.; comp. Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. L p. 145, seq., vol. ii. p. 26, seq.) The Aeolian dialect of the Greek language comprised several subordinate modifications; but the variety established by the colonists in Lesbos and on the opposite coasts of Asia, became eventually its popular standard, having been carried to perfection by the Lesbian school of lyric poetry. (Mure, History of the Language, <fc. of Greece, voL i. p. 108, seq.) Thus we find the Roman poets calling Sappho Aeolia puella (Hor. Carm. iv. 9. 12), and the lyric poetry of Alcaeus and Sappho Aeolium carmen, Aeolia fides and Aeolia lyra. (Hor. Carm, iii. 30.13, ii 13. 24; Ov. Her. xv. 200.)

AEO'LIAE I'NSULAE (Ai'oA(S«j rfaoi, Diod. Ai'dAou tricot, Thuc. Strab.), a group of volcanic islands, lying in the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north of Sicily, between that island and the coast of Lucania. They derived the name of Aeolian from some fancied connection with the fabulous island of Aeolus mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey (x. 1, &c), but they were also frequently termed Vulcaniae or Hefhaestiae, from their volcanic character, which was ascribed to the subterranean operations of Vulcan, as well as Lifaraeax (ai Aarapaluv yrjaoi, Strab. ii. p. 123), from Lipara, the largest and most important among them, from which they still derive the name of the Lipari Islands.

Ancient authors generally agree in reckoning them as seven in number (Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Plin. Hi 8. 14; Scymn. Ch. 255; Diod. v. 7; Mela, ii. 7; Dionys. Perieget. 465; SchoL ad Apoll. Rhod. iii. ♦1), which is correct, if the smaller islets be omitted. But there is considerable diversity with regard to their names, and the confusion has been greatly augmented by some modem geographers. They are enumerated as follows by Strabo, Diodoras, and Pliny:

1. Lipara, still called Lipari; the most considerable of the seven, and the only one which contained a town of any importance. [lipara.]

2. Hiera, situated between Lipara and the coast of Sicily. Its original name according to Strabo was Thermessa (Vipiitaaa), or, as Pliny writes it, Therasia, but it was commonly known to the Greeks as 'Upi or 'Upa 'Htpaltrrov, being considered sacred to Vulcan on account of the volcanic phenomena which it exhibited. For tlie same reason it was called by

the Romans Vulcasi Insula, from whence its modem appellation of Vukano. It is the southernmost of the whole group, and is distant only 12 G. miles from Capo CaUxvtx, the nearest point on the coast of Sicily.

3. Stronoyle (2Tpo77iiAT), now Stromboli), so called from its general roundness of form (Strab. I.e.; Lucil. Aetna, 431): the northernmost of the islands, and like Hiera an active volcano.

4. Didyme (AiScycif), now called Saiitta, or Isola delle Saline, is next to Lipara the largest of the whole group. Its ancient name was derived (as Strabo expressly tells us, vi. p. 276), from its form, which circumstance leaves no doubt of its being the same with the modem Salina, that fcland being conspicuous for two high conical mountains which rise to a height of 3,500 feet (Smyth's Sicily, p. 272; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sicilia, p. 243; Daubeny, On Volcanoes, p. 262). Groskurd (ad Strab. I. c), Mannert, and Forbiger, have erroneously identified Didyme with Panaria, and thus thrown the whole subject into confusion. It is distant only three miles NW. from Lipara.

5. PliOENicuSA (#oiyu«oD<rffo, Strab. ♦oii'ocaljjjs, Diod.), so called from the palms ($xnvo«s) in which it abounded, is evidently Felicudi about 12 miles W. of Salina.

6. Ericusa ('EpiicouWa or 'EpiKi4Sj|j), probably named from its abundance of heath (Ipfnrn), is the little island of Alicudi, the westernmost of the whole group. These two were both very small islands and were occupied only for pasturage.

7. Euohymus (Eiuvvuos'), which we are expressly told was the smallest of the seven and uninhabited. The other six being clearly identified, there can be no doubt that this is the island now called Panaria, which is situated between Lipara and Strongyle, though it does not accord with Strabo's description that it lies the farthest out to sea (jr«Ao7/a uaXurra). But it agrees, better at least than any other, with his statement that it lay on tlie left hand as one sailed from Lipara towards Sicily, from whence he supposes it to have derived its name.

Several small islets adjacent to Panaria, are now called the Dattole, the largest of which Basilvszo, is probably the Hicesia of Ptolemy ('I/cto-fo, Ptol. iii. 4. § 16; 'Iniaiov, Eustath. ad Horn. Odyss. x. 1), whose list, with the exception of this addition, corresponds with that of Strabo. That of Mela (ii. 7) is very confused and erroneous: he is certainly in error in including Osteodes in the Aeolian group.

The volcanic character of these islands was early noticed by the Greeks: and Diodorus justly remarks (v. 7) that they had ofl been evidently at one time vents of eruptive action, as appeared from their still extant craters, though in his time two only, Hiera and Strongyle, were active volcanoes. Strabo indeed (I. e. p. 275) appears to speak of volcanic eruptions in the island of Lipara itself, but his expressions, which are not very precise, may probably refer only to outbreaks of volcanic vapours and hot springs, such as are still found there. Earlier writers, as Thucydides and Scvmnus Chi us, allude to the eruptions of Hiera only, and these were probably in ancient times the most frequent and violent, as they appear to have attracted mnch more attention than those of Strongyle, which is now by far the most active of the two. Hence arose the idea that this was the abode of Vulcan, and the peculiar sounds that accompanied its internal agitations were attributed to tlie hammers and forges of the god and his workmen the Cyclopes. (Time. Si. 88; Scymn. Ch. 257 —261; Schol. ail Apoll. Jihod. ui. ii; Virg. Atn. viii. 418). According to Strabo there were three craters on this island, the largest of which was in a state of the most violent eruption. Polybius (ap. Strab. vi. p. 276), who appears to have visited it himself, described the principal crater as five stadia in circumference, but cliininishing gradually to a width of only fifty feet, and estimated its depth at a stadinm. From this crater were vomited forth sometimes flames, at others red hot stones, cinders and ashes, which were carried to a great distance. No ancient writer mentions streams of lava (pi/axci) similar to those of Aetna. The intensity and character of these eruptions was said to vary very much according to the direction of the wind, and from these indications, as well as the gathering of mists and clouds around the summit, the inhabitants of the neighbouring island of Lipara professed to foretell tiie winds and weather, a circumstance which was believed to have given rise to the fable of Aeolus ruSng the winds. The modern Lipariote still maintain the same pretension. (Strab. I. c.; Smyth's Sicily, p. 270.) At a later period Hiera seems to have abated much of its activity, and the younger Lucilius (a contemporary of Seneca) speaks of its fires as in a great measure cooled. (LuciL Attn. 437.)

We hear much less from ancient authors of the Volcanic phenomena of Strongyle than those of Hiera: but Diodorus describes them as of similar character, while Strabo tells us that the eruptions were less violent, but produced a more brilliant light Pliny says nearly the same thing: and Mela speaks of both Hiera and Strongyle as "burning with perpetual fire." Lucilius on the contrary (Aetna, 434) describes the latter as merely smoking, and occasionally kindled into a blaze, but for a short time. Diodorus tells us that the eruptions both of Hiera and Strongyle were observed for the most part to alternate with those of Aetna, on which account it was supposed by many that there was a subterranean communication between them.

Besides these ordinary volcanic phenomena, which appear to have been in ancient times (as they still are in the case of Stroinboli) in almost constant operation, we find mention of several more remarkable and unusual outbursts. The earliest of these is the one recorded by Aristotle (MeUorol. U. 8), where he tells us that " in the island of Hiera the earth swelled up with a loud noise, and rose into the form of a considerable hillock, which at length burst and sent forth not only vapour, but hot cinders and ashes in such quantities that they covered the whole city of Lipara, and some of them were carried even to the coast of Italy." The vent from which they issued (he adds) remained still visible: and this was probably one of the craters seen by Polybius. At a later period Posidonius described an eruption that took place in the sea between Hiera and Kuonymus, which after producing a violent agitation of the waters, and destroying all the fish, continued to pour forth mud, firo and smoke for several days, and ended with giving rise to a small island of a rock like millstone (lava), on which the praetor T. Flamininus landed and offered sacrifices. Posidon. ap. Slrab. vi. p. 277.) This event is mentioned by Posidonius as occurring within his own memory; and from the mention of Flamininus as praetor it is nlmost certain that it is the same circumstance

recorded by Pliny (u. 87) as occurring in 01. 163. 3, or B.C. 126. The same phenomenon is k.vs accurately described by Julius Obsequons (89) and Orosius (v. 10), both of whom confirm the above date: bnt the last author narrates (iv. 20) at £ much earlier period (b. c. 186) the sudden emergence from the sea of an island, which he erroneously supposes to have been the Vulcani Insula itself: but which was probably no other than the rock now called Vulcanello, situated at the NE. extremity of Vulcano, and united to that island only by a narrow isthmus formed of volcanic sand and ashes. It still emits smoke and vapour and contains two small craters.*

None of the Aeolian islands, except Lipara, appear to havo been inhabited in ancient times to any extent Thucydides expressly tells us (iu. 88) that in his day Lipara alone was inhabited, and the other islands, Strongyle, Didymc, and Hiera, were cultivated by the Liparaeans; and this statement is confirmed by Diodorus (v. 9). Strabo however speaks of Kuonymus as uninhabited in a manner that seems to imply that the larger islands were not so: and the remains of ancient buildings which have been found not only on Salina and Stromboli, but even on the little rock of Batiluzzo, prove that they were resorted to by the Romans, probably for the Bake of medical baths, for which the volcanic vapours afforded every facility. Hiera on the contrary apparently remained always uninhabited, as it does at the present day. But the excellence of its port (Lucil. Aetn. 442) rendered it of importance as a naval station, and we find both Hiera and Strongyle occupied by the fleet of Augustus during the war with Sex. Pompeius in B. C. 36. (Appian. B. C. v. 105.) All the islands suffered great disadvantage, as they still do, from the want of water, consequent on the light and porous nature of the volcanic soil. (Thuc. iii. 88; Smyth's Sicily, p. 249.) But though little adapted for agriculture they possessed great resources in their stores of alum, sulphur, and pumice, which were derived both from Hiera and Strongyle, and exported in large quantities. The sea also abounded in fish; and produced coral of the finest quality. (Plin. xxxii. 2. § 11, xxxv. 15. §§ 50, 52, xxxvi. 21. § 42; Lucil. Aetn. 432.)

It is scarcely necessary to inquire wluch of the Aeolian islands has the most claim to be considered as the residence of Aeolus himself. Homer certainly speaks only of one island, and is followed in this respect by Virgil. But the "floating island " of the elder poet, "girt all around with a wall of brass," is scarcely susceptible of any precise geographical determination. The common tradition among the later Greeks seems to have chosen the island of Lipara itself as the dwelling of Aeolus, and the explanation of the fable above alluded to is evidently adapted to this assumption. But Strabo and PUny both place the abode of the ruler of the winds in Strongyle, and the latter transfers to that island what others related of Hiera. Ptolemy on the contrary, by a Strang confusion, mentions the island of Aeolus (A\6Xov VTiaos, iii. 4. § 17) as something altogether distinct from the Aeolian islands, which he had previously enumerated separately: while Enstathius (ad Bom. Odyss. x. 1) reckons it as one of the seven, omitting Kuonymus to make room for it, though in another

* The same event appears to bo more obscurely alluded to by Livy (xxxix. 56).

passage (ad Dvmys. Per. 461) he follows Strabo's authority, and identifies it with Strongyle.

For an account of the present state of the Lipari Islands and their volcanic phenomena the reader may consult Smyth's Sicily, chap. vii. p. 274—278; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei delta Sicilia, p. 199—252; Daubeny, On Volcanoes, ch. 14, pp. 245—263,2nd edit. The history of the islands is almost wholly dependent on that of LirA&A, and will be found in that article. [E. H. B.]

AE'OLIS (AloKis, Aeolia), a district on the west coast of Asia Minor, which is included by Strabo in the larger division of Mysia. The limits of Aeolis are variously defined by the ancient geographers. Strabo (p. 582) makes the river Hermus and Phocaea the southern limits of Aeolis and the northern of Ionia. He observes (p. 586), that " as Homer makes one of Aeolis and Troja, and the Aeolians occupied the whole country from the Hermus to the coast in the neighbourhood of Cyzicus and founded cities, neither shall I imperfectly make my description by putting together tliat which is now properly called Aeolis, which extends from the Hermus to Lectum, and the country which extends from Lectum to the Aesepus." Aeolis, therefore, properly so called, extended as far north as the promontory of Lectum, at the northern entrance of the bay of Adramyttium. The bay of Adramyttium is formed by the S. coast of the mountainous tract in which Ilium stood, by the island of Lesbos, and by the coast of Aeolis S. of Adramyttium, which runs from that town in a SW. direction. The coast is irregular. South of the bay of Adramyttium is a recess, at the northern point of which are the Hecatonnesi, a numerous group of small islands, and the southern boundary of which is the projecting point of the mainland, which lies nearest opposite to the southern extremity of Lesbos. The peninsula on which the town of Phocaea stood, separates the gulf of Cume on the N. from the bay of Smyrna on the S. The gulf of Cume receives the rivers Evenns andCaTcus. The territory of the old Aeolian cities extended northward from the Hermus to the Caicus, comprising the coast and a tract reaching 10 or 12 miles inland. Between the bay of Adramyttium and the Caicus were the following towns:—Cisthene (Kiff&7nj, Chirin-koi), on a promontory, a deserted place in Strabo's time. There was a port, and a copper mino in the interior, above Cisthene. Further south were Coryphantis (Koov^ovTfa), Heracleia ('HpoxA«i'a),and Attea ("ArMa, Ajasmat-koi). Coryphantis and Hcracleia once belonged to the Mvtilenaeans. Herodotus (i. 149) describes the tract of country which these Aeolians possessed, as superior in fertility to the country occupied by the cities of the Ionian confederation, but inferior in climate. He enumerates the following 1) cities: Cume, called Phriconis; Lerissae, Neon Teichos, Tcmnus, Cilia, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegaeae, Myrina, and Grynexa. Smyrna, which was originally one of them, and made the number 12, fell into the hands of the Ionians. Herodotus says, that these 11 were all the Aeolian cities on the mainland, except those in the Ida; "for these are separated" (i. 151); and in another place (v. 122) Herodotus calls those people Aeolians who inhabited the Ilias, or district of Ilium. [G. L.]

AEPEIA (Afireio: Eth. Aiwtijs). 1. One of the seven Messenian towns, offered by Agamemnon to Achilles, is supposed by Strabo to be the same

as Thuria, and by Pausanias the same as Corone. (Horn. //. ix. 152; Strab. p. 360; Pans. iv. 34. § 5.)

2. A town in Cyprus, situated on a mountain, the ruler of which is said to have removed to tho plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to havo named the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There is still a plare, called Epe, upon the mountain above the ruins of Soli, (l'lut. Sol. 26; Steph. B. s. v.; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 75.)

AEPY (Aim;: Eth. AiVi/njs), a town in Elis, so called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, and is probably the same as the Triphylian town Epeium ("Huttov, 'Ziriov, Ait/ok), which stood between Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the high peaked mountain which lies between the villages of Vrind and Smerna, about 6 miles in direct distance from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy the site of Hellenista, the name of some ruins on a hill between Platiana and Barakou. (Horn. 11. ii. 592; Xen. Uell. iii. 2. § 30; Pol. iv. 77. § 9, iv. 80. § 13; Strab. p. 349; Steph. B. *. v.; Stat. Thcb. iv. 180; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 206; Boblaye, Recherches, &c, p. 136.)

AEQUI, AEQUl'CULI or AEQUICULAKI (a?koi and Afaouoi, Strab.; Auroral, Dion. Hal.; Aikouikkoi, Ptol.; AfmaXoi, Diod.), one of the most ancient and warlike nations of Italy, who play a conspicuous part in the early history of Home. They inhabited the mountainous district around tlio upper valley of the Anio, and extending from thence to the Lake Fucinus, between the Latins and the Marsi, and adjoining the Hemici on the east, and tho Sabines on the. west. Their territory was subsequently included in Latium, in the more extended sense given to that name under the Roman empire (Strab. v. p. 228, 231). There appears no doubt that tho Aequiculi or Aequicoli are tho same people with the Aequi, though in the usage of later times the former name was restricted to the inhabitants of the more central and lofty vallies of tho Apennines, while those who approached the borders of the Latin plain, and whose constant wars with the Romans have made them so familiarly known to us, uniformly appear under the name of Aeijni. It is probable that their original abode was in the highland districts, to which we find them again limited at a later period of their liistory. The Aequiculi are forcibly described by Virgil as a nation of rudo mountaineers, addicted to the chase and to predatory habits, by which they sought to supply the deficiencies of their rugged and barren soil (Virg. Aen. vii. 747; SO. Ital. viii. 371; Ovid. Fast. iii. 93). As the only town he assigns to than is Nersae, the site of which is unknown, there is some uncertainty as to the geographical position of the people of whom he is speaking, but he appears to placo them next to the Marsians. Strabo speaks of them in one passage as adjoining the Sabines near Cures, in another as bordering on tho Latin Way (v. pp. 231, 237): both of which statements are correct, if the name be taken in its widest signification. The form Aequiculasi first appears in Pliny (iii. 12. § 17), who however uses Aequiculi also as equivalent to it: he appears to restrict the term to the inhabitants of the vallies bordering on the Marsi, and the only towns he assigns to them are Carseoli and Clitemia At a later period the name appears to have been almost confined to the population of the upper valley of the Salto, between Reate and tho Lake Fucinus, a district which still retains the name of Cicolano, evidently a corruption from Aequiculanum.

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